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Malware and Botnets

The Internet is a powerful and useful tool, but you should not venture online without taking some basic precautions against malicious computer programs. Some of these programs include:


Viruses are harmful computer programs that can be transmitted in a number of ways. Although they have many differences, all are designed to spread themselves from one computer to another through the Internet and cause havoc. Most commonly, they are designed to give the criminals who create them some sort of access to those infected computers. 


The terms "spyware" and "adware" apply to several different technologies. The two important things to know about them is:

  • They can download themselves onto your computer without your permission. (Typically when you visit an unsafe website or via an attachment.)
  • They can make your computer do things you do not want it to do. That might be as simple as opening an advertisement you did not wish to see. In the worst cases, spyware can track your online movement, steal your passwords, and compromise your accounts.


Botnets are networks of computers infected by malware (malicious software) and controlled remotely by criminals. Botnets are usually used for financial gain or to launch attacks on websites or networks. If your computer is infected with botnet malware, it communicates and receives instructions about what it is supposed to do from "command and control" computers located anywhere around the globe. What your computer does depends on what the cybercriminals are trying to accomplish. Many botnets are designed to harvest data, such as passwords, social security numbers, credit card numbers, addresses, telephone numbers, and other personal information. The data is then used for nefarious purposes, such as identity theft, card fraud, spamming (sending junk email), website attacks, and malware distribution. 

Protect Yourself With These Tips

  • Keep a Clean Machine: Having the latest security software, web browser, and operating system are the best defenses against viruses, malware, and other online threats.
  • When in Doubt, Throw it Out: Links in email, tweets, posts, and online advertising are often the way cybercriminals compromise your computer. If it looks suspicious, even if you know the source, it is best to delete or if appropriate, mark as junk email.
  • Protect All Devices that Connect to the Internet: Along with computers, smart phones, gaming systems, and other web-enabled devices also need protection from viruses and malware.
  • Plug & Scan: "USBs" and other external devices can be infected by viruses and malware. Use your security software to scan them.