Linda Susanne Gottfredson

[24 June 1947.  Linda Susanne Howarth is born in San Francisco.]

[1965-67.  Linda Howarth is an undergraduate at the University of California in Davis. During 1996-67, she works as a laboratory assistant in viticulture and viniculture there.  Her future first husband, Gary Don Gottfredson, is also a student at UC Davis (and a lab assistant in poultry husbandry).]

[19 April 1967.  Linda Howarth marries Gary Don Gottfredson.  They transferred to the University of California in Berkeley after their sophomore year.  Both majored in psychology. Gary Gottfredson is a son of Don Martin Gottfredson, a leading criminologist.  Don Martin Gottfredson received a Ph.D. in psychology from the Claremont Graduate School in 1959 and subsequently taught psychology at UC Davis.  In 1965 he became the director of research at the National Council on Crime and Delinquency in San Francisco, and he was the founding editor of its Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency.  In 1973 he became the founding dean of the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University (Newark).  Three of his sons and two daughters-in-law became professional social scientists.]

[1968-69.  Linda Gottfredson worked as a research aide at the Alameda County Human Relations Commission in Oakland, where she helped plan projects to decrease bias in ethnic and urban affairs reporting by studying the organization of the news media.]

[1969.  Gary Don and Linda Gottfredson receive B.A. degrees in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley.  She was Phi Beta Kappa.  A 1991 press account states she taught in a ghetto school while an undergraduate, but there are no references to this in other accounts of her career.]

[1969-72.  Gary Don and Linda Gottfredson were Peace Corps volunteers in Malaysia.  She worked in Family Planning and Health Statistics, Penang State Health Office, Georgetown, Malaysia.]

[1972.  Gary Don Gottfredson enters graduate school in psychology at the Johns Hopkins University.   This began an influx of members of the Gottfredson family into Johns Hopkins. Linda Gottfredson began graduate work in the Department of Social Relations in 1973.  Her brother-in-law, Stephen David Gottfredson, received a Ph.D. in social psychology from Johns Hopkins in 1977;  he subsequently joined the criminal justice faculty at Temple University, then was a professor and associate dean for academic affairs at Indiana University's School of Public and Environmental Affairs, and now is Dean of the College of Humanities and Science at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond.  (Another brother-in-law, Michael Ryan Gottfredson, received a Ph.D. in criminology from the State University of New York in Albany in 1976;  he has since taught at SUNY Albany, the University of Illinois, the Claremont Graduate School, and the University of Arizona, where he is now a Professor of Management and Policy and the Vice-President for Undergraduate Education.)  After receiving their Ph.D.s, Gary Don Gottfredson and Linda Gottfredson joined the Johns Hopkins faculty. They divorced in 1979 and the following year he married yet another Johns Hopkins Ph.D. in psychology, Denise Claire Ruff.  Linda Gottfredson subsequently another professor in the Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins, the criminologist Robert A. Gordon.  Gary Don Gottfredson, Linda Gottfredson, and Denise Gottfredson all worked at the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins.]

[1972-73, 1974.  Linda Gottfredson is a research assistant in the Department of Behavioral Sciences in the School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins.]

[1973.  Linda Gottfredson begins graduate study in the Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins.]

 

1974

Gottfredson, Linda S., Gary Don Gottfredson and John L. Holland.  "Using a Theoretical Typology to Understand the Congruences of People and Jobs."  Unpublished manuscript, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1974.
    [Holland was a prominent occupational counseling psychologist at Johns Hopkins.  Both Linda and Gary Don Gottfredson studied and worked with him.]

[14 November 1974.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, Holland and Gottfredson, "The Relation of Vocational Aspirations and Assessments to Employment Reality."]

 

1975

[Spring 1975.  Linda Gottfredson is a teaching assistant for introductory sociology in the Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins.]

[31 March 1975.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Holland, Gottfredson and Gottfredson, "Read Our Reports and Examine the Data."]

Gottfredson, Gary Don, John L. Holland and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "The Relation of Vocational Aspirations and Assessments to Employment Reality."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 7 (August 1975):  135-148.
   
Cited in:
    Dale J Prediger and Gary R Hanson, "A Theory of Careers Encounters Sex," Journal of Vocational Behavior 8 (June 1976): 359-66
    Dale J Prediger, "The Viability of Holland's Consistency Construct and Raw Score Assessments of Personality," Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 9 (October 1976): 124-31
    Dale J Prediger, "Do Raw Scores Deserve a D Minus?," Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 9 (October 1976): 136-8
    Gary R Hanson and Jack Rayman, "Validity of Sex-Balanced Interest Inventory Scales," Journal of Vocational Behavior 9 (December 1976): 279-91
    John L Holland and Gary Don Gottfredson, "Using a Typology of Persons and Environments to Explain Careers," Counseling Psychologist 6 (1976): 20-9
    Dale J Prediger, "Alternatives for Validating Interest Inventories Against Group Membership Criteria," Applied Psychological Measurement 1 (Spring 1977): 275-80
    Patricia W Lunnenborg and Marian H Gerry, "Sex Differences in Changing Sex-Stereotypical Vocational Interests," Journal of Counseling Psychology 24 (May 1977): 247-50
    Robert H Dolliver and Robert N Hanson, Review of The Self-Directed Self by John L Holland, in Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 10 (July 1977): 120-23
    John L Holland, Comment in Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 10 (July 1977): 123-28
    Gary R Hanson, et. al., "The Validity of Diverse Procedures for Reporting Interest Scores," Journal of Counseling Psychology 24 (November 1977): 487-93
    Dale J Prediger and Gary R Hanson, "Some Consequences of Using Raw Score Reports of Vocational Interests," Journal of Educational Measurement 14 (Winter 1977): 323-33
    Gary Don Gottfredson and John L Holland, "Toward Beneficial Resolution of the Interest Inventory Controversy," in Sex-Fair Interest Measurement, edited by Carol Kehr Tittle and Donald G Zytowski, 43-51, Washington: National Institute of Education 1978
    Gary R Hanson, Richard J Noeth and Dale J Prediger, "The Validity of Diverse Procedures for Reporting Interest Scores" in Sex-Fair Interest Measurement, edited by Carol Kehr Tittle and Donald G Zytowski, 53-59, Washington: National Institute of Education 1978
    Donald G Zytowski and Joan Laing, "Validity of Other-Gender-Normed Scales on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey," Journal of Counseling Psychology 25 (May 1978): 205-9
    Dale J Prediger and Gary R Hanson, "Must Interest Inventories Provide Males and Females with Divergent Vocational Guidance?" Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 11 (July 1978): 88-98
    Paul R Salomone and Robert B Slaney, "The Applicability of Holland's Theory of Nonprofessional Workers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 13 (August 1978): 63-
    Dale J Prediger and Richard R Lamb, "The Validity of Sex-Balanced and Sex Restrictive Vocational Interest Reports," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 28 (September 1978): 16-24
    LS Gottfredson, "An Analytical Description of Employment...," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1978
    Dale J Prediger and Richard J Noeth, "Effectiveness of a Brief Counseling Intervention in Stimulating Vocational Exploration," Journal of Vocational Behavior 14 (June 1979): 352-68
    LS Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    Richard R Lamb and Dale J Prediger, "Criterion-Related Validity of Sex-Restrictive and Unisex Interest Scales," Journal of Vocational Behavior 15 (October 1979): 231-46
    Dale J Prediger and RW Johnson, "Alternatives to Sex-Restrictive Vocational Interest Assessment," ACT Research Report (1979): 1
    TA Smith, "Dental Practice and the Psychology of Vocational Choice," Journal of the American Dental Association 98 (1979): 538-44
    Dale J Prediger, "On the Virtues of Raw-Scored Interest Inventories," Journal of Counseling Psychology 27 (May 1980): 302-3
    Dale J Prediger, "The Marriage Between Tests and Career Counseling," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 28 (June 1980): 217-305
    Richard R Lamb and Dale J Prediger, "Construct Validity of Raw Score and Standard Score Reports of Vocational Interests," Journal of Educational Measurement 17 (Summer 1980): 107-15
    LS Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology...," Journal of Applied Psychology, December 1980
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "The Major Field Choices and Occupational Career Orientations of Black and White College Students," in Black Students in Higher Education, edited by Gail E Thomas, 167-87, Westport: Greenwood 1981
    Dale J Prediger and Richard R Lamb, "Four-Year Validity of Holland Types for College- Bound Males and Females," Journal of  College Student Personnel 22 (March 1981): 133-40
   Mary K Swatko, "What's in a Title?," Journal of Vocational Behavior 18 (April 1981): 174-83
    LS Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology," Journal of Vocational Behavior, April 1981
    Ellen Piel Cook, "Sex Differences in the Career Choices of College Students," Journal of College Student Personnel 22 (May 1981): 256-61
    LS Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men...," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    Dale J Prediger, "A Note on Self-Directed Validity Research for Females," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 30 (December 1981): 117-29
    Gary Don Gottfredson, "An Assessment of a Mobility-Based Occupational Classification for Placement and Counseling," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (August 1982): 71-98
    Richard J Noeth, "The Effects of Enhancing Expressed Vocational Choice with Career Development Measure to Predict Occupational Field," Journal of Vocational Behavior 22 (June 1983): 365-75
    Ellen Greenberger and Laurence Steinberg, "Sex Differences in Early Labor Force Experience," Social Forces 62 (December 1983): 467-86
    Duane Brown, Linda Brooks and associates, Career Choice and Development, San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1984
    Ann E Winchell, "Conceptual Systems and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (February 1984): 376-83
    Abby Aronowitz, et. al., "Sex Bias in the Self-Directed Search Investigative Subscale," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (April 1985): 146-54
    Linda Brooks, William Holahan and Mary Galligan, "The Effects of a Nontraditional Role-Modeling Intervention on Sex Typing of Occupational Preferences and Career Salience in Adolescent Females" Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 264-76
    Arnold R Spokane, "A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 306-43
    John L Holland, "Author Biases, Errors and Omissions in an Evaluation of the SDS Investigative Summary Scale" Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (December 1985): 374-6
    John Speight Brizzi, "The Socialization of Women's' Vocational Realism," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 34 (June 1986): 225-32
    James M Richards, "Psychosocial Environments of Black Colleges" Population and Environment 9 (Spring 1987): 41-53
    Martin Heesacker, Timothy R Elliott and Lynn A Howe, "Does the Holland Code Predict Job Satisfaction and Productivity in Clothing Factory Workers?," Journal of Counseling Psychology 35 (June 1988): 144
    Consuelo Arbona, "Hispanic Employment and the Holland Typology of Work," Career Development Quarterly 37 (March 1989): 257-68
    Richard T Lapan, et. al., "Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (April 1989): 176-82
    Michael J White, et. al., "Occupational Sex Stereotypes Among College Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (June 1989): 289-98
    Gary Don Gottfredson and John L Holland, "A Longitudinal Test of the Influence of Congruence," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (October 1990): 389-98
    Rodney L Lowman, The Clinical Practice of Career Assessment, Washington DC: American Psychological Association 1991
    Consuelo Arbona and Diane M Novy, "Career Aspirations and Expectations of Black, Mexican American and White Students," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 231-9
    Saundra M Tomlinson and Gwendolyn Evans-Hughes, "Gender, Ethnicity and College Students' Response to the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory," Journal of Counseling and Development 70 (September-October 1991): 151-55
    Terence J Tracey and James B Rounds, "Evaluating the RIASEC Circumplex Using High-Point Codes," Journal of Vocational Behavior 41 (December 1992): 295-311
    Nancy E Betz, "Career Counseling for Women in the Sciences and Engineering," in Career Counseling for Women, edited by W Bruce Walsh and Samuel H Osipow, 237-61, Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum 1994
    Darrell A Luzzo, "The Relationship Between Career Aspiration-Current Occupation Congruence and the Career Maturity of Undergraduates," Journal of Employment Counseling 32 (September 1995): 132-50
    Barbara J Phipps, "Career Dreams of Preadolescent Students," Journal of Career Development 22 (Fall 1995): 19-32

   Gary Don Gottfredson, "Prestige in Vocational Interests," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (February 1996): 68-72

Holland, John L., Gary Don Gottfredson and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "Read Our Reports and Examine the Data:   A Response to Prediger and Cole."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 7 (October 1975):  253-259.

Gottfredson, Linda S., Gary Don Gottfredson and John L. Holland.  "A Complementary Perspective on Occupational Structuring."  Unpublished manuscript, Center for the Social Organization of Schools, 1975.

 

1976

[1976-86.  Linda Gottfredson was an associate research scientist, then research scientist, at the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University.  Her husband, Gary Don Gottfredson, was also associated with the center, and eventually became its principal research scientist.]

Gottfredson, Gary Don.  Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Work, Careers and Cultural Change.   Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University, 1976.

Gottfredson, Linda S.  The Relation of Situs of Work to Occupational Achievement.  Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, 1976.
   
Cited in:
    LS Gottfredson, "Providing Black Youth More Access to Enterprising Work," Vocational Guidance Quarterly, December 1978

 

1977

[1977- .  Gary Don Gottfredson is a member of the faculty of both the Psychology and Social Relations Departments at Johns Hopkins University.   His fields of research include vocational psychology, program evaluation, criminal justice and delinquency.   He has taught the course there on industrial and organizational psychology.]

[1977-86.  Linda Gottfredson was an Assistant Professor of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins University.]

[April 1977.  Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, in Toronto. Gottfredson presents "Differential Educational Payoff Models and Theories of the Diversity of Human Talents."  This is cited in Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "A Multiple-Labor Market Model of Occupational Achievement."  Report no. 225, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1977.
    [This contains material from her dissertation.]
   
Cited in:
    James M McPartland, "Desegregation and Equity in Higher Education and Employment: Is Progress Related to the Desegregation of Elementary and Secondary Schools?," Law and Contemporary Problems 42 (Summer 1978): 108-32
    LS Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    LS Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology ...," Journal of Applied Psychology, December 1980
    Paula England, "Assessing Trends in Occupational Sex Segregation, 1900-1976," in Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets, edited by Ivar Berg, 273-95, New York: Academic Press 1981
    Vincent Tinto, "Higher Education and Occupational Attainment in Segmented Labor Markets," Higher Education 10 (September 1981): 499-516
    Ronald D'Amico and Timothy Brown, "Patterns of Labor Mobility in a Dual Economy," Social Science Research 11 (June 1982): 153-75

   
LS Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984

[28 August 1977.   Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.  Gottfredson presents a version of "Providing Black Youth More Access to Enterprising Jobs."]

 

1978

[5 January 1978.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, "An Analytical Description of Employment According to Race, Sex, Prestige and Holland Type of Work."]

Gottfredson, Gary Don, and John L. Holland.  "Toward Beneficial Resolution of the Interest Inventory Controversy."  In Sex-Fair Interest Measurement:  Research and Implications, edited by Carol Kehr Tittle and Donald G Zytowski, 43-51.   Washington DC:  National Institute of Education, April 1978.
   [The authors thank Linda Gottfredson for comments.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "An Analytical Description of Employment According to Race, Sex, Prestige, and Holland Type of Work."  Report no. 249, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1978.
   
Cited in:
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "The Major Field Choices and Occupational Career Orientations of Black and White College Students," in Black Students in Higher Education, edited by Gail E Thomas, 167-87, Westport: Greenwood 1981

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Race and Sex Differences in Occupational Aspirations:  Their Development and Consequences for Occupational Segregation."  Report no. 254, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1978.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "Race, Sports and Social Mobility," Sociological Symposium, no. 30 (Spring 1980): 18-38
    Gail E Thomas, "Race and Sex Differences and Similarities in the Process of College Entry," Higher Education 9 (March 1980): 179-202
    Walter R Allen, "Preludes to Attainment," Sociological Quarterly 21 (Winter 1980): 65-79
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "The Major Field Choices and Occupational Career Orientations of Black and White College Students," in Black Students in Higher Education, edited by Gail E Thomas, 167-87, Westport: Greenwood 1981

   
Judy Corder-Bolz, "Gender Roles," in Handbook of Applied Sociology, edited by Marvin E Olsen and Michael Micklin, 295-319, NY:  Praeger 1981
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "Race, Athletics and Educational Attainment," Youth and Society 12 (March 1981): 335-50
    A Regula Herzog, "High School Seniors' Occupational Plans and Values," Sociology of Education 55 (January 1982): 1-13
    G Diane Knight, William E Sedlacek and Thomas D Bachhuber, "Occupational Status and Career Development Needs of Recent Female College Graduates," Journal of College Student Personnel 24 (March 1983): 152-6
    Marvin P Dawkins, "Black Students' Occupational Expectations," Urban Education 18 (April 1983): 98-113
    Ellen Greenberger and Laurence Steinberg, "Sex Differences in Early Labor Force Experience," Social Forces 62 (December 1983): 467-86

   
Phyllis Post-Kammer and Philip L Smith, "Sex Differences in Career Self-Efficacy, Consideration and Interests of 8th and 9th Graders," Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (October 1985): 551-59
    Frederick TL Leong, "Career Development of Asian Americans," Journal of College Student Personnel 26 (November 1985): 539-46
    Alyce C Martinez, William E Sedlacek and Thomas D Bachhuber, "Male and Female College Graduates - 7 Months Later," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 34 (December 1985): 77-84
    Amy Stuart Wells and Robert L Crain, "Perpetuation Theory and the Long-Term Effects of School Desegregation," Review of Educational Research 64 (Winter 1994): 531-55


Gottfredson, Linda S.  "The Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology in Terms of Prestige, Census, Department of Labor, and Other Classification Systems."  Report no. 260, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, September 1978.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology ...," Journal of Applied Psychology, December 1980
    John L Holland, TM Magoon and Arnold R Spokane, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 32 (1981): 279-305
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "The Major Field Choices and Occupational Career Orientations of Black and White College Students," in Black Students in Higher Education, edited by Gail E Thomas, 167-87, Westport: Greenwood 1981


Gottfredson, Linda S., and Vicky C. Brown.  "Holland Codes for the 1960 and 1970 Censuses: Detailed Occupational Titles."  JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology 8 (1978):  22.
   
Cited in:
    LS Gottfredson, "An Analytical Description of Employment According to Race, Sex, Prestige and Holland Type of Work," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1978
    LS Gottfredson, "Providing Black Youth More Access to Enterprising Work," Vocational Guidance Quarterly, December 1978
    LS Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    LS Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology ...," Journal of Applied Psychology, December 1980
    LS Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology," Journal of Vocational Behavior, April 1981
    LS Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology, November 1981
    LS Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men in the 1st Decade After High School," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    Denise C Gottfredson, "Personality and Persistence in Education," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43 (September 1982): 532-45
    LS Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984
    LS Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Ruth E Fassinger, "A Causal Model of College Women's Career Choice," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (August 1985): 123-53
    Neville B Taylor and Robert GL Pryor, "Exploring the Process of Compromise in Career Decision-Making," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (October 1985): 171-90
    Harold D Grotevant, Catherine R Cooper and Kathryn Kramer, "Exploration as a Predictor of Congruence in Adolescents' Career Choices," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (October 1986): 201-15
    LS Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
    James M Richards, "Psychosocial Environments of Black Colleges," Population and Development 9 (Spring 1987): 41-53
    LS Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence" Behavioral and Brain Sciences, September 1987
    Consuelo Arbona, "Hispanic Employment and the Holland Typology of Work," Career Development Quarterly 37 (March 1989): 257-68

   
Robert GL Pryor and Neville B Taylor, "Circumscription and Compromise," Australian Psychologist 24 (March 1989): 101-13
    Ruth E Fassinger, "Causal Models of Career Choice in Two Samples of College Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (April 1990): 225-48
    Peter Glick, "Trait-Based and Sex-Based Discrimination in Occupational Prestige, Occupational Salary and Hiring," Sex Roles 25 (September 1991): 351-78
    Peter Glick, Korin Wilk and Michele Perreault, "Images of Occupations," Sex Roles 32 (May 1995): 565-82

McPartland, James M.   "Desegregation and Equity in Higher Education and Employment: Is Progress Related to the Desegregation of Elementary and Secondary Schools?"   Law and Contemporary Problems 42 (Summer 1978):  108-132.
    [McPartland was co-director of the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University. He thanks Gottfredson for comments.]

[September 1978.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, in Toronto.  Gottfredson presents a version of "Aspiration-Job Match:  Age Trends in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Young White Men."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "An Analytical Description of Employment According to Race, Sex, Prestige, and Holland Type of Work."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 13 (October 1978): 210-221.
    [Grant NIE-400-77-0054.]
    Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    W Bruce Walsh, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1978," Journal of Vocational Behavior 15 (October 1979): 119-54
    Thomas F Harrington and Arthur J O'Shea, "Applicability of the Holland (1973) Model of Vocational Development with Spanish-Speaking Clients," Journal of Counseling Psychology 27 (May 1980): 246-51
    Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology," Journal of Vocational Behavior, April 1981
    Mary K Swatko, "What's in a Title," Journal of Vocational Behavior 18 (April 1981): 174-83
    Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology, November 1981
    Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men in the 1st Decade After High School," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981

    Robert B Slaney and Michael T Brown, "Effects of Race and Socioeconomic Status on Career Choice Variables Among College Men," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (December 1983): 257-69
    Adrian Furnham and Rosemary Schaeffer, "Person-Environment Fit, Job Satisfaction and Mental Health," Journal of Occupational Psychology 57 (December 1984): 295-307
    Carol J Foss and Robert B Slaney, "Increasing Nontraditional Career Choices in Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 28 (June 1986): 191-202
    Rhoda W Cummings and Cleborne D Maddux, "Self-Administration and Scoring Errors of Learning-Disabled and Non Learning-Disabled Students on Two Forms of the Self-Directed Search," Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (January 1987): 83-5
    James M Richards, "Psychosocial Environments of Black Colleges," Population and Development 9 (Spring 1987): 41-53
    Rhoda W Cummings and Cleborne D Maddux, "Holland Personality Types Among Learning Disabled and Nonlearning Disabled High School Students," Exceptional Children 54 (October 1987): 167-70
    Sheila Parker Greenlee, Fred L Damarin and W Bruce Walsh, "Congruence and Differentiation Among Black and White Males in Two Non-College-Degreed Occupations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 32 (June 1988): 298-306
    Michael T Brown, Michael J White and Lawrence H Gerstein, "Self-Monitoring Processes and Holland Vocational Preferences Among College Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (April 1989): 183-8
    Consuelo Arbona, "Hispanic Employment and the Holland Typology of Work," Career Development Quarterly 37 (March 1989): 257-68
    Jo-Ann S Hannah and Sharon E Kahn, "The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Gender to the Occupational Choices of Grade 12 Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (April 1989): 161-78
    Bonita C Long and Sharon E Kahn, "A Structural Model Approach to Occupational Stress Theory and Women's Careers," in Methodological Approaches to the Study of Career, edited Richard A Young and William A Borgen, 235-43, New York: Praeger 1990

   
Beryl Hesketh, Colleen Durant and Robert Pryor, "Career Compromise," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (February 1990): 97-108
    Consuelo Arbona, "Career Counseling Research and Hispanics," Counseling Psychologist 18 (April 1990): 300-23
    Consuelo Arbona and Diane M Novy, "Career Aspirations and Expectations of Black, Mexican-American and White Students," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 231-39
    Adrian Furnham and James Walsh, "Consequences of Person-Environment Incongruence," Journal of Social Psychology 131 (April 1991): 187-204
    Adrian Furnham, et. al., "P-E Fit and Job Satisfaction," Personality and Individual Differences 19 (November 1995): 667-90

    Jennifer M Ryan, Terence JG Tracey and James Rounds, "Generalizability of Holland's Structure of Vocational Interests Across Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Status," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (July 1996): 330-37

[8 November 1978.  Journal of Counseling Psychology receives Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Providing Black Youth More Access to Enterprising Work."  Vocational Guidance Quarterly 27 (December 1978):  114-123.
   
Cited in:
    James M McPartland, "Desegregation and Equity in Higher Education and Employment: Is Progress Related to the Desegregation of Elementary and Secondary Students?," Law and Contemporary Problems 42 (Summer 1978): 108-32
    Gottfredson, "Aspiration-Job Match," Journal of Counseling Psychology, July 1979
    W Bruce Walsh, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1978," Journal of Vocational Behavior 15 (October 1979): 119-54
    Thomas F Harrington and Arthur J O'Shea, "Applicability of the Holland (1973) Model of Vocational Development with Spanish-Speaking Clients," Journal of Counseling Psychology 27 (May 1980): 246-51
    Jomills Henry Braddock II, "The Major Field Choices and Occupational Career Orientations of Black and White College Students," in Black Students in Higher Education, edited by Gail E Thomas, 167-87, Westport: Greenwood 1981
    Connie M Ward and W Bruce Walsh, "Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for Non-College Degreed Black Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 18 (June 1981): 356-61
    Leroy Miles, "Midlife Career Change for Blacks," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 30 (September 1981): 5-13
    Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men in the 1st Decade After High School," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    Ronald H Fredrickson, Career Information, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1982
    W Bruce Walsh et al, "Holland's Theory and Non-College Degreed Working Black and White Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 22 (April 1983): 182-90

   
Duane Brown, Linda Brooks and associates, Career Choice and Development, San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1984
    Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    James M Richards Jr, "Psychosocial Environments of Black Colleges," Population and Development 9 (Spring 87): 41-53

1979

[April 1979.  Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), in San Francisco.  Gottfredson reads "Racial Differences in the Evolution of Educational and Occupational Aspirations."  This is cited in: Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Aspiration-Job Match:  Age Trends in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Young White Men."  Journal of Counseling Psychology 26 (July 1979):  319-328.
    [Gottfredson thanks Robert A Gordon for advice.]
   
Cited in:
    Albeno P Garbin and Ronald G Stover, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1979," Journal of Vocational Behavior 17 (October 1980): 125-70
    John L Holland, TM Magoon and Arnold R Spokane, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 32 (1981): 279-305
    Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology," Journal of Vocational Behavior, April 1981
    Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men ..., " Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    Murray Scher, "Counseling Males," Personnel and Guidance Journal 60 (December 1981): 198
    Samuel H Osipow, Theories of Career Development, 3rd edition, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1983
    David K Hollingsworth and Carol J Mastroberti, "Women, Work and Disability," Personnel and Guidance Journal 61 (June 1983): 587-91
    Richard J Noeth, "The Effects of Enhancing Expressed Vocational Choice with Career Development Measures to Predict Occupational Field," Journal of Vocational Behavior 22 (June 1983): 365-75
    Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310
    Joan Marshall, "Reducing the Effects of Work Oriented Values on the Lives of Male American Workers," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 32 (December 1983): 109-115
    Arnold R Spokane, "A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 306-43
    Nancy E Betz, Louise F Fitzgerald and Raymond E Hill, "Trait-Factor Theories," in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 26-40, Cambridge University Press 1989
    Consuelo Arbona and Diane M Novy, "Career Aspirations and Expectations of Black, Mexican-American and White Students," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 231-39
    Darrell A Luzzo, "The Relationship Between Career Aspiration-Current Occupation Congruence and the Career Maturity of Undergraduates," Journal of Employment Counseling 32 (September 1995): 132-50

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Implications of Some Results of Labor Market Studies for Stratification Theory."  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Boston, August 1979.
   
Cited in:
    Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310
    David B Bills, Daramea S Godfrey and Archibald O Haller, "A Scale to Measure the Socioeconomic Status of Occupations in Brazil," Rural Sociology 50 (Summer 1985): 225-50

[September 1979.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, in New York.  Gottfredson and Becker read "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology: How Important Are Aspirations in Determining Career Development."  Cited in Mary K Swatko, "What's in a Title?," Journal of Vocational Behavior 18 (April 1981): 174-83.]

[17 December 1979.  Journal of Applied Psychology receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology ..."]

[December 1979.  Gary Don and Linda Gottfredson are divorced. One year later he marries Denise C Ruff, a graduate student in psychology at Johns Hopkins, and she marries Robert A Gordon, a Professor of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins.]

 

1980

Braddock, Jomills Henry, II.   "Race, Sports, and Social Mobility."  Sociological Symposium, no. 30 (Spring 1980):  18-38.
    [Gottfredson commented on a draft and was cited in the paper.   Braddock was also at the Center for Social Organization of Schools.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Change and Development in Careers."  Final report for grant NIE 6-76-0075.  Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, April 1980.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology November 1981
    Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310

[3 April 1980.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "How Valid Are Occupational Reinforcer Pattern Scores?"  Report no. 292, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1980.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology..." Journal of Applied Psychology, December 1980
    Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology, November 1981

Gottfredson, Linda S., and Henry J. Becker.  "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology: How Important Are Aspirations in Determining Male Career Development?"  Report no. 294, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1980.
   
Cited in:
    John L Holland, TM Magoon and Arnold R Spokane, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 32 (1981): 279-305
    Gottfredson and Becker, "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology," Journal of Vocational Behavior, April 1981

[1980.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, in Montreal.  Gottfredson reads "Race, Sex and Social Class:  Perils and Parallels."  This is cited in Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310.
    At a symposium on the future of counseling psychology, four members of the APA Division 17 working committee on scientific affairs present papers.  After the meeting, the working committee widely distributes the papers, soliciting comments.   Gottfredson is among the respondents.]

[5 November 1980.  Journal of Counseling Psychology receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Construct Validity of Holland's Occupational Typology in Terms of Prestige, Census, Department of Labor, and Other Classification Systems."  Journal of Applied Psychology 65 (December 1980):  697-714.
   
Cited in:
    Kathryn M Bartol, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1980," Journal of Vocational Behavior 19 (October 1981): 123-62
    Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men in the First Decade After High School," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    AP Jones, et. al., "Narrative Job Descriptions as Potential Sources of Job Analysis Ratings," Personnel Psychology 35 (1982): 813-28
    Rodney L Lowman and Susan J Schurman, "Psychometric Characteristics of a Vocational Preference Inventory Short Form," Educational and Psychological Measurement 42 (Summer 1982): 601-13
    Dale J Prediger, "Dimensions Underlying Holland's Hexagon," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (December 1982): 259-87
    Bruce J Eberhardt and Paul R Muchinsky, "Structural Validation of Holland's Hexagonal Model," Journal of Applied Psychology 69 (February 1984): 174-81

    Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986
    Rodney L Lowman, "Occupational Choice as a Moderator of Psychotherapeutic Approach," Psychotherapy 24 (Winter 1987): 801-809
    John C Smart, "Life History Influences on Holland Vocational Type Development," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (February 1989): 69-87
    Rodney L Lowman, The Clinical Practice of Career Assessment, Washington: American Psychological Association 1991
    Alice M Hyland and Paul M Muchinsky, "Assessment of the Structural Validity of Holland's Model with Job Analysis (PAQ) Information," Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (February 1991): 75-80
    Terence J Tracey and James Rounds, "Evaluating the RIASEC Circumplex Using High-Point Codes," Journal of Vocational Behavior 41 (December 1992): 295-311
    Terence JG Tracey and James Rounds, "The Spherical Representation of Vocational Interests," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (February 1996): 3-41
    Victoria A Shivy, SD Phillips and LM Koehly, "Knowledge Organization as a Factor in Career Intervention Outcome: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (April 1996): 178-86
   Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
   Todd J Maurer and Beverly A Tarulli, "Managerial Work, Job Analysis, and Holland's RIASEC Vocational Environment Dimensions," Journal of Vocational Behavior 50 (June 1997): 365-381
   Vernon G Zunker and Debra S Norris, Using Assessment Results for Career Development, 5th edition, Pacific Grove CA: Brooks/Cole 1998
   Alan S Kaufman and James E Mclean, "An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Interests and Intelligence," Journal of Clinical Psychology 54 (February 1998): 279-295

Gottfredson, Linda S. "An Outsider's View of Research Priorities." Unpublished paper, [c1980].
    [This is a response to the APA Division 17 scientific affairs working committee's solicitation of comments on the papers presented by its members at the 1980 APA annual meeting.  It is cited in Leonore Harmon, "Scientific Affairs - The Next Decade," Counseling Psychologist 10 (1982): 31-37.]

[c.1980.   Gottfredson marries Robert A Gordon.]

 

1981

Gottfredson, Linda S., E. Simonsick, and F. Voorstad.  "Occupational Statistics and Vocational Analysis."  In 1980 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association, 98-107.  Washington, D.C.:  American Statistical Association, 1981.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Vocational Research Priorities," Counseling Psychologist 1982

Gottfredson, Linda S, and Paul E. White.  "Interorganizational Agreements."  In Handbook of Organizational Design, vol. 1, Adapting Organizations to Their Environments, edited by Paul C. Nystrom and William Starbuck, 471-486.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 1981.
   
Cited in:
    Eric M Eisenberg, "Ambiguity as Strategy in Organizational Communication," Communication Monographs 51 (September 1984): 227-42
    James D Forbes, "Organizational and Political Dimensions of Consumer Pressure Groups," Journal of Consumer Policy 8 (June 1985): 105-21
    Rudi K Bresser and Johannes E Harl, "Collective Strategy," Academy of Management Review 11 (April 1986): 408-27
    Marc J Dollinger, "The Evolution of Collective Strategies in Fragmented Industries," Academy of Management Review 15 (April 1990): 266-85
    Jan B Heide and Anne S Miner, "The Shadow of the Future," Academy of Management Journal 35 (June 1992): 265-91
    Allen C Bluedorn, "Pilgrim's Progress," Journal of Management 19 (Summer 1993): 163-91
    Joseph L Soeters, "Managing Euroregional Networks," Organization Studies 14 (1993): 639-56
    Jan B Heide and Rodney L Stump, "Performance Implications of Buyer-Supplier Relationships in Industrial Markets," Journal of Business Research 32 (January 1995): 57-66
    Greg Young, Ken G Smith and Curtis M Grimm, "'Austrian' and Industrial Organization Perspectives on Firm-Level Competitive Activity and Performance," Organization Science 7 (May-June 1996): 243-254

Gottfredson, Linda S., and Henry J. Becker.  "A Challenge to Vocational Psychology: How Important Are Aspirations in Determining Male Career Development?"  Journal of Vocational Behavior 18 (April 1981):  121-137.
    [Funded by NIE-G-76-0075 and NIE-G-80-0013.]
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Circumscription and Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology, November 1981
    LS Gottfredson and Brown, "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men ...," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1981
    Bruce R Fretz and Frederick TL Leong, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1981," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (October 1982): 123-63
    LS Gottfredson, "Vocational Research Priorities," Counseling Psychologist, 1982
    Richard J Noeth, "The Effects of Enhancing Expressed Vocational Choice with Career Development Measures to Predict Occupational Field," Journal of Vocational Behavior 22 (June 1983): 365-75
    Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310

    Duane Brown, Linda Brooks and associates, Career Choice and Development, San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1984
    Jennifer M Kidd, "The Relationship of Self and Occupational Concepts to Occupational Preferences of Adolescents," Journal of Vocational Behavior 24 (February 1984): 48-65
    Robert G Rose, "The Use of Conditional Probabilities in Applications of Holland's Theory," Journal of Vocational Behavior 25 (December 1984): 284-9
    Arnold R Spokane, "A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 306-43
    Louise Fitzgerald and Catherine Cherpas, "On the Reciprocal Relationship Between Gender and Occupation," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (August 1985): 109-12
    Mary C Regan and Helen E Roland, "Rearranging Family and Career Priorities," Journal of Marriage and the Family 47 (November 1985): 985-92
    Harold D Grotevant, Catherine R Cooper and Kathryn Kramer, "Exploration as a Predictor of Congruence in Adolescents' Career Choices," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (October 1986): 201-15
    William B McNulty and William A Borgen, "Career Expectations and Aspirations of Adolescents," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (October 1988): 217-24

   
Sheila P Greenlee, Fred L Damarin and W Bruce Walsh, "Congruence and Differentiation Among Black and White Males in Two Non-College-Degreed Occupations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 32 (June 1988): 298-306
    Nancy E Betz, Louise F Fitzgerald and Raymond E Hill, "Trait-Factor Theories" in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 26-40, Cambridge University Press, 1989
    Nigel Nicholson and Michael Wet, "Transitions, Work Histories and Careers," in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 181-201, Cambridge University Press, 1989
    Joanne M Stohs, "Young-Adult Predictors and Midlife Outcomes of Male Fine Art Careers," Career Development Quarterly 38 (March 1990): 213-29
    Consuelo Arbona, "Career Counseling Research and Hispanics," Counseling Psychologist 18 (April 1990): 300-23

   
Judy M Chartrand and Charissa Camp, "Advances in the Measurement of Career-Development Constructs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (August 1991): 1-39
    Janice M Thompson, Robert J Flynn and Shirley A Griffith, "Congruence and Coherence as Predictors of Congruent Employment Outcomes," Career Development Quarterly 42 (March 1994): 271-81

   Laurie Johnson, "A Multidimensional Analysis of the Vocational Aspirations of College Students," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 28 (April 1995): 25-44
    Darrell A Luzzo, "The Relationship Between Career Aspiration-Current Occupation Congruence and the Career Maturity of Undergraduates," Journal of Employment Counseling 32 (Sept 1995): 132-50
    Jay W Rojewski, "Impact of At-Risk Behavior on the Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Male and Female Adolescents in Rural Settings," Journal of Career Development 22 (Fall 1995): 33-48

   
Jay W Rojewski, "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities," Exceptional Children 62 (March-April 1996): 463-76
    Jay W Rojewski, "Occupational Aspirations and Early Career Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and Without Learning Disabilities," Learning Disability Quarterly 19 (1996): 99-116
    Jay W Rojewski, "Characteristics of Students Who Express Stable or Undecided Occupational Expectations During Early Adolescence," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Winter 1997): 1-20
    AK Mullis and RL Mullis, "Vocational Interests of Adolescents: Relationships Between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control," Psychological Reports 81 (1997): 1363-1371
    Jay W Rojewski and BY Yang, "Longitudinal Analysis of Select Influences on Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 51 (1997): 375-410

[22 June 1981.  Journal of Counseling Psychology receives revision of Gottfredson's "Circumscription and Compromise."]

[1981.  At the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in Los Angeles, Gottfredson reads "Studying the Effects of Social Change on Minority Career Development." This is cited in her "Creating and Criticizing Theory" Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1983.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Circumscription and Compromise: A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations."  Monograph.  Journal of Counseling Psychology 28 (November 1981):  545-579.
    [This remains Gottfredson's most widely cited paper.  In it she acknowledges advice from Robert A. Gordon.]
   
Cited in:
    John L Holland, "The SDS Helps Both Males and Females," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 30 (March 1982): 195-7
    Gary Don Gottfredson, "An Assessment of a Mobility-Based Occupational Classification for Placement and Counseling," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (August 1982): 71-98
    Bruce R Fretz and Frederick TL Leong, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1981," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (October 1982): 123-63
    Gottfredson, "Vocational Research Priorities," Counseling Psychologist 1982
    Gottfredson, "The Sex Fairness of Unnormed Interest Inventories," Vocational Guidance Quarterly December 1982
    Samuel H Osipow, Theories of Career Development, 3rd edition, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1983
    Helen S Farmer, "Career and Homemaking Plans for High School Youth," Journal of Counseling Psychology 30 (January 1983): 40-45
    Larry R Cochran, "Level of Career Aspiration and Strength of Career Orientation," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (August 1983): 1-10

   
Fred W Vondracek, Richard M Lerner and John E Schulenberg, "The Concept of Development in Vocational Theory and Intervention," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (October 1983): 179-202
    Gottfredson, "Creating and Criticizing Theory," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1983
    Vondracek, Lerner and Schulenberg, "On Aspiring to Present a Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (October 1983): 213-8
    Richard A Young, "Career Development of Adolescents," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12 (October 1983): 401-17
    Duane Brown, Linda Brooks and associates, Career Choice and Development, San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1984
    Fred H Borgen, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 35 (1984): 579-604
    Constance L Hollinger, "The Impact of Gender Schematic Processing on the Self Directed Search Responses of Gifted and Talented Female Adolescents," Journal of Vocational Behavior 24 (February 1984): 15-27
    Patricia Rogan Sherman, "The Counselor as Change Agent," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 111-16
    Helen S Astin, "The Meaning of Work in Women's Lives," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 117-26
    Louise F Fitzgerald and Nancy E Betz, "Astin's Model in Theory and Practice," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 135-8
    CB Bernard, "Commentary on the Meaning of Work," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 135-8
    Sharon E Kahn, "Astin's Model of Career Development," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 145-6
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Frank M Howell, Wolfgang Frese and Carlton Sollie, "The Measurement of Perceived Opportunity for Occupational Attainment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 25 (December 1984): 325-43
    Marilyn Haring-Hidore and Karen Beyard-Tyler, "Counseling and Research on Nontraditional Careers," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 33 (December 1984): 113-9
    Ellen Brantlinger, "What Low Income Parents Want From Schools," Interchange 16 (Winter 85): 14-28
    Robert GL Pryor, "Toward Exorcising the Self-Concept from Psychology," Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (January 1985): 154-58
    Gottfredson, "Role of Self-Concept in Vocational Theory," Journal of Counseling Psychology, January 2985
    Ellen Piel Cook, "Sex Roles and Work Roles," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 33 (March 1985): 277-83
    Helen S Farmer, "The Role of Typical Female Characteristics in Career and Achievement Motivation," Youth and Society 16 (March 1985): 315-34
    Millicent E Poole and George H Cooney, "Adolescent Awareness and Exploration of Possibilities of Self," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 251-63
    Linda Brooks, William Holahan and Mary Galligan, "The Effects of a Nontraditional Role-Modeling Intervention on Sex Typing of Occupational Preferences and Career Salience in Adolescent Females," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 264-76
    Arnold R Spokane, "A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 306-43
    Robert GL Pryor, "Eradicating Sex-Role Stereotypes," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 33 (June 1985): 277-83
    Helen S Farmer, "Model of Career and Achievement Motivation for Women and Men," Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (July 1985): 363-90
    James A Athanasou, "Career Interests and Ethnic Backgrounds," Australian Psychologist 20 (July 1985): 153-61
    Beryl Hesketh, "In Search of a Conceptual Framework for Vocational Psychology," Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (September 1985): 26-30
    Robert A Chubon, "Career-Related Needs of Schoolchildren with Severe Physical Disabilities," Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (September 1985): 47-51
    Neville B Taylor and Robert GL Pryor, "Exploring the Process of Compromise in Career Decision-Making," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (October 1985): 171-90
    Fred R Borgen, et. al., "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1984," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (October 1985): 218-69
    Lisa K Koski and Linda M Sublich, "Career and Homemaking Choices of College Preparatory and Vocational Education Students," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 34 (December 1985): 116-23
    F Gendre, et. al., "Perception of the Professional World by Adolescents in Switzerland," Travail humain 48 (1985): 111-27
    F Gendre, "Vers un orientation professionelle individualisee," Revue de Psychologie Appliquee 35 (1985): 19-33
    Millicent E Poole and George H Cooney, "Cultural Differences in the Exploration of Career and Leisure Possibilities by Adolescents in Australia and Singapore," Australian Journal of Education 29 (1985): 249-65
    Dov Winer and Itamar Gati, "Cognitive Complexity and Interest Crystallization," Journal of Vocational Behavior 28 (Feb 86): 48-59
    Linda Mezydlo Subich, et. al., "Occupational Perceptions of Males and Females as a Function of Sex Ratios, Salary and Availability," Journal of Vocational Behavior 28 (April 1986): 123-34
    Carol J Foss and Robert B Slaney, "Increasing Nontraditional Career Choices in Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 28 (June 1986): 191-202
    John Speight Brizzi, "The Socialization of Women's' Vocational Realism," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 34 (June 1986): 225-32
    Sandra Schwartz Tangri and Sharon R Jenkins, "Stability and Change in Role Innovation and Life Plans," Sex Roles 14 (June 1986): 647-62
    Mark J Miller, "Usefulness of Gati's Hierarchical Model of Vocational Interests for Career Counselors," Journal of Employment Counseling 23 (June 1986): 57-65
    Mark J Miller and TJ Stanford, "Sex Differences in Occupational Choices of 2nd Grade Black Children," Psychological Reports 59 (August 1986): 273-4
    Mark J Miller, "A Not-So-Trivial Pursuit Game for Career Counselors," Career Development Quarterly 35 (September 1986): 53-58
    Jeffrey H Greenhaus and Saroj Parasuraman, "Vocational and Organizational Behavior, 1985," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (October 1986): 115-76
    Itamar Gati, "Making Career Decisions," Journal of Counseling Psychology 33 (October 1986): 408-17
    Robert Pryor and Neville Taylor, "What Could I Do If I Couldn't Do What I Wanted to Do," Australian Psychologist 21 (November 1986): 363-76
    Millicent E Poole and George H Cooney, "Work and Leisure Relationships," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 15 (December 1986): 475-86
    Robert A Gordon, "Jensen's Contributions Concerning Test Bias," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 77-154, New York: Falmer 1987
    Samuel H Opisow, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 38 (1987): 257-78
    Bert W Westbrook, et. al., "Reliability and Construct Validity of New Measures of Career Maturity for 11th Grade Students," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 20 (April 1987): 18-26
    Itamar Gati and Dov Winer, "The Relationship Between Vocational Interests and the Location of the Ideal Occupation in the Individual's Perceived Occupational Structure," Journal of Vocational Behavior 30 (June 1987): 295-308
    Yael Benyamini and Itamar Gati, "Perception of Occupations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 30 (June 87): 309-29
    Bert W Westbrook, Eleanor E Sanford and Marion Youngblood, "The Relationship Between Cognitive Career Maturity and Self-Reported Career Maturity of High School Students," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 20 (July 1987): 51-61
    AD Lassalle and Arnold R Spokane, "Patterns of Early Labor Force Participation of American Women," Career Development Quarterly 36 (September 1987): 55-65
    Mark J Miller and Jeffrey T Stanford, "Early Occupational Restriction," Journal of Employment Counseling 24 (September 1987): 115-21
    Louise F Fitzgerald and Lawrence J Hubert, "Multidimensional Scaling," Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (October 1987): 469-80
    Robert B Slaney and Joyce EA Russell, "Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986," Journal of Vocational Behavior 31 (October 1987): 111-173
    Itamar Gati and Dov Winer, "Using Career Grid Data to Compare Models of the Structure of Occupations," Career Development Quarterly 36 (December 1987): 113-25
    Mark J Miller, "Career Counseling for High School Students, Grades 10-12," Journal of Employment Counseling 24 (December 1987): 173-83
    Andrew A Helwig, "Information Required for Job Hunting," Journal of Employment Counseling 24 (December 1987): 184-90
    F Gendre, in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie 46 (1987): 155-71
    Robert B Slaney, "The Assessment of Career Decision Making," in Career Decision Making ed W Bruce Walsh and Samuel H Osipow, 33-76, Hillsdale: Erlbaum 1988
    Susan Henderson, Beryl Hesketh and Keith Tuffin, "A Test of Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription," Journal of Vocational Behavior 32 (Feb 1988): 37-48
    Dorothy D Nevill and Donald E Super, "Career Maturity and Commitment to Work in University Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 32 (April 1988): 139-51
    Mark J Miller and Don Wells, "Learning More About the Vocational 'Barriers' of Black Youths," Psychological Reports 62 (April 1988): 405-6
    Carol K Tittle, "Validity, Gender Research and Studies of the Effects of Career Development Intervention," Applied Psychology 37 (April 88): 121-131
    Tim Hesketh, Robert Pryor and Beryl Hesketh, "An Application of a Computerized Fuzzy Graphic Rating Scale to the Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences," International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 29 (July 1988): 21-35
    Peter Glick, Cari Zion and Cynthia Nelson, "What Mediates Sex-Discrimination in Hiring Decisions," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55 (August 1988): 178-86
    William B McNulty and William  A Borgen, "Career Expectations and Aspirations of Adolescents," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (October 1988): 217-24
    Mark J Miller, "Career Counseling for the Middle School Youngster," Journal of Employment Counseling 25 (December 1988): 172-79
    F Gendre, "L'orientation rationelle unifiee synthetisee (ORUS)," Revue de Psychologie Appliquee 38 (1988): 33-57
    Nigel Nicholson and Michael West, "Transitions, Work Histories and Careers," in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 181-201, Cambridge University Press 1989
    Paul A Holt, "Differential Effect of Status and Interest in the Process of Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (January 1989): 42-7
    Beryl Hesketh, Robert Pryor and Melanie Gleitzman, ""Fuzzy Logic," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (January 1989): 103-9
    Nancy E Betz, "Implications of the Null Environment Hypothesis for Women's Career Development and for Counseling Psychology," Counseling Psychologist 17 (January 1989): 136-44
    Robert GL Pryor and Neville B Taylor, "Circumscription and Compromise," Australian Psychologist 24 (March 1989): 101-13
    Linda Mezydlo Subich, "A Challenge to Grow," Career Development Quarterly 37 (March 1989): 213-7
    Jo-Ann S Hannah and Sharon E Kahn, "The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Gender to the Occupational Choices of Grade 12 Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (April 1989): 161-78
    Richard T Lapan, Kathleen R Boggs and Weston H Morrill, "Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (April 1989): 176-82
    Michael J White, et. al., "Occupational Sex Stereotypes Among College Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (June 1989): 289-98
    Leonore W Harmon, "Longitudinal Changes in Women's Career Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (August 1989): 46-63
    Elizabeth Stewart, et. al., "The Effects of Student Gender, Race and Achievement on Career Exploration Advice Given by Canadian Pre-Service Teachers," Sex Roles 21 (August 1989): 247-62
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-63
    Mark L Savickas, "Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development," Career Development Quarterly 38 (December 1989): 100-34
    Robert GL Pryor, Beryl Hesketh and Melanie Gleitzman, "Making Things Clearer by Making Them Fuzzy," Career Development Quarterly 38 (December 1989): 136-47
    Mark J Miller, "Career Counseling for the Elementary School Child," Journal of Employment Counseling 26 (December 1989): 169-77
    David L Blustein, Michael V Ellis and Luanna E Devenis, "The Development and Validation of a Two Dimensional Model of the Commitment to Career Choices Process," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (December 1989): 342-78
    Mary M Brabeck and Karen Weisgerber, "College Students' Perceptions of Men and Women Choosing Teaching and Management," Sex Roles 21 (December 1989): 841-57
    Beryl Hesketh and Jocelyn Grainger, "Current Trends in Vocational Guidance in New Zealand," Prospects 19 (1989): 75-81
    Arnold R Spokane, "Supplementing Differential Research in Vocational Psychology Using Nontraditional Methods," in Methodological Approaches to the Study of Career, edited by Richard A Young and William A Borgen, 25-36, New York: Praeger 1990
    Richard A Young and John D Friesen, "Parental Influence on Career Development," in Methodological Approaches to the Study of Career, edited by Richard A Young and William A Borgen, 147-162, New York: Praeger 1990
    Bonita C Long and Sharon Kahn, "A Structural Model Approach to Occupational Stress Theory and Women's Careers," in Methodological Approaches to the Study of Career, edited by Richard A Young and William A Borgen, 235-243, New York: Praeger 1990
    Charles J Gelso and Ruth E Fassinger, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 41 (1990): 355-86
    Beryl Hesketh, Sue Elmslie and Wendy Kaldor, "Career Compromise," Journal of  Counseling Psychology 37 (January 1990): 49-56
    Linda Brooks and Nancy E Betz, "Utility of Expectancy Theory in Predicting Occupational Choices in College Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (January 1990): 57-64
    Richard T Kinnier, et. al., "Career Indecision and Family Enmeshment," Journal of Counseling and Development 68 (January-February 1990): 309-12
    Beryl Hesketh, Colleen Durant and Robert Pryor, "Career Compromise," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (February 1990): 97-108
    Samuel H Osipow, "Convergence in Theories of Career Choice and Development," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (April 1990): 122-31
    Ruth E Fassinger, "Causal Models of Career Choice in Two Samples of College Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (April 1990): 225-48
    S Alvin Leung and Leonore W Harmon, "Individual and Sex Differences in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (April 1990): 153-9
    Frederick TL Leong and Shiraz Piroshaw Tata, "Sex and Acculturation Differences in Occupational Values Among Chinese-American Children," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (April 1990): 208-12
    Consuelo Arbona, "Career Counseling Research and Hispanics," Counseling Psychologist 18 (April 1990): 300-23
    Jean Stockard and Jeanne McGee, "Children's' Occupational Preferences," Journal of Vocational Behavior 36 (June 1990): 287-303
    Nancy E Betz, Roberta S Heesacker and Carol Shuttleworth, "Moderators of the Congruence and Realism of Major and Occupational Plans in College Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (July 1990): 269-76
    Robert GL Pryor, "An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Stability of Work Aspect Preferences," Australian Psychologist 25 (July 1990): 189-209
    Lois Powell, "Factors Associated with the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Mathematics and Science," Journal of Negro Education 59 (Summer 1990): 292-8
    Susan L Hart, "Career Aspirations in Cataclysmic Times," Career Development Quarterly 39 (September 1990): 44-59
    Michele A Paludi, "Sociopsychological and Structural Factors Related to Women's' Vocational Development," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 602 (September 1990): 157-68
    Paula C Morrow, Ellen J Mullen and James C McElroy, "Vocational Behavior 1989," Journal of Vocational Behavior 37 (October 1990): 121-95
    S Alvin Leung and Barbara S Plake, "A Choice Dilemma Approach for Examining the Relative Importance of Sex Type and Prestige Preferences in the Process of Career Choice Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (October 1990): 399-406
    AD Trice and Teresa M Gilbert, "Locus of Control and Career Aspirations of 4th Grade Students," Psychological Reports 67 (December 1990): 1345-6
    WC Savenye, "Role Models and Student Attitudes Toward Nontraditional Careers," Educational Technology R and D 38 (1990): 5-13
    Ashton D Trice, "A Retrospective Study of Career Development" Psychological Reports 68 (February 1991): 287-90
    Gail Hackett, Robert W Lent and Jeffrey H Greenhaus, "Advances in Vocational Theory and Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 3-38
    Jane L Swanson and David M Tokar, "College-Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Career-Development," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 92-106
    Itamar Gati, "The Structure of Vocational Interests," Psychological Bulletin 109 (March 1991): 309-24
    Sharon L Bowman and Howard EA Tinsley, "The Development of Vocational Realism in Black American College Students," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 240-50
    Brenda K Hawks and Douglas Muha, "Facilitating the Career Development of Minorities," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 251-60
    Philip J Lauver and Randall M Jones, "Factors Associated with Perceived Career Options in American Indian, White, and Hispanic Rural High School Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology 38 (April 1991): 159-66
    Kris S Morgan and Laura S Brown, "Lesbian Career Development, Work Behavior and Vocational Counseling," Counseling Psychologist 19 (April 1991): 273-91
    Nancy S Haas and Howard Sullivan, "Use of Ethnically Matched Role Models in Career Materials for Hispanic Students," Contemporary Educational Psychology 16 (July 1991): 272-78
    Judy M Chartrand and Charissa Camp, "Advances in the Measurement of Career-Development Constructs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (August 1991): 1-39
    Ashton D Trice and Paula Tillapaugh, "Children's Estimates of their Parent's Job Satisfaction," Psychological Reports 69 (August 1991): 63-66
    Peter Glick, "Trait-Based and Sex-Based Discrimination in Occupational Prestige, Occupational Salary and Hiring," Sex Roles 25 (September 1991): 351-78
    Scott T Meier, "Vocational Behavior, 1988-1990," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (October 1991): 131-181
    Julian Barling, E Kevin Kelloway and Eric H Bremermann, "Preemployment Predictors of Union Attitudes," Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (October 1991): 725-31
    Millicent E Poole, et. al., "A Contextualist Model of Professional Attainment," Counseling Psychologist 19 (October 1991): 603-24
    Etienne Mullet and Felix Neto, "Quality of Information and Availability of Social Indexes," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21 (Nov 1-15, 1991): 1758-71
    Fred H Borgen, "Megatrends and Milestones in Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 263-90
    Jane L Swanson and David M Tokar, "Development and Initial Validation of the Career Barriers Inventory," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 344-61
    Ellen Piel Cook, "Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development, 1990," Career Development Quarterly 40 (December 1991): 99-131
    SS Farrell and LE LeCapitaine, "Computer-Assisted and Noncomputer Assisted Career Life Planning Workshops for Low-Income Women," Education 112 (1991): 312
    Bill Law, "Autonomy and Learning About Work," in Interpreting Careers, edited by Richard A Young and Audrey Collin, 151-67, Westport: Praeger 1992
    Richard T Lapan and John Jingeleski, "Circumscribing Vocational Aspirations in Junior High School" Journal of Counseling Psychology 39 (January 1992): 81-90
    Lauren M Keller, Richard D Arvey, René V Dawis, Thomas J Bouchard Jr and Nancy L Segal, "Work Values: Genetic and Environmental Influences," Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (February 1992): 79-88
    Jane L Swanson, "In Search of Structural Validity," Journal of Vocational Behavior 40 (April 1992): 229-38
    Maria Teresa Muñoz Sastre and Etienne Mullet, "Occupational Preferences of Spanish Adolescents in Relation to Gottfredson's Theory," Journal of Vocational Behavior 40 (June 1992): 306-17
    Beryl Hesketh, Katrina Mclachlan and Diane Gardner, "Work Adjustment Theory," Journal of Vocational Behavior 40 (June 1992): 318-37
    Ronald H Fredrickson, Jun-chih Gisela Lin and Shaomin Xing, "Social Status Ranking of Occupations in the People's Republic of China, Taiwan and the United States," Career Development Quarterly 40 (June 1992): 351-60
    Charles J Gelso and Ruth Fassinger, "Personality, Development and Counseling Psychology" Journal of Counseling Psychology 39 (July 1992): 275-98
    Andrew D Carson, "On Occupationalism," Counseling Psychologist 20 (July 1992): 490-508
    John D Krumboltz, "The Dangers of Occupationalism," Counseling Psychologist 20 (July 1992): 511-18
    Ann Marie Schmidt and Victor J Callan, "Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Career Intervention" Australian Psychologist 27 (July 1992): 123-6
    Mark J Miller and Julie Anna Knippers, "Jeopardy: A Career Information Game for School Counselors," Career Development Quarterly 41 (September 1992):  55-61
    Colin R Boylan, et. al., "Beyond Stereotypes," Science Education 76 (Sept 1992): 465-76
    AD Trice and L Knapp, "Relationship of Children's Career Aspirations to Parent's Occupations," Journal of Genetic Psychology 153 (September 1992): 355-7
    Jane L Swanson, "Vocational Behavior, 1989-1991," Journal of Vocational Behavior 41 (October 1992): 101-61
    Edith Y Chiching, "Perceptions of External Barriers and the Career Success of Female Managers in Singapore," Journal of Social Psychology 132 (October 1992): 661-74
    Constance L Hollinger and Elyse S Fleming, "A Longitudinal Examination of Life Choices of Gifted and Talented Young Women," Gifted Child Quarterly 36 (Fall 1992): 207-12
    Howard EA Tinsley, "Career Decision-Making and Career Indecision," Journal of Vocational Behavior 41 (December 1992): 209-11
    Fred W Vondracek, "The Construct of Identity and Its Use in Career Theory and Research," Career Development Quarterly 41 (December 1992): 130-44
    Billie EJ Housego, "Monitoring Student-Teachers' Feelings of Preparedness to Teach, Personal Teaching Efficiency and Teaching Efficacy in a New Secondary Teacher-Education Program," Alberta J Educational Research 38 (1992): 49-64
    Andreas Krapp, in Zeitschrift für Padagogik 38 (1992): 747
    F Allan Hanson, Testing Testing: Social Consequences of the Examined Life, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1993
    Nancy E Betz and Louise F Fitzgerald, "Individuality and Diversity," Annual Review of Psychology 44 (1993): 343-81
    Itamar Gati, Michal Shenhav and Michal Givon, "Processes Involved in Career Preferences and Compromises," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (January 1993): 53-64
    Carolyn Zerbe Enns, "20 Years of Feminist Counseling and Therapy," Counseling Psychologist 21 (January 1993): 3-87
    Richard T Lapan, et. al., "Evaluating a Guidance and Language Arts Unit for High School Juniors," Journal of Counseling and Development 71 (March-April 1993): 444-51
    S Alvin Leung, "Circumscription and Compromise: A Replication Study with Asian-Americans," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (April 1993): 188-93
    Beryl Hesketh and Dianne Gardner, "Person-Environment Fit Models," Journal of Vocational Behavior 42 (June 1993): 315-32
    Bill Law, "Understanding Careers Work," Career Development Quarterly 41 (June 1993): 297-313
    Jennifer M Kidd, Review of Careers and Identities by Michael Banks, et. al., in  Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 66 (June 1993): 193-4
    Graham B Stead and Mark B Watson, "The Career Myths Scale," International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 16 (June 1993): 89-97
    Constance Flanagan, "Gender and Social Class: Intersecting Issues in Women's Achievement," Educational Psychologist 28 (Fall 1993): 357-78
    Itamar Gati, "Career Compromises," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (October 1993): 416-24
    Mary Sue Richardson, "Work in People's Lives," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (October 1993): 425-33
    Karen M O'Brien and Ruth E Fassinger, "A Causal Model of the Career Orientation and Career Choice of Adolescent Women," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (October 1993): 456-69
    F Heather Davey and Janet M Stoppard, "Some Factors Affecting the Occupational Expectations of Female Adolescents," Journal of Vocational Behavior 43 (December 1993): 235-50
    Judith L Gibbons, et. al., "Guatemalan, Filipino and US Adolescents' Images of Women as Office Workers and Homemakers," Psychology of Women Quarterly 17 (December 1993): 373-88
    Livio Sansone, "Marginalization and Survival Strategies Among Young Lower-Class Blacks of Surinamese Descent in Amsterdam," Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences 29 (December 1993): 99-112
    Ulrich Schiefele, Andreas Krapp and Inge Schreyer, "Metaanalyse des Zusammenhangs von Interesse und schulischer Leistung," Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und padagogische Psychologie 25 (1993): 120-48
    Elyse S Fleming and Constance L Hollinger, "Project Choice: A Longitudinal Study of the Career Development of Gifted and Talented Young Women," in Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent, edited by Rena F Subotnik and Karen D Arnold, pp. 316-348, Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing 1994
    John D Krumboltz, "Improving Career Development Theory from a Social Learning Perspective," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, pp. 9-31, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    René V Dawis, "The Theory of Work Adjustment as Convergent Theory," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, pp. 33-43, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    Arnold R Spokane, "The Resolution of Incongruence and the Dynamics of Person- Environment Fit," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, pp. 119-137, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    David L Blustein, "'Who Am I'?," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, pp. 139-154, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    James Rounds and Beryl Hesketh, "The Theory of Work Adjustment," ibid: 177-86
    Beryl Hesketh and Stephen Bochner, "Technological Change in a Multicultural Context," in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd edition, vol. 4, edited by Harry C Triandis, Marvin D Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough, pp. 191-240, Palo Alto:  Consulting Psychologists Press 1994
    Nancy E Betz, "Basic Issues and Concepts in Career Counseling for Women" in Career Counseling for Women, edited by. W Bruce Walsh and Samuel H Osipow, 1-41, Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum 1994
    Louise Fitzgerald and James Rounds, "Women and Work," in Career Counseling for Women, edited by W Bruce Walsh and Samuel H Osipow, 327-353, Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum 1994
    S Alvin Leung, Collie W Conoley and Michael J Scheel, "The Career and Educational Aspirations of Gifted High-School Students," Journal of Counseling and Development 72 (January-February 1994): 298-303
    George F Madaus, "Testing's Place in Society," Review of Testing Testing by FA Hanson, in American Journal of Education 102 (February 1994): 222-34
    Mike Smith, "A Theory of the Validity of Predictors in Selection," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 67 (March 1994): 13-31
    S Alvin Leung, David Ivey and Lisa Suzuki, "Factors Affecting the Career Aspirations of Asian-Americans," Journal of Counseling and Development 72 (March-April 1994): 404-10
    Kathy M Evans and Edwin L Herr, "The Influence of Racial Identity and the Perception of Discrimination on the Career Aspirations of African-American Men and Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 44 (April 1994): 173-84
    Robert Carter, George Gushue and Lauren Weitzman, "White Racial Identity Development and Work Values," Journal of Vocational Behavior 44 (April 1994): 185-97
    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema and Joan S Girgus, "The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence," Psychological Bulletin 115 (May 1994): 424-43
    Mark J Miller, "Congruence Between Parents' and Children's' Three-Letter Holland Codes," Psychological Reports 74 (June 1994): 1387-90
    William G Wagner, "Counseling with Children," Counseling Psychologist 22 (July 1994): 381-401
    E Kevin Kelloway and Laura Watts, "Preemployment Predictors of Union Attitudes," Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (August 1994): 631-4
    Nancy E Betz, "Self-Concept Theory in Career Development and Counseling," Career Development Quarterly 43 (September 1994): 32-43
   Itamar Gati, "Computer-Assisted Career Counseling," Journal of Counseling and Development 73 (September-October 1994): 51-56
    Stewart E Cooper, Daniel L Arkkelin and Marla J Tiebert, "Work Relationship Values and Gender Role Differences in Relation to Career-Marriage Aspirations," Journal Counseling and Development 73 (September-October 1994): 63-68
    Nadya A Fouad, "Annual Review, 1991-93," Journal of Vocational Behavior 45 (October 1994): 125-76
    Mark B Watson and Graham B Stead, "A Longitudinal Study of Career Decidedness Among White South African High School Students," Journal of Vocational Behavior 45 (December 1994): 261-69
    Ikhlas A Abdalla, "Relationship of Career Self-Efficiency and Personality Variables with Status of Academic and Career Choice Among Arab Students," Psychological Reports 75 (December 1994): 1571-82
    Graham B Stead and Mark B Watson, "Psychosocial Aspects of Developmental Career Theories: Comment on Naicker," South African Journal of Psychology 24 (December 1994):  234-235
    FD Naylor and JD Krumboltz, "The Independence of Aptitudes, Interests and Career Beliefs," Career Development Quarterly 43 (December 1994): 152-60
    Richard A Young, "Healing Adolescents with Career Development," Career Development Quarterly 42 (December 1994): 195-203
    Linda Forrest, "Career Assessment for Couples," Journal of Employment Counseling 31 (December 1994): 168-87
    Tim and Beryl Hesketh, "Computerized Fuzzy Ratings," Behavior Research: Methods, Instruments and Computers 26 (1994): 272-77
    Walter Engelbrecht, "Computerunterstutzte berufsbezogene Testauswertung im Dienst der Berufsberatung," Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie 38 (1994): 175-81
    Beryl Hesketh, et. al., "Use of Fuzzy Variables in Developing New Scales from the Strong Interest Inventory," Journal of Counseling Psychology 42 (January 1995): 85-99
    Darrell A Luzzo, "Gender Differences in College Students' Career Maturity and Perceived Barriers in Career Development," Journal of Counseling and Development 73 (January- February 1995): 319-22
    Alex S Hall, Kevin R Kelly and Janis B Van Buren, "Effects of Grade Level, Community of Residence and Sex on Adolescent Career Interests in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives," Journal of Career Development 21 (Spring 1995): 223-232
    Cheryl G Bartholomew, "Horizons 2000: A Model for Gender Fair Education," Journal of Career Development 21 (Spring 1995): 233-47
    ST Fiske and Peter Glick, "Ambivalence and Stereotypes Cause Sexual Harassment," Journal of Social Issues 51 (Spring 1995): 97-115
    Itamar Gati, Samuel H Osipow and Michal Givon, "Gender Differences in Career Decision Making," Journal of Counseling Psychology 42 (April 1995): 204-16
    Laurie Johnson, "A Multidimensional Analysis of the Vocational Aspirations of College Students," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 28 (April 1995): 25-44
    Peter Glick, Korin Wilk and Michele Perreault, "Images of Occupations," Sex Roles 32 (May 1995): 565-82
    Rena Subotnik, "Talent Developed," Journal for the Education of the Gifted 18 (Summer 1995): 440-66
    Darrell Anthony Luzzo, "The Relationship Between Career Aspiration-Current Occupation Congruence and the Career Maturity of Undergraduates," Journal of Employment Counseling 32 (September 1995): 132-50
    Ashton D Trice. et. al., "The Origins of Children's Career Aspirations," Career Development Quarterly 43 (1995): 307-22
    Ashton D Trice and Kimberly Rush, "Sex-Stereotyping in Four-Year-Olds' Occupational Aspirations," Perceptual and Motor Skills 81 (October 1995): 701-702
    Jay W Rojewski, "Impact of At-Risk Behavior on the Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Male and Female Adolescents in Rural Settings" Journal of Career Development 22 (Fall 1995): 33-48
    Ruth E Fassinger, "From Invisibility to Integration," Career Development Quarterly 44 (December 1995): 148-67
    Jeffrey P Price, "Influences on the Career Development of Gay Men," Career Development Quarterly 44 (December 1995): 168-77
    Y Barry Chung, "Career Decision Making of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Individuals," Career Development Quarterly 44 (December 1995): 178-90
    F Gendre, et. al., "Interests and Decision: The Construction of an Inventory of Simulated Vocational Decision-Making," Swiss Journal of Psychology 54 (1995): 19-33
   Mark L Savickas and W Bruce Walsh, "Introduction," Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Savickas and Walsh, xi-xvi, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    Judy H Chartrand, "Linking Theory with Practice," Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Savickas and Walsh, 121-134, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    Beverly J Vandiver and Sharon L Bowman, "A Schematic Reconceptualization and Application of Gottfredson's Model," Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Savickas and Walsh, 155-168, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    Itamar Gati, "Computer-Assisted Career Counseling," Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Savickas and Walsh, 169-190, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    Gary D Gottfredson, "Some Direct Measures of Career Status," Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Savickas and Walsh, 213-236, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    John Killen, Career Theory," Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice, by AG Watts, et. al., 23-45, London: Routledge 1996
    Bill Law, "A Career-Learning Theory," Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice, by AG Watts, et. al., 46-71, London: Routledge 1996
    AG Watts, "Socio-Political Ideologies in Guidance," Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice, by AG Watts, et. al., 351-365, London: Routledge 1996
    Arnold R Spokane and Elizabeth J Jacob, "Career and Vocational Assessment, 1993-94: A Biennial Review," Journal of Career Assessment 4 (Winter 1996): 1-32
    Esther Care, "The Structure of Interests Related to College Course Destinations," Journal of Career Assessment 4 (Winter 1996): 77-89
    Fred H Borgen and David AC Donnay, "Slicing the Vocational Interest Pie One More Time," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (February 1996): 42-52

    Leonore W Harmon, "Lost in Space," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (February 1996): 53-58
    Jo-Ida C Hansen, "What Goes Around, Comes Around," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (February 1996): 73-76
    Jennifer M Bowes and Jacqueline J Goodnow, "Work for Home, School or Labor Force: The Nature and  Sources of Changes in Understanding," Psychological Bulletin 119 (March 1996): 300-21
    Jay W Rojewski, "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities," Exceptional Children 62 (March-April 1996): 463-76
    Jay W Rojewski, "Occupational Aspirations and Early Career-Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and Without Learning Disabilities," Learning Disability Quarterly 19 (1996): 99-116
    Victoria A Shivy, SD Phillips, and LM Koehly, "Knowledge Organization as a Factor in Career Intervention Outcome," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (April 1996): 178-86
    Susan L Morrow, Paul A Gore Jr and Brian W Campbell, "The Application of a Sociocognitive Framework to the Career Development of Lesbian Women and Gay Men," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (April 1996): 136-48
    Ruth E Fassinger, "Notes from the Margins: Integrating the Lesbian Experience Into the Vocational Psychology of Women," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (April 1996): 160-75
    Susan Lonborg and Janet Phillips, "Investigating the Career Development of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People," Journal of Vocational Behavior 48 (April 1996): 176-94
    E Kevin Kelloway and Tricia Newton, "Preemployment Predictors of Union Attitudes: The Effects of Parental Union and Work Experiences," Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 28 (April 1996): 113-20

    William G Wagner, "Optimal Development in Adolescence: What Is It and How Can It Be Encouraged," Counseling Psychologist 24 (July 1996): 360-99
    Darrell Anthony Luzzo, "Exploring the Relationship Between the Perception of Occupational Barriers and Career Development," Journal of Career Development 22 (Summer 1996): 239-48
    Michael T Brown. et. al., "Annual Review, 1990-96," Journal of Vocational Behavior 49 (October 1996): 159-89
    Gary Don Gottfredson, "The Assessment of Career Status with the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory," Journal of Career Assessment 4 (Fall 1996): 363-381
    Darrell Anthony Luzzo and Kathy Garrison Hutcheson, "Causal Attributions and Sex Differences Associated with Perceptions of Occupational Barriers," Journal of Counseling and Development 75 (November-December 1996): 124-30
    Richard T Lapan, P Shaughnessy and K Boggs, "Efficacy Expectations and Vocational Interests as Mediators Between Sex and Choice of Math/Science College Majors," Journal of Vocational Behavior 49 (December 1996): 277-91
    Thomas D Cook, et. al., "The Development of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations Among Inner-City Boys," Child Development 67 (December 1996): 3368-3385
   Edgar Krau, The Realization of Life Aspirations Through Vocational Careers, Westport: Praeger 1997
    Susan D Phillips and Anne R Imhoff, "Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research," Annual Review of Psychology 48 (1997): 31-59
    Jay W Rojewski, "Characteristics of Students Who Express Stable or Undecided Occupational Expectations During Early Adolescence," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Winter 1997): 1-20
   Leslie Martin Rainey and L DiAnne Borders, "Influential Factors in Career Orientation and Career Aspiration of Early Adolescent Girls," Journal of Counseling Psychology 44 (April 1997): 160-172
    Itamar Gati, Daphna Houminer and Naomi Fassa, "Framings of Career Compromises: How Career Counselors Can Help," Career Development Quarterly 45 (June 1997): 390-399
    Michael T Brown, Andrea I Eisenberg, and Shlomo S Sawilowsky, "Traditionality and the Discriminating Effect of Expectations of Occupational Success and Occupational Values for Women within Math-Oriented Fields," Journal of Vocational Behavior 50 (June 1997): 418-431
    Roger L Worthington and Cindy L Juntunen, "The Vocational Development of Non-College-Bound Youth: Counseling Psychology and the School-to-Work Transition Movement," Counseling Psychologist 25 (July 1997): 323-363
    Helen S Farmer, "Women's' Motivation Related to Mastery, Career Salience and Career Aspiration: A Multivariate Model Focusing on the Effects of Sex-Role Socialization," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 355-381
    Linda Gottfredson and Richard T Lapan, "Assessing Gender-Based Circumscription of Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 419-441
    FD Naylor, et. al., "Sex, Status, and Generic Interests in Fields of Work, Parents and Offspring, and Fields of Study," Australian Psychologist 32 (1997): 12-18
    Nicholas Ladany, et. al., "At-Risk Urban High School Students' Commitment to Career Choices," Journal of Counseling and Development 76 (Winter 1997): 45-52
    Jay W Rojewski and BY Yang, "Longitudinal Analysis of Select Influences on Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 51 (1997): 375-410
    Ismael Abu-Saad and Richard E Isralowitz, "Gender as a Determinant of Work Values Among University Students in Israel," Journal of Social Psychology 137 (December 1997): 749-763 
    CK Greene and WL Stittgohdes, "Factors That Influence Women's' Choices to Work in the Trades," Journal of Career Development 23 (1997): 265-278
    MB Watson, et. al., "Occupational Aspirations of Black South African Adolescents," Psychological Reports 80 (1997): 637-635
    ME Morningstar, "Critical Issues in Career Development and Employment Preparation for Adolescents with Disabilities," Remedial and Special Education 18 (1997): 307-320
    Norman C Gysbers, Mary J Heppner and Joseph A Johnston, Career Counseling: Process, Issues and Techniques, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998

   
LaRae M Jome and David M Tokar, "Dimensions of Masculinity and Major Choice Traditionality," Journal of Vocational Behavior 52 (February 1998): 120-134
    Geraldine S Brooks and Judith C Daniluk, "Creative Labors: The Lives and Careers of Women Artists," Career Development Quarterly 46 (March 1998): 246-261

 

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "A Skills Map: The General and Specific Competencies Required in Different Occupations."  Careers Program Technical Report, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, November 1981.
    [Funded by NIE-G-80-0013.]
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior October 1986
    Laura Burris Desmarais and Paul R Sackett, "Investigating a Cognitive Complexity Hierarchy of Jobs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 43 (December 1993): 279-97

Gottfredson, Linda S., and Vicky C. Brown.  "Occupational Differentiation Among White Men in the First Decade After High School."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 19 (December 1981):   251-89.
  
Cited in:
    Bruce R Fretz and Frederick TL Leong, "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1981," Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (1982): 123-63
    Thomas N Daymont and Paul J Andrisani, "The Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys," Review of Public Data Use 11 (October 1983): 203-310
    Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Gottfredson, "The Role of Self-Concept in Vocational Theory," Journal of Counseling Psychology, January 1985
    Gerald V Barrett and Robert L Depinet, "A Reconsideration of Testing for Competence Rather Than for Intelligence," American Psychologist 46 (October 1991): 1012-24
    Gerald V Barrett, Ralph A Alexander and Dennis Doverspike, "The Implications for Personnel Selection of Apparent Declines in Predictive Validities Over Time," Personnel Psychology 45 (Fall 1992): 601-17
    Laurie Johnson, "A Multidimensional Analysis of the Vocational Aspirations of College Students," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 28 (April 1995): 25-44

 

1982

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Magic with Sex Differences: Now You See Them, Now You Don't; A Comment on 'A Note on Self-Directed Search Validity for Females'."  Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, February 1982.
   
Cited in:
    Duane Brown, Linda Brooks and associates, Career Choice and Development, San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1984

Gottfredson, Gary Don.   "An Assessment of a Mobility-Based Occupational Classification for Placement and Counseling."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 21 (August 1982):  71-98.
   [The author thanks Linda Gottfredson for assistance in locating and using Census Bureau and Department of Labor data.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Vocational Research Priorities." Counseling Psychologist 10 (1982):  69-84.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Creating and Criticizing Theory," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1983
    Richard A Young, "Career Development of Adolescents," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12 (October 1983): 401-17
    James B Rounds Jr and Michael A Zevon, "Multidimensional Scaling Research in Vocational Psychology," Applied Psychological Measurement 7 (Fall 1983): 491-510
    Robert B Slaney and Michael T Brown, "Effects of Race and Socioeconomic Status on Career Choice Variables Among College Men," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (December 1983): 257-69
    "Historical Periods in the Development of Counseling Psychology," Counseling Psychologist 12 (1984): 3-109
    Barbara J Yanico and Susan I Hardin, "College Students' Self-Estimated and Actual Knowledge of Gender Traditional and Nontraditional Occupations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 28 (June 1986): 229-40
    John Friesen, "The Role of the Family in Vocational Development," International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 9 (1986): 87-96

    Lucienne A Lee, et. al., "Gender Bias in Subject Samples in Counseling Psychology," Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (January 1987): 73-6
    Gail Hackett, Robert W Lent and Jeffrey H Greenhaus, "Advances in Vocational Theory and Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 3-38
    Leonore W Harmon, "20 Years of the Journal of Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 297-304
    Louise F Fitzgerald and Nancy E Betz, "Career Development in Cultural Context," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, pp. 103-17, Palo Alto: CPP 1994

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Sex Fairness of Unnormed Interest Inventories."  Vocational Guidance Quarterly 31 (December 1982):  128-132.
   
Cited in:
    Dale J Prediger, "Are Raw Interest Scores Valid and Sex Fair?," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 31 (December 1982): 133-6
    Charles C Healy and Don L Mourton, "The Self-Directed Search Personality Scales and Career Maturity," Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance 17 (April 1984): 3-14
    Arnold R Spokane, "A Review of Research on Person-Environment Congruence in Holland's Theory of Careers," Journal of Vocational Behavior 26 (June 1985): 306-43
    Gabriel Cirino-Gerena, et. al., "Validez comparada del Sistema Cirino para la Planficacion de Carreras y el Sistema para las Toma de Decisiones de Harrington y O'Shea," Revista Interamericana de Psicologia 25 (1991): 93-102
    Walter Engelbrecht, "Computerunterstutzte berufsbezogene Testauswertung im Dienst der Berufsberatung," Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie 38 (1994): 175-81

[c. 1982.   Gottfredson gives birth to twin daughters.]

 

1983

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Validity of an Occupational Classification Based on Job Competencies for Assessing Employability."  Washington, D.C.:  National Institute of Education, January 1983.
    [Grant NIE-G-80-0013.]
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior October 1986

[5 January 1983.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives manuscript of Gottfredson, "Creating and Criticizing Theory."]

Gottfredson, Linda S., Joan M. Finucci, and Barton Childs.  "The Adult Occupational Success of Dyslexic Boys:   A Large-Scale, Long-Term Follow-Up."  Report no. 334, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, March 1983.
    [Grants NICHD-00486 and NIE-G-80-0013.]
   
Cited in:
    Harry E Hartzell and C. Compton, "Learning Disability: 10 Year Follow-Up," Pediatrics 74 (1984): 1058-64

   Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984
    Margaret B Rawson, "The Bright Future," Annals of Dyslexia 35 (1985): 13-17
    Finucci, Gottfredson and Childs, "A Follow-Up Study of Dyslexic Boys," Annals of Dyslexia 1985
    Otfried Spreen, "Prognosis of Learning Disability," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56 (December 1988): 836-42

Gottfredson, Linda S., Joan M. Finucci, and Barton Childs.  "Career Processes and Dyslexia."   Manuscript submitted for publication, 1983.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys," Journal of Vocational Behavior, June 1984

[10 August 1983.   Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, Finucci and Childs, "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys."]

[13 September 1983.  Journal of Counseling Psychology receives the manuscript of Pryor, "Toward Exorcising the Self-Concept From Psychology."]

Vondracek, Fred W., Richard M. Lerner and John E. Schulenberg.  "The Concept of Development in Vocational Theory and Intervention."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (October 1983):  179-202.

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Creating and Criticizing Theory."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (October 1983):  203-212.
    [Response to Vondracek, Lerner and Schulenberg.]
   
Cited in:
    Vondracek, Lerner and Schulenberg, "On Aspiring to Present a Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 23(October 1983): 179-202
    Vondracek and Schulenberg, "Career Development in Adolescence," Vocational Guidance Quarterly 34 (June 1986): 247-54
    Samuel H. Opisow, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 38 (1987): 257-78
    Hilary M. Pearson and Sharon E. Kahn, "Women Clerical Workers," Career Development Quarterly 37 (March 1989): 249-56
    Robert GL Pryor and Neville B Taylor, "Circumscription and Compromise," Australian Psychologist 24 (March 1989): 101-13
    Gail Hackett, Robert W. Lent and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, "Advances in Vocational Theory and Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 3-38
    Oliver CS Tzeng and Jay W Jackson, "Common Methodological Framework for Theory Construction and Evaluation in the Social and Behavioral Sciences," Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 117 (February 1991): 49-76
    Mary Sue Richardson, "Work in People's Lives," Journal of Counseling Psychology 40 (October 1993): 425-33

Vondracek, Fred W., Richard M. Lerner and John E. Schulenberg.  "On Aspiring to Present a Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations:  A Reader's Guide to Gottfredson."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 23 (October 1983):  213-218.

 

1984

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "An Outsider's View of Research Priorities."  In The Coming Decade in Counseling Psychology, edited by John M. Whiteley, et. al., 199-226.   Schenectady:  Character Research Press, 1984.
   
Cited in:
    Bruce R Fretz, "Research Training in Counseling Psychology: Introduction," Counseling Psychology 14 (1986): 3-8
    Nancy E Betz, "Research Training in Counseling Psychology," Counseling Psychologist 14 (1986): 107-113
    Judy M Chartrand and Charissa Camp, "Advances in the Measurement of Career Development Constructs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (August 1991): 1-39
    Anita G Jackson-Wilson and Sherry B Borgers, "Disaffiliation Revisited," Sex Roles 28 (April 1993): 361-77

[3 January 1984.   Journal of Counseling Psychology receives revision of Pryor, "Toward Exorcising the Self-Concept From Psychology."]

[February 1984.  Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 24, no. 1, adds Gottfredson to its Editorial Board.  She replaces her former husband, Gary Don Gottfredson, who had been on Board 1977-83.]

Gottfredson, Linda S., Joan M. Finucci, and Barton Childs.  "The Adult Occupational Success of Dyslexic Boys: Results of Long-Term Follow-Up and Implications for Research and Counseling."   Education and Work Progress Report, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1984.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984

Gottfredson, Linda S., Joan M. Finucci and Barton Childs.  "Explaining the Adult Careers of Dyslexic Boys:   Variations in Critical Skills for High-Level Jobs."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 24 (June 1984):  355-373.
  
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984
    Joan Finucci, Gottfredson and Barton Childs, "A Follow-Up Study of Dyslexic Boys," Annals of Dyslexia, 1985
    Fred R Borgen, et. al., "Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1984," Journal of Vocational Behavior 27 (October 1985): 218-69
    LS Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986
    Maggie Bruck, "The Adult Outcomes of Children with Learning Disabilities," Annals of Dyslexia 37 (1987): 252-63
    Arnold R Spokane and BK Hawks, "Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development, 1989," Career Development Quarterly 39 (December 1990): 98-128
    Anna Gajar, "Adults with Learning Disabilities," Journal of Learning Disabilities 25 (October 1992): 507-19
    Jay W Rojewski, "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities" Exceptional Children 62 (March-April 1996): 463-76
    Jay W Rojewski, "Occupational Aspirations and Early Career Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and Without Learning Disabilities," Learning Disability Quarterly 19 (1996): 99-116
 
    Kenneth A Kavale and Steven R Forness, "Learning Disability Grows Up: Rehabilitation Issues for Individuals with Learning Disabilities," Journal of Rehabilitation 62 (1996): 34-41
    LS Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132

[7 August 1984.  Journal of Counseling Psychology receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, "Role of Self-Concept in Vocational Theory."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor."   Report no. 355, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, November 1984.
   
Cited in:
    LS Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map" Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986
    LS Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
    Robert A Gordon, "SES versus IQ in the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model," Issues in Contemporary Criminology 7 (1987): 30-96
    Robert A Gordon, "Jensen's Contributions Concerning Test Bias," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 77-154, New York: Falmer 1987
    Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, September 1987
    Kenneth I Spenner, "Occupations, Work Settings and the Course of Adult Development," Life-Span Development and Behavior 9 (1988): 243-85

   Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    Dale J Prediger, "Ability Differences Across Occupations: More Than 'g'," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (February 1989): 1-27
    Gottfredson, "The Evaluation of Alternative Measures of Job Performance," 1991
    John B Carroll, Human Cognitive Abilities, Cambridge University Press, 1993
    Laura Burris Desmarais and Paul R Sackett, "Investigating a Cognitive Complexity Hierarchy of Jobs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 43 (December 1993): 279-97
    Terry W Morris and Edward M Levinson, "Relationship Between Intelligence and Occupational Adjustment and Functioning," Journal of Counseling and Development 73 (May-June 1995): 503-14
   Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132

Gottfredson, Linda S. "An Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map and Its Implications for a Theory of Job Aptitude Requirements."  Unpublished paper, 1984.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor, November 1984

 

1985

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Education as a Valid But Fallible Signal of Worker Quality:  Reorienting an Old Debate About the Functional Basis of the Occupational Hierarchy."  In Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization, vol. 5, edited by Alan C. Kerckhoff, 123-169.  Greenwich, Connecticut:  JAI Press, 1985.
   
Cited in:
    Julian C Stanley, Review of Straight Talk About Mental Tests by Arthur R Jensen, in Educational and Psychological Measurement 46 (1986): 482-85
    J Philippe Rushton, Christine H Littlefield and Charles J Lumsden, "Gene Culture Coevolution of Complex Social Behavior: Human Altruism and Mate Choice," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83 (October 1986): 7340-43
    LS Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986
    LS Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment" Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
    Robert A Gordon, "Jensen's Contributions Concerning Test Bias," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 77-154, New York: Falmer 1987
    Robert A Gordon, "SES versus IQ in the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model," Issues in Contemporary Criminology 7 (1987): 30-96

    LS Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, September 1987
    LS Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    LS Gottfredson, "The Evaluation of Alternative Measures of Job Performance," 1991
    Peter Mueser and Tim Maloney, "Ability, Human Capital and Employer Screening," Southern Economic Journal 57 (January 1991): 676-89
    David C Paris, "Schools, Scapegoats, and Skills: Educational Reform and the Economy," Policy Studies Journal 22 (Spring 1994): 10-24
    F Linnehan, "Measuring the Effectiveness of a Career Academy Program from an Employer's Perspective," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 18 (1996): 73-89
    LS Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test: Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-320
    G Farkas, et. al., "Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European-American, African-American, and Mexican-American Workers," Social Forces 75 (1997): 913-938


Finucci, Joan M., Linda S. Gottfredson and Barton Childs.  "A Follow-Up Study of Dyslexic Boys."  Annals of Dyslexia 35 (1985):  117-136.
   
Cited in:
    Otfried Spreen, "Prognosis of Learning Disability," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56 (December 1988): 836-42


Pryor, Robert G.L.  "Toward Exorcising the Self-Concept From Psychology:  Some Comments on Gottfredson's Circumscription/Compromise Theory."  Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (January 1985):  154-158.

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Role of Self-Concept in Vocational Theory."  Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (January 1985):  159-162.
   
Cited in:
    Jeffrey H Greenhaus and Saroj Parasuraman, "Vocational and Organizational Behavior, 1985," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (October 1986): 115-76

   Robert GL Pryor and Neville B Taylor, "What Would I Do if I Couldn't Do What I Wanted to Do," Australian Psychologist 21 (November 1986): 363-76
    Tim Hesketh, Robert Pryor and Beryl Hesketh, "An Application of a Computerized Fuzzy Graph Rating Scale to the Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences," International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 29 (July 1988): 21-35
    Beryl Hesketh, Robert Pryor and Melanie Gleitzman, "Fuzzy Logic: Toward Measuring Gottfredson's Concept of Occupational Social Space," Journal of Counseling Psychology 36 (January 1989): 103-9
    Robert GL Pryor and Neville B Taylor, "Circumscription and Compromise," Australian Psychologist 24 (March 1989): 101-13
    Pryor, Hesketh and Gleitzman, "Making Things Clearer by Making Them Fuzzy," Career Development Quarterly 38 (December 1989): 136-47

   
Beryl Hesketh, Sue Elmslie and Wendy Kaldor, "Career Compromise," Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 (January 1990): 49-56

   Mark J Miller, Elizabeth R Wadsworth and Thomas P Springer, "Chance Receptivity as a Function of Self-Concept," Perceptual and Motor Skills 72 (February 1991): 291-95
    Kathy A Gainor and Linda Forrest, "African-American Women's Self-Concept," Career Development Quarterly 39 (March 1991): 261-72
    Richard T Lapan and John Jingeleski, "Circumscribing Vocational Aspirations in Junior High School," Journal of Counseling Psychology 39 (January 1992): 81-90
    Robert W Lent and Gail Hackett, "Sociocognitive Mechanisms of Personal Agency in Career Development," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, 77-101, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    Nancy E Betz, "Self-Concept Theory in Career Development and Counseling," Career Development Quarterly 43 (September 1994): 32-42
    EC Parsons, "Black High School Females' Images of the Scientist: Express of Culture," Journal of Research in Science Teaching 34 (1997): 745-766
    CJ McCowan and RJ Alston, "Racial Identity, African Self-Consciousness, and Career Decision Making in African American College Women," Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 26 (1998): 28-38

[August 1985.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.  Gottfredson reads "Vocational Exploration and Realism:  Promoting Both Simultaneously."]

[10-11 October 1985.   The Fall Conference of the Personnel Testing Council (PTC) of Southern California.   The topic is "The g Factor in Employment Testing."  The speakers are: Arthur R. Jensen, Robert L. Thorndike, John E. Hunter, Linda Gottfredson and James Crouse (a colleague in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, and a collaborator with Christopher Jencks). The moderator is John Hawk of the U.S. Employment Service.  The conference papers -- along with commentaries by Richard Arvey, Lloyd Humphreys, Robert L. Linn and Leona E. Tyler -- are published in the influential special December 1986 issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior, edited by Gottfredson.]

Wilson, James Q, and Richard J Herrnstein.  Crime and Human Nature.  New York:  Simon and Schuster, 1985.
    [The authors thank Gary Don Gottfredson for comments on the manuscript.]

 

1986

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Special Groups and the Beneficial Use of Vocational Interest Inventories."  In Advances in Vocational Psychology, vol. 1, The Assessment of Interests, edited by W. Bruce Walsh and Samuel H. Osipow, 127-198.   Hillsdale, New Jersey:  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson and Crouse, "Validity versus Utility of Mental Tests," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
     Itamar Gati, "Description and Validation of a Procedure for the Interpretation of an Interest Inventory Score Profile," Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (April 1987): 141-8
    Consuelo Arbona, "Career Counseling Research and Hispanics," Counseling Psychologist 18 (April 1990): 300-23
    Gottfredson, "Dilemmas in Developing Diversity Programs," in Diversity in the Workplace 1992
    Louise F Fitzgerald and Nancy E Betz, "Career Development in Cultural Context," in Convergence in Career Development Theories, edited by Mark L Savickas and Robert W Lent, 177-86, Palo Alto: CPP 1994
    Jay W Rojewski, "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities," Exceptional Children 62 (March-April 1996): 463-76
    Jay W Rojewski, "Occupational Aspirations and Early Career Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and Without Learning Disabilities," Learning Disability Quarterly 19 (1996): 99-116
 
    Jennifer M Ryan, Terence JG Tracey and James Rounds, "Generalizability of Holland's Structure of Vocational Interests Across Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Status," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (July 1996): 330-37
    Naomi M Meara, Kathleen L Davis, and Barbara S Robinson, "The Working Lives of Women from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds: Assessing Prospects, Enabling Success," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Spring 1997): 115-135
    Deborah G Betsworth and Nadya A Fouad, "Vocational Interests: A Look at the Past 70 Years and a Glance at the Future," Career Development Quarterly 46 (September 1997):  23-47
    Frederick TL Leong, "Cross-Cultural Career Psychology:  Comment on Fouad, Harmon and Borgen (1997) and Tracey, Watanabe and Schneider (1997)," Journal of Counseling Psychology 44 (October 1997): 355-359
    Michael T Brown and Kim M Voyle, "Without Roe," Journal of Vocational Behavior 51 (October 1997): 310-318
    Jay W Rojewski and BY Yang, "Longitudinal Analysis of Select Influences on Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Vocational Behavior 51 (1997): 375-410

   
  
Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Using an Occupational Aptitude Patterns (OAP) Map to Promote Reality-Based Career Exploration."  Unpublished paper, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1986.
   
Cited in:
    Itamar Gati, "Making Career Decisions," Journal of Counseling Psychology 33 (October 1986): 408-17
    Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986

[26 April 1986.  Journal of  Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson, "Occupation Aptitude Patterns Map."]

[29 May and 26 November 1986.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $51,000 grant to researchers at Johns Hopkins University "to conduct a symposium on crime and unemployment."  This involved Robert A. Gordon.]

[1986. Gottfredson is appointed Associate Professor of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, Newark.]

[August 1986.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.  Gottfredson reads "IQ vs. Training: Job Performance and Black-White Occupational Inequality."  This is cited in Instauration (November 1986), Daniel Seligman's A Question of Intelligence (1992) and John B. Carroll's Human Cognitive Abilities (1993).   At the same meeting, Robert A. Gordon reads "IQ Commensurability of Black-White Differences in Crime and Delinquency," which also is cited in Instauration and Human Cognitive Abilities.]

[20 August 1986.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gottfredson's introduction to the special December 1986 issue, "Forward: The g Factor in Employment."]


Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map: Development and Implications for a Theory of Job Aptitude Requirements."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (October 1986):  254-291.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
    Ann D Lassalle and Arnold R Spokane, "Patterns of Early Labor Force Participation of American Women," Career Development Quarterly 36 (September 1987): 55-65
    Robert B Slaney and Joyce EA Russell, "Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986," Journal of Vocational Behavior 31 (October 1987): 111-73
    Dale J Prediger, "Validity of the New Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Job Cluster Scores in Career Planning," Career Development Quarterly 36 (December 1987): 113-25
    Itamar Gati and Dov Winer, "Using Career Grid Data to Compare Models of the Structure of Occupations," Career Development Quarterly 36 (December 1987): 126-39
    Dale J Prediger, "Ability Differences Across Occupations: More Than 'g'," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (February 1989): 1-27
     Itamar Gati, "Person-Environment Fit Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 181-93

   Bruce J Avolio and David A Waldman, "An Examination of Age and Cognitive Test Performance Across Job Complexity and Occupational Types," Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (February 1990): 43-50
    Bruce J Avolio, David A Waldman and Michael A McDaniel, "Age and Work Performance in Nonmanagerial Jobs," Academy of Management Journal 33 (June 1990): 407-22
    Arnold R Spokane and Brenda K Hawks, "Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development, 1989," Career Development Quarterly 39 (December 1990): 98-128
     Itamar Gati, "The Structure of Vocational Interests," Psychological Bulletin 109 (March 1991): 309-24
    Fred H Borgen, "Megatrends and Milestones in Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 263-90
    James T Austin, "Gary D Gottfredson's and John L Holland's Position Classification Inventory (Form HS)," Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 26 (October 1993): 206-8
    Laura Burris Desmarais and Paul R Sackett, "Investigating a Cognitive Complexity Hierarchy of Jobs," Journal of Vocational Behavior 43 (December 1993): 279-97

    Steffanie L Wilk, Laura Burris Desmarais and Paul R Sackett, "Gravitation to Jobs Commensurate with Ability," Journal of Applied Psychology 80 (February 1995): 79-85
    Itamar Gati, "Computer-Assisted Career Counseling," in Handbook of Career Counseling Theory and Practice, edited by Mark L Savickas and W Bruce Lincoln, 169-90, Palo Alto: Davies-Black 1996
    Arnold R Spokane and Elizabeth J Jacob, "Career and Vocational Assessment, 1993-94: A Biennial Review," Journal of Career Assessment 4 (Winter 1996): 1-32
    Itamar Gati and Y Garty, "Using Career-Related Aspects to Assess Person-Environment Fit," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (April 1996): 196-206   
    Steffanie L Wilk and PR Sackett, "Longitudinal Analysis of Ability Job Complexity Fit and Job Change," Personnel Psychology 49 (1996): 937-967
    René V Dawis, "Vocational Psychology, Vocational Adjustment, and the Workforce: Some Familiar and Unanticipated Consequences," Psychology, Public Policy and Law 2 (1996): 229-248
    David N Dicker, Mary Roznowski and David A Harrison, "Temporal Tempering: An Event History Analysis of the Process of Voluntary Turnover," Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (December 1996): 706-716
    Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    Gottfredson and Richard T Lapan, "Assessing Gender-Based Circumscription of Occupational Aspirations," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 419-441

"IQ Determines Job Performance:  Two Sociologists Blast Two Sociological Articles of Faith."  Instauration 11 (November 1986):  9-10.

[10 November 1986.   Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights William Bradford Reynolds writes a letter to the Director of the US Employment Service attacking the use of "race norming" in employment tests.  His intervention was part of a sequence of events that subsequently included the creation of a National Academy of Sciences panel to study the practice, the growth of a vigorous, sustained conservative assault on it, Gottfredson's critique, and its prohibition in the Civil Rights Act of 1991.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Forward:  The g Factor in Employment."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986):  293-296.
    [Gottfredson's affiliation is listed as Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland in College Park.]
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Occupational Aptitude Patterns Map," Journal of Vocational Behavior, October 1986
    Robert B Slaney and Joyce EA Russell, "Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986," Journal of Vocational Behavior 31 (October 1987): 111-73
    Arnold R Spokane, "Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Person-Environment Fit Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 31 (December 1987): 217-21
    Robert M Guion and WM Gibson, "Personnel Selection and Placement," Annual Review of Psychology 39 (1988): 349-74
    Arthur R Jensen and Michael E Faulstich, "Difference Between Prisoners and the General Population in Psychometric 'g'," Personality and Individual Differences 9 (1988): 925-28

    J Philippe Rushton, "The Reality of Racial Differences: A Rejoinder with New Evidence," Personality and Individual Differences 9 (1988): 1035-40
    Gottfredson and James C Sharf, "Fairness in Employment Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    James C Sharf, "Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 235-71
    Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    Robert A Gordon, Mary A Lewis and Ann M Quigley, "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 424-51
    Michael A Campion, Elliott D Pursell and Barbara K Brown, "Structured Interviewing," Personnel Psychology 41 (Spring 1988): 25-42

    Nancy E Betz, Louise F Fitzgerald and Raymond E Hill, "Trait-Factor Theories," in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 26-40, Cambridge University Press 1989
    Dale J Prediger, "Ability Differences Across Occupations: More Than 'g'," Journal of Vocational Behavior 34 (Feb 89): 1-27
    J Philippe Rushton, "Race Differences in Sexuality and Their Correlates," Journal of Research in Personality 23 (March 1989): 35-54
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James B Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-63
    Melany E Baehr and Joseph A Orban, "The Role of Intellectual Abilities and Personality Characteristics in Determining Success in Higher-Level Positions," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (December 1989): 270-87

    William J. Andrews, "Eugenics Revisited," Mankind Quarterly 30 (Spring 1990): 235-302
    J Philippe Rushton, "Creativity, Intelligence and Psychoticism," Personality and Individual Differences 11 (1990): 1291-98
    CJ Gelso and Ruth E Fassinger, "Counseling Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology 41 (1990): 355-86
    Herman Belz, Equality Transformed: A Quarter-Century of Affirmative Action, New Brunswick: Transaction 1991
    Rodney L Lowman, The Clinical Practice of Career Assessment, Washington: American Psychological Association 1991
    Robert M Guion, "Personnel Assessment, Selection and Placement" in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology vol. 2, 2nd edition, edited by Marvin D Dunnette and Leaette M Hough, 327-97, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1991
    Arthur R Jensen, "Spearman's g and the Problem of Educational Equality," Oxford Review of Education 17 (1991): 169-87
    Gail Hackett, Robert W Lent and Jeffrey H Greenhaus, "Advances in Vocational Theory and Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 3-38
    Fred H Borgen, "Megatrends and Milestones in Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 263-90
    David Lubinski and René V Dawis, "Aptitudes, Skills and Proficiencies," in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed, vol. 3, edited by Marvin D Dunnettee and Leaetta M Hough, 1-59, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1992
    René V Dawis, "The Individual-Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology,"  Journal of Counseling Psychology 39 (January 1992): 7-19
    John B Carroll, "Cognitive Abilities: The State of the Art," Psychological Science 3 (September 1992): 266-70
    Raymond A Katzell and James T Austin, "From Then to Now: The Development of Industrial-Organizational Psychology in the United States," Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (December 1992): 803-35
    Robert S Kennedy, et. al., "Human Intelligence in a Repeated-Measures Setting: Communalities of Intelligence with Performance," in Current Topics in Human Intelligence, vol. 3, Individual Differences and Cognition, pp. 259-281, edited by Douglas K Detterman, Norwood NJ: Ablex 1993
    Rodney L Lowman, "The Inter-Domain Model of Career Assessment and Counseling," Journal of Counseling and Development 71 (May-June 1993): 549-55
    René V Dawis and Lloyd H Lofquist, "From TWA to PEC," Journal of Vocational Behavior 43 (August 1993): 113-21
    David Lubinski and Camilla Persson Benbow, "The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth: The First Three Decades of a Planned 50-Year Study of Intellectual Talent," in Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent, edited by Rena F Subotnik and Karen D Arnold, pp. 255-281, Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing 1994
    George F Madaus, "Testing's Place in Society," Review of Testing Testing by FA Hanson, in American Journal of Education 102 (February 1994): 222-34
    Mike Smith, "A Theory of the Validity of Predictors in Selection," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 67 (March 1994): 13-31
    Malcolm James Ree, James A Earles and Mark S Teachout, "Predicting Job Performance: Not Much More Than g," Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (August 1994): 518-24
    Frank D Naylor and John D Krumboltz, "The Independence of Aptitudes, Interests and Career Beliefs," Career Development Quarterly 43 (December 1994): 152-60
    Edward M Miller, "The Relevance of Group Membership for Personnel Selection," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 19 (Fall 1994): 323-358
    Edward M Miller, "Race, Socioeconomic Variables and Intelligence: A Review and Extension of The Bell Curve," Mankind Quarterly 35 (Spring 1995): 267-291
    Elaine D Pulakos and Neal Schmitt, "Experience-Based and Situational Interview Questions," Personnel Psychology 48 (Summer 1995): 289-308
   J Philippe Rushton and C Davison Ankney, "Brain Size and Cognitive Ability: Correlations With  Age, Sex, Social Class and Race," Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 3 (March 1996): 21-36
    Robert A Gordon, "How Intelligent Is Our Intelligence Policy?" Contemporary Psychology 41 (June 1996): 573-76
    Edward L Levine, et. al., "Validity Generalization for Cognitive, Psychomotor and Perceptual Tests for Craft Jobs in the Utility Sector," Human Performance 9 (1996): 1-22
    Edward M Miller, "Backfire: A Review and Extension," Review of Backfire: A Reporter's Look at Affirmative Action by Bob Zelnick, in Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 21 (Winter 1996): 477-91
    René V Dawis, "Vocational Psychology, Vocational Adjustment, and the Workforce: Some Familiar and Unanticipated Consequences," Psychology, Public Policy and Law 2 (1996): 229-248
    Gottfredson, "Forward to 'Intelligence and Social Policy'," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 1-12
    Gottfredson, "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 13-23
    Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test: Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-320
    Gottfredson, Review of Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science by Byron Roth, in Political Psychology, March 1997
    Jean Phillips and Stanley Gully, "Role of Goal Orientation, Ability, Need for Achievement, and Locus of Control in the Self-Efficacy and Goal-Setting Process," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (October 1997): 792-802
    J Zeidner, CD Johnson, and D Scholarios, "Evaluating Military Selection and Classification Systems in the Multiple Job Context," Military Psychology 9 (1997): 169-186
    G Farkas, et. al., "Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European-American, African-American, and Mexican-American Workers," Social Forces 75 (1997): 913-938

Gottfredson, Linda S., and James Crouse. "Validity versus Utility of Mental Tests:  Example of the SAT." Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986):  363-378.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1986
    Richard D Arvey, "General Ability in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 415-20
    Lloyd G Humphreys, "General Ability in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 421-37
    Robert L Linn, "Comments on the g Factor in Employment Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 438-44
    Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    Robert L Gibson and Marianne H Mitchell, Introduction to Counseling and Guidance, 3rd edition, New York: Macmillan 1990
    Comila Shahani, Robert L Dipboye and Thomas M Gehrlein, "The Incremental Contribution of an Interview to College Admissions," Educational and Psychological Measurement 51 (Winter 1991): 1049-61
    Camilla Persson Benbow, "Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science of Students Between Ages 13 and 23," Journal of Educational Psychology 84 (March 1992): 51-61

    Robert M Sellers, "Racial Differences in the Predictors for Academic Achievement of Student Athletes in Division I Revenue Producing Sports," Sociology of Sport Journal 9 (March 1992): 48-59
    Glenn Elert, "The SAT: Aptitude or Demographics?," 1992
Seymour W Itzkoff, The Decline of Intelligence in America: A Strategy for National Renewal, Westport: Praeger 1994
    Edward M Levinson, Bennett A Rafoth and Lynette A Lesnak, "Relationship Between the OASIS-2 Aptitude Survey and Grades in College English and Psychology Classes," Journal of Employment Counseling 31 (June 1994): 60-68
    Alison E Barber, et. al., "The Effects of Interview Focus on Recruitment Effectiveness," Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (December 1994): 886-896
    Roger E Millsap, "Measurement Invariance, Predictive Invariance and the Duality Paradox," Multivariate Behavioral Research 30 (1995): 577-605
    Lee Ellis, "A Discipline in Peril: Sociology's Future Hinges on Curing Its Biophobia," American Sociologist 27 (Summer 1996): 21-41
    G Benshakhar, I Kiderman, and M Beller, "Comparing the Utility of Two Procedures for Admitting Students to Liberal Arts:  An Application of Decision-Theoretic Models," Educational and Psychological Measurement 56 (1996): 90-107
    Jeffrey A Lepine, et. al., "Effects of Individual Differences on the Performance of Hierarchical Decision-making Teams: Much More Than g," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (October 1997): 803-811
    Roger E Millsap, "Invariance in Measurement and Prediction: Their Relationship in the Single Factor Case," Psychological Methods 2 (1997): 248-260

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986):  379-410
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson and Crouse, "Validity versus Utility of Mental Tests," Journal of Vocational Behavior December 1986
    Richard D Arvey, "General Ability in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 415-20
    Lloyd G Humphreys, "General Ability in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 421-37
    Robert L Linn, "Comments on the g Factor in Employment Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 438-44
    Leona E Tyler, "Back to Spearman," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 445-50
    Robert A Gordon, "SES versus IQ in the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model," Issues in Contemporary Criminology 7 (1987): 30-96
    Arthur R Jensen, "Psychometric g as a Focus of Concerted Research Effort," Intelligence 11 (July-September 1987): 193-8
    Arthur R Jensen, "Further Evidence for Spearman's Hypothesis Concerning Black-White Differences on Psychometric Tests," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 512-519
    Robert A Gordon, "Thunder on the Left," Academic Questions 1 (Summer 1988): 74-92
    Rogers Elliott, "Tests, Abilities, Race and Conflict," Intelligence 12 (October-December 1988): 333-50
    J Philippe Rushton and Ian R Nicholson, "Genetic Similarity Theory, Intelligence, and Human Mate Choice," Ethology and Sociobiology 9 (1988): 45-57
    James C Sharf, "Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 235-71
    Richard T Seymour, "Why Plaintiffs' Counsel Challenge Tests, and How They Can Successfully Challenge the Theory of 'Validity Generalization'," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 331-64
    Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior December 1988
    IA Ryanen, "Commentary of a Minor Bureaucrat," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 379-87
    Robert A Gordon, Mary A Lewis and Ann M Quigley, "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 424-51

    Nancy E Betz, Louise F Fitzgerald and Raymond E Hill, "Trait-Factor Theories," in Handbook of Career Theory, edited by Michael B Arthur, et. al., 26-40, Cambridge University Press 1989
    David A Waldman and Bruce J Avolio, "Homogeneity of Test Validity," Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (April 1989): 371-4
    David L Rose, "Twenty-Five Years Later: Where Do We Stand on Equal Employment Opportunity Law Enforcement?," Vanderbilt Law Review 42 (May 1989): 1121-82
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James B Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-63
    John W Lounsbury, Warren Bobrow and J Brad Jensen, "Attitudes Toward Employment Testing," Professional Psychology 20 (October 1989): 340-9
    Richard Lynn, "A Nutrition Theory of the Secular Increases in Intelligence," British Journal of Educational Psychology 59 (November 1989): 372-77
    Richard J Herrnstein, "Still an American Dilemma," Public Interest, no. 98 (Winter 1990): 3-17
    Stephen J Ceci, Sharon L Ramey and Craig T Ramey, "Framing Intellectual Assessment in Terms of a Person-Process-Context Model," Educational Psychologist 25 (Summer-Fall 1990): 269-91
    Michael Levin, "Implications of Race and Sex Differences for Compensatory Affirmative Action and the Concept of Discrimination," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 15 (Summer 1990): 175-212

    Stephan J Motowidlo, Marvin D Dunnette and GW Carter, "An Alternative Selection Procedure," Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (December 1990): 640-7
    Herman Belz, Equality Transformed: A Quarter-Century of Affirmative Action, New Brunswick: Transaction 1991
    Rodney L Lowman, The Clinical Practice of Career Assessment, Washington: American Psychological Association 1991
    Mark Kelman, "Concepts of Discrimination in 'General Ability' Job Testing," Harvard Law Review 104 (April 1991): 1157-1246
    Gottfredson, "The Evaluation of Alternative Measures of Job Performance" (1991)
    Halford H Fairchild, "Scientific Racism: The Cloak of Objectivity," Journal of Social Issues 47 (1991): 101-15
    Stephen J Ceci, "How Much Does Schooling Influence General Intelligence and Its Cognitive Components?," Developmental Psychology 27 (September 1991): 703-722
    Gerald V Barrett and Robert L Depinet, "A Reconsideration of Testing for Competence Rather Than for Intelligence," American Psychologist 46 (October 1991): 1012-24
    David A Waldman and Bruce J Avolio, "Race Effects in Performance Evaluations: Controlling for Ability, Education and Experience," Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (December 1991): 897-901
    Richard A Epstein, Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws Cambridge: Harvard 1992
    Daniel Seligman, A Question of Intelligence: The IQ Debate in America, NY: Birch Lane 1992
    Seymour W Itzkoff, The Road to Equality: Evolution and Social Reality, Westport: Praeger 1992
    Gottfredson, "Dilemmas in Developing Diversity Programs," in Diversity in the Workplace (1992)
    Stephan J Motowidlo, et. al., "Studies of the Structured Behavioral Interview," Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (October 1992): 571-87
    Volkmar Weiss, "Major Genes of General Intelligence," Personality and Individual Differences 13 (October 1992): 1115-34
    Volkmar Weiss, "Bioscience in Totalitarian Regimes," Biologisches Zentralblatt 111 (1992): 183-186
    F Allan Hanson, Testing Testing: Social Consequences of the Examined Life, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1993
    David Theo Goldberg, Racist Culture, Oxford: Blackwell 1993
    John B Carroll, Human Cognitive Abilities, Cambridge University Press 1993
    Ming Singer, "The Application of Organizational Justice Theories to Selection Fairness Research," New Zealand Journal of Psychology 22 (June 1993): 32-45
    Stephen J Ceci, "Contextual Trends in Intellectual Development," Developmental Review 13 (December 1993): 403-35
    Stephan J Motowidlo and N Tippins, "Further Studies of the Low Fidelity Simulation in the Form of a Situational Inventory," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 66 (December 1993): 337-44
    AR Jensen, "Spearman's 'g': Links Between Psychometrics and Biology," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 702 (1993): 103-29
    Byron M Roth, Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science, New Brunswick: Transaction 1994
    Richard J Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, New York: Free Press 1994
    William H Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994
    Stephen J Ceci and Maggie Bruck, "The Bio-Ecological Theory of Intelligence: A Developmental-Contextual Perspective," in Current Topics in Human Intelligence, vol. 4, Theories of Intelligence, pp. 65-84, edited by Douglas K Detterman, Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing 1994
    George F Madaus, "Testing's Place in Society," Review of Testing Testing by FA Hanson, in American Journal of Education 102 (February 1994): 222-234
    Michael Levin, "Race, Biology and Justice" Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (July 1994): 261-85
    SG Draycott and Paul Kline, "Further Investigation into the Nature of the BIP," Personality and Individual Differences 17 (August 1994): 477-95
    Bruce J Avolio and David A Waldman, "Variations in Cognitive, Perceptual and Psychomotor Abilities Across Working Life-Span," Psychology and Aging 9 (September 1994): 430-42
    David Theo Goldberg, "Racist Exclusions," Philosophical Forum 26 (Fall 1994): 1-32
    Kevin R Murphy, "Potential Effects of Banding as a Function of Test," Personnel Psychology 47 (Autumn 1994): 477-95
    Rogers M Smith, "Unfinished Liberalism," Social Research 61 (Fall 1994): 631-70
    Paul R Sackett and Steffanie L Wilk, "Within-Group Norming and Other Forms of Score Adjustment in Preemployment Testing," American Psychologist 49 (November 1994): 929-54
    Charles A O'Reilly III and Jennifer A Chatman, "Working Smarter and Harder," Administrative Science Quarterly 39 (December 1994): 603-27
    Edward M Miller, "The Relevance of Group Membership for Personnel Selection," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 19 (Fall 1994): 323-58
    Edward M Miller, "Race, Socioeconomic Variables and Intelligence: A Review and Extension of The Bell Curve," Mankind Quarterly 35 (Spring 1995): 267-91

   J Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction 1995
    Dinesh D'Sousa, The End of Racism, New York: Free Press 1995

   Robert Sternberg et al, "Testing Common Sense," American Psychologist 50 (November 1995): 912-926
    Stephen J Ceci, In Intelligence: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development, Expanded edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1996
    Gershon Ben Shakhar, et. al., "Comparing the Utility of Two Procedures for Admitting Students to Liberal Arts," Educational and Psychological Measurement 56 (February 1996): 90-107
    Susan J Ashford and Stewart S Black, "Proactivity During Organizational Entry: The Role of Desire for Control," Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (April 1996): 199-214
    Lee Ellis, "A Discipline in Peril:  Sociology's Future Hinges on Curing Its Biophobia," American Sociologist 27 (Summer 1996): 21-41
    Robert Hooijberg and Nancy Ditomaso, "Leadership in and of Demographically Diverse Organizations," Leadership Quarterly 7 (1996): 1-19
    Chris R Brand, "The Importance of Intelligence in Western Societies," Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (October 1996): 387-404
    DB Wilkins and GM Gulati, "Why Are So Few Black Lawyers in Corporate Law Firms: An Institutional Analysis," California Law Review 84 (1996): 493-625
    MA Glynn, "Innovative Genius: A Framework for Relating Individual and Organizational Intelligence to Innovation," Academy of Management Review 21 (1996): 1081-1111
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test: Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-320
    GL Stewart and KP Carson, "Moving Beyond the Mechanistic Model: An Alternative Approach to Staffing for Contemporary Organizations," Human Resource Management Review 7 (1997): 157-184
    DC Maynard and MD Hakel, "Effects of Objective and Subjective Task Complexity on Performance," Human Performance 10 (1997): 303-330
    JH Kranzler, "Educational and Policy Issues Related to the Use and Interpretation of Intelligence Tests in the Schools," School Psychology Review 26 (1997): 150-162
    JT Super, "Intelligence Testing and Officer Certification," Journal of Criminal Justice 25 (1997): 43-47
    Robert J Sternberg, "Managerial Intelligence: Why IQ Isn't Enough," Journal of Management 23 (1997): 475-493

    Martin G Evans, "On the Asymmetry of g"

 

1987

[18 June 1987.  $73,000 Pioneer Fund grant to Johns Hopkins University "to conduct a symposium on the role of intelligence in employment, and for the purchase of a new computer system."]

Seligman, Daniel. "Brainstorms." Fortune 116 (August 3, 1987): 206, 208.

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Breaching Taboos:  A Personal Perspective."  Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, August 31, 1987.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior Dec 88
    William H Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research, Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1994
    J Philippe Rushton, "The Equalitarian Dogma Revisited," Intelligence 19 (November-December 1994): 263-80
    Rushton, "Political Correctness and the Study of Racial Differences," Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 5 (April 1996): 213-29


[1987.  At a Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology workshop at the APA meeting, Gottfredson reads "Problems of Promoting Performance in Pluralistic Society." This is cited in James C Sharf, "Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy," Journal of Vocational Behavior (December 1988): 235-71.]

"Errata."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 31 (August 1987):  109.

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence."   Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987):  510-512.
Cited in:
    Robert A Gordon, "Jensen's Contributions Concerning Test Bias," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 77-154, New York: Falmer 1987
    Halford H Fairchild, "Scientific Racism: The Cloak of Objectivity," Journal of Social Issues 47 (1991): 101-15
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    Michael Levin, "Race, Biology and Justice," Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (July 1994): 261-85
    William B Stanley and Nancy W Brickhouse, "Multiculturalism, Universalism and Science Education," Science Education 78 (July 1994): 387-98
    J Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction 1995
    Cathleen C Loving, "Multiculturalism, Universalism and Science Education: Comment," Science Education 79 (June 1995): 341-8
    Lewis R Aiken, Assessment of Intellectual Functioning, 2nd edition, New York: Plenum Press, 1996

Brody, Nathan.   "Jensen, Gottfredson, and the Black-White Difference in Intelligence Scores." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987):  507-508.

[1-2 October 1987.  Fall conference, Personnel Testing Council of Southern California, in Newport Beach.  The topic is "Fairness in Employment Testing."  The keynote address is by James C Sharf of the US Office of Personnel management and George Washington University.   He speaks on "Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy."  Other speakers include Gottfredson, Clint Bolick, Frank L Schmidt, William B Allen, and Richard T Seymour. The presented papers and commentaries by Gottfredson's husband, Robert A Gordon, and John H Bishop and others were published in "Fairness in Testing," a special issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior (December 1988) edited by Gottfredson and Scharf.]

 

1988

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Do We Need Sex-Specific Occupational Prestige Scales?"  Review of Jobs and Gender: A Study of Occupational Prestige by Christine E. Bose.  In Contemporary Psychology 33 (April 1988):  315.
    [Bose was a 1973 Johns Hopkins sociology Ph.D.]

[7 April 1988.  John Eastman, a spokesman for the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, in a statement about Ralph Scott [q.v.], referred to Gottfredson:  "When you're looking at things like, you know, you can take Linda Gottfredson's work, for example, on IQ tests.  You know, those are very sensitive subjects, and there are a lot of people that think Linda Gottfredson is a racist because she has looked at the difference in IQ test scores and tried to figure out why those differences are there, and now that's a, even to address that topic is very controversial.  And I think that's the basis of a lot of the controversy surrounding Ralph Scott."]

[24 May and 29 November 1988.   The Pioneer Fund approves a $74,000 grant to the University of Delaware "for the study of intelligence and society."]

[June 1988.  The first Pioneer Fund grant money reaches to the University of Delaware.]

[13 July 1888.   Gottfredson gives keynote address at Personnel Testing Council (PTC) of Metropolitan Washington Conference on Future Directions in Employment Testing.]

[10 August 1988.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness:  A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities."]

[October 1988.  The University of Delaware's Promotion and Tenure Committee promotes Linda Gottfredson to Associate Professor with tenure.]

[2 November 1988.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives Gottfredson and Sharf, "Forward:  Fairness in Employment Testing."]

Gottfredson, Linda S., and James C. Sharf.  "Forward:  Fairness in Employment Testing."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988):  225-230.
   
Cited in:
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James B Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-23
    Melany E Baehr and Joseph A Orban, "The Role of Intellectual Abilities and Personality Characteristics in Determining Success in Higher-Level Positions," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (December 1989): 270-87
    Herman Belz, Equality Transformed: A Quarter-Century of Affirmative Action, New Brunswick: Transaction 1991
    Gail Hackett, Robert W Lent and Jeffrey H Greenhaus, "Advances in Vocational Theory and Research," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (February 1991): 3-38
    Fred H Borgen, "Megatrends and Milestones in Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (December 1991): 263-90
    David Lubinski and René V Dawis, "Aptitudes, Skills and Proficiencies," in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd edition, vol. 3, edited by Marvin D Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough, 1-59, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1992
    Frank L Schmidt, Deniz S Ones and John E Hunter, "Personnel Selection," Annual Review of Psychology 43 (1992): 627-70
    Raymond A Katzell and James T Austin, "From Then to Now: The Development of Industrial-Organizational Psychology in the United States," Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (December 1992): 803-35
    Ming Singer, "The Application of Organizational Justice Theories to Selection Fairness Research," New Zealand Journal of Psychology 22 (June 93): 32-45
    Nancy E Betz and Louise F Fitzgerald, "Individuality and Diversity," Annual Review of Psychology 44 (1993): 343-81
    MS Singer, "Mental Framing by Consequence Thinking," Journal of Economic Psychology 15 (March 1994): 149-72
    Gottfredson, "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud," Society March-April 94
    David Lubinski and Camilla Persson Benbow, "The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth: The First Three Decades of a Planned 50-Year Study of Intellectual Talent," in Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent, edited by Rena F Subotnik and Karen D Arnold, pp. 255-281, Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing 1994
    Farrell Bloch, Antidiscrimination Law and Minority Employment: Recruitment Practices and Regulatory Constraints, University of Chicago Press 1994
    Edward M Miller, "The Relevance of Group Membership for Personnel Selection," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 19 (Fall 1994): 323-358
    Edward M Miller, "Race, Socioeconomic Variables and Intelligence: A Review and Extension of The Bell Curve," Mankind Quarterly 35 (Spring 1995): 267-91
    Roger Pilon, "Discrimination, Affirmative Action and Freedom," American University Law Review 45 (February 1996): 775-90
    Gottfredson, "Confronting the New Particularism in Academe," Journal of Management Inquiry 5 (1996): 319-325

    LS Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence, January-February 1997
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201

    G Farkas, et. al., "Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European-American, African-American, and Mexican-American Workers," Social Forces 75 (1997): 913-938

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Reconsidering Fairness:  A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities."  Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319.
   
Cited in:
    James C Sharf, "Litigating Personnel Measurement Policy," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 235-71
    Clint Bolick, "Legal and Policy Aspects of Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 320-30
    Richard T Seymour, "Why Plaintiffs Challenge Tests, and How They Can Successfully Challenge the Theory of 'Validity Generalization'," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 331-64
    IA Ryanen, "Commentary of a Minor Bureaucrat," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 379-87
    V Jon Bentz, "Comments on Papers Concerning Fairness in Employment Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 388-97
    Henry M Levin, "Issues of Agreement and Contention in Employment Testing," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 398-403
    John H Bishop, "Employment Testing and Incentives to Learn," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 404-23
    Robert A Gordon, Mary A Lewis and Ann M Quigley, "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 424-51

    Barry L Goldstein and Patrick O Patterson, "Turning Back the Title VII Clock," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 452-62
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James B Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-23
    Raymond L Hogler and Jeanette N Cleveland, "Wards Cove and the Theory of Disparate Impact: From Bad Law to Worse Policy," Labor Law Journal 41 (March 1990): 138-50
    Stephan J Motowidlo, MD Dunnette and GW Carter, "An Alternative Selection Procedure," Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (December 1990): 640-7
    Herman Belz, Equality Transformed: A Quarter-Century of Affirmative Action, New Brunswick: Transaction 1991
    Manuel London and Martin M Greller, "Demographic Trends and Vocational Behavior," Journal of Vocational Behavior 38 (April 1991): 125-64
    Arthur R Jensen, "Spearman's g and the Problem of Educational Equality," Oxford Review of Education 17 (1991): 169-87

    David Lubinski and René V Dawis, "Aptitudes, Skills and Proficiencies" in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd edition, vol. 3, edited by Marvin D Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough, 1-59, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1992
    Lawrence M Rudner, "Preemployment Testing and Employee Productivity" Public Personnel Management 21 (Summer 1992): 133-50
    Arthur R Jensen, "Mental Ability: Critical Thresholds and Social Policy," Journal of of Social, Political and Economic Studies 17 (Summer 1992): 171-82
    Janet E Helms, "Why Is There No Study of Cultural Equivalence in Standardized Cognitive Ability Testing?," American Psychologist 47 (September 1992): 1083-1101
    Stephan J Motowidlo, et. al., "Studies of the Structured Behavioral Interview," Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (October 1992): 571-87
    F Allan Hanson, Testing Testing: Social Consequences of the Examined Life, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1993
    Neal Schmitt, Keith Hattrup and Ronald S Landis, "Item Bias Indices Based on Total Test Score and Job Performance Estimates of Ability," Personnel Psychology 46 (Autumn 1993): 593-611

    Stephan J Motowidlo and Nancy Tippins, "Further Studies of the Low Fidelity Simulation in the Form of a Situational Inventory,"  Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 66 (December 1993): 337-44
    George F Madaus, "Testing's Place in Society," Review of Testing Testing by FA Hanson, in American Journal of Education 102 (February 2994): 222-34
    Paul R Sackett and Steffanie L Wilk, "Within-Group Norming and Other Forms of Score Adjustment in Preemployment Testing," American Psychologist 49 (November 1994): 929-54
    Gottfredson, "The Science and Politics of Race-Norming," American Psychologist, November 1994
    Edward M Miller, "The Relevance of Group Membership for Personnel Selection," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 19 (Fall 1994): 323-58
    Kevin R Murphy, "Potential Effects of Banding as a Function of Test Reliability," Personnel Psychology 47 (Autumn 94): 477-95
    Kevin R Murphy, K Osten and B Myors, "Modeling the Effects of Banding in Personnel Selection," Personnel Psychology 48 (Spring 1995): 61-84

    Lino Graglia, "Hopwood v. Texas: Racial Preferences in Higher Education Upheld and Endorsed," Journal of Legal Education 45 (March 1995): 79-93
    Edward M Miller, "Race, Socioeconomic Variables and Intelligence: A Review and Extension of The Bell Curve," Mankind Quarterly 35 (Spring 95): 267-91
    Dinesh D'Sousa, The End of Racism, New York: Free Press 1995
    Roger E Millsap, "Measurement Invariance, Predictive Invariance and the Duality Paradox," Multivariate Behavioral Research 30 (1995): 577-605
    Bob Zelnick, Backfire: A Reporter's Look at Affirmative Action, Washington: Regnery 1996
    Raymond Wolters, Right Turn: William Bradford Reynolds, the Reagan Administration and Black Civil Rights, New Brunswick: Transaction 1996
    Dalmas A Taylor, "A Reconceptualization of Qualified: The Ultimate Dilemma," Basic and Applied Social Psychology 18 (March 1996): 15-30
    Roger E Millsap, "An Investigation of Spearman's Hypothesis and the Failure to Understand Factor Analysis," Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 16 (1997): 750-757

    Keith Hattrup, Joanna Rock and Christine Scalia, "The Effects of Varying Conceptualizations of Job Performance on Adverse Impact, Minority Hiring, and Predicted Performance," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (October 1997): 656-664
    Roger E Millsap, "Invariance in Measurement and Prediction: Their Relationship in the Single Factor Case," Psychological Methods 2 (1997): 248-260
    CC Hoffman and GC Thorton, "Examining Selection Utility Where Competing Predictors Differ in Adverse Impact," Personnel Psychology 50 (1997): 455-470


[Fall 1988.  College of Education Colloquium at the University of Delaware on the subject, "Ability Differences in a Democracy."  Gottfredson reads "Ability Differences in a Democracy: Challenge to Education."  Arthur Jensen reads a version of "Understanding 'g' in Terms of Information."  See Seymour Itzkoff, The Road to Equality (Westport: Praeger 1992), p. 166, and Angela Browne-Miller (UC Berkeley), Intelligence Policy: Its Impact on College Admissions and Other Social Policies (NY: Plenum 1995), p 225n13.  A book to be edited by Gottfredson and published by Erlbaum, with the title Ability Differences: A Challenge to American Education, was planned but never appeared.]

Blits, Jan H., and Linda S. Gottfredson, "Race-Norming: Equality at Last or Lasting Equality?" Unpublished manuscript, 1988.
   [Jan Blits was an associate professor of educational studies and political science at the University of Delaware. His Ph.D. was from the New School for Social Research (1975).  His dissertation was entitled All the Sway of Earth: The Politics of Shakespeare's 'Julius Caesar'.  He had published The End of the Ancient Republic: Essays on Julius Caesar (Durham: Carolina Academic Press 1982) and The American University: Problems, Prospects and Trends (Buffalo: Prometheus 1985).   From 1985 to 1988 he was a member of the Delaware Advisory Committee to the US Commission on Civil Rights.  During 1990 he held an appointment as Secretary of the Navy Distinguished Fellow in the English Department at the US Naval Academy.]
Cited in:
Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988

 

1989

[22 May 89.  The National Academy of Sciences panel releases a report on race norming, Fairness in Employment Testing: Validity Generalization, Minority Issues, and the General Aptitude Test Battery.]

"Research Council Endorses Skewing of Aptitude Scores." Wall Street Journal (May 24, 1989),

Holden, Constance.   "Academy Panel Joins the Fray Over Job Testing." Science 244 (June 2, 1989):  1036-1037.

[6 June 1989.  The Pioneer Fund approves $100,000 grant to the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware "for distribution of scientific publications and the holding of a conference on ability differences and educational policy."]

Rudert, Eileen E.   "Background Paper for Consultation on the Validity of Testing in Education and Employment."  Prepared for hearing held by U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 16 June 1989.
    [Relies on the issues of Journal of Vocational Behavior edited by Gottfredson.  Rudert was a collaborator with and former student of Robert A Gordon at Johns Hopkins.]

Hartigan, John, and Alexandra Wigdor.  "Fairness in Employment Testing."  Letter.  Science 245 (July 7, 1989):  14.
    [This is followed by a response by Constance Holden.]

Humphreys, Lloyd.   "Fairness in Employment Testing."  Letter. Science 245 (July 7, 1989):  14.

Blits, Jan H.   "Hobbesian Fear."  Political Theory 17 (August 1989):   417-31.

Blits, Jan H.  "Self-Knowledge and the Modern Mode of Learning."  Educational Theory 39 (Fall 1989):  293-99.

[31 October 1989.  Memorandum from William Frawley, a linguistics professor at the University of Delaware, to EA Trabant, the University's president.   He argues that the university shouldn't accept money from the Pioneer Fund.  This begins a long controversy, during which Gottfredson is advised by the Center for Individual Rights (also a Pioneer Fund grantee).]

[November 1989.  The University of Delaware's Promotion and Tenure Committee denies Gottfredson promotion to full professor, citing "flawed" and "unscholarly" research.]

"Dirty Money."  The Review (November 10, 1989), 6.

[12 November 1989.   Roger Pearson letter to Harry F Weyher.]

[14 November 1989.   Gottfredson memorandum to EA Trabant, the President of the University of Delaware.]

Anderson, Jack, and Dale Van Atta.  "Pioneer Fund's Controversial Projects." Washington Post (November 16, 1989), C22.

McCormick, Andy.  "UD Probe Grant Under Bias Charged."  The Wilmington News Journal (November 17, 1989),

[22 November 1989.   Gottfredson memo to Ron Whittington, Assistant to the President of the University of Delaware.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Fund Misrepresented."  Letter. The Review (Newark, Delaware), December 15, 1989, pp. 6-7.

Gordon, Robert A., Seymour W. Itzkoff, and Nancy L. Segal.  "Fund Not Anti-Semitic."  Letter. The Review (Newark, Delaware), December 15, 1989, p. 7.

"Group's Grants Assailed at U of Del."  Philadelphia Inquirer (December 21, 1989), 1B.


1990

Grassmuck, Karen.   "Grants From a Fund Accused of Racism Roil U. of Delaware."  Chronicle of Higher Education (January 17, 1990):  A31-A32.

McCormick, Andy.  "UD is Urged to Return Funds Used for Racial Research."  Wilmington News Journal (February 6, 1990)

"Pioneer Fund:   University Has the Strength to Survive Bad Idea."  Wilmington News Journal (February 8, 1990)

Blits, Jan H., and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "Employment Testing and Job Performance."  The Public Interest, no. 98 (Winter 1990):  18-25.
   [This is one of three articles on the theme "Social Science and Black/White." The others are Richard J Herrnstein's "Still an American Dilemma" and Byron M Roth's "Social Psychology's 'Racism'."]
   
Cited in:
    Mark Kelman, "Concepts of Discrimination in 'General Ability' Job Testing," Harvard Law Review 104 (April 1991): 1158-1246
    Richard A Epstein, Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws, Cambridge: Harvard 1992
    Frank L Schmidt, Deniz S Ones and John E Hunter, "Personnel Selection," Annual Review of Psychology 43 (1992): 627-70
    Reginald C Govan, "Framing the Issues and Acquiring Codes: An Overview of the Legislative Sojourn of the Civil Rights Act of 1991," DePaul Law Review 41 (Summer 1992): 1057-1083
    Robert Belton, "The Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Future of Affirmative Action: A Preliminary Assessment," DePaul Law Review 41 (Summer 1992): 1085-1116
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    Byron M Roth, Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science, New Brunswick: Transaction 1994
    John Edwards, "Group Rights v. Individual Rights: The Case of Race-Conscious Policies," Journal of Social Policy 23 (January 1994): 55-70

   Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M Stratton, The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy, Washington: Regnery 1995
    John Edwards, When Race Counts: The Morality of Racial Preference in Britain and America, London: Routledge 1995

   
Raymond Wolters, Right Turn: William Bradford Reynolds, the Reagan Administration and Black Civil Rights, New Brunswick: Transaction 1996

Blits, Jan H., and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "Equality or Lasting Inequality?"  Society 27 (March-April 1990):  4-11.
    [This is the first part of a five-article section on race norming.   The other articles are:
                    Wigdor and Hartigan, "The Case for Fairness"
                    Mary L Tenopyr, "Fairness in Employment Testing"
                    Mark Kelman, "The Problem of False Negatives"
                    O Peter Sherwood, "Court Innocence"  (pp. 24-25)]
   
Cited in:
    Mark Kelman, "Concepts of Discrimination in 'General Ability' Job Testing," Harvard Law Review 104 (April 91): 1158-1246
    Gottfredson, "Dilemmas in Developing Diversity Programs," in Diversity in the Workplace 1992
    Frank L Schmidt, Deniz S Ones and John E Hunter, "Personnel Selection," Annual Review of Psychology 43 (1992): 627-70
    Emily Prescott, "The General Aptitude Test Battery and the Debate Over Race Norming, Racial Preferences and Affirmative Action," Hastings Constitutional Law Quarter;y 20 (Summer 1993): 877-903
    Gottfredson, "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud," Society March-April 1994

    David C Paris, "Schools, Scapegoats and Skills: Educational Reform and the Economy," Policy Studies Journal 22 (Spring 1994): 10-24
    Craig Haney and Aida Hurtado, "The Jurisprudence of Race and Meritocracy: Standardized Testing and Race-Neutral Racism in the Workplace," Law and Human Behavior 18 (June 1994): 223-48
    Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M Stratton, The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy, Washington: Regnery 1995
    John Edwards, When Race Counts: The Morality of Racial Preference in Britain and America,London: Routledge 1995
    Erich C Saphir, "Equality of Opportunity or Reverse Discrimination?," International Issues 39 (April 1996)

Benson, Philip G.  Review of Fairness in Employment Testing (Special Issue of Journal of Vocational Behavior), edited by Linda S Gottfredson and James C Scharf.  In Personnel Psychology 43 (Spring 1990):  138-142.

Kelsey, Tim, and Trevor Rowe.   "Academics 'Were Funded By Racist American Trust'."  Independent on Sunday (March 4, 1990), 4.
    [The University of Delaware "is investigating Pioneer Fund grants for allegedly racist research undertaken by a contributor to the magazine [Mankind Quarterly], Linda Gottfredson, an associate professor of educational studies.   The National Association for the Advancement of White People magazine, edited by a former Ku Klux Klan leader, David Duke, reported:  'Her voluminous research shows that negroes have a superior education [sic] ... often rack up job-performance records as poor as their poorly-educated and poorly-trained counterparts'."  Gottfredson did not in fact contribute to Mankind Quarterly.]

Weyher, Harry F.  Memorandum to University of Delaware officials.  March 16, 1990.

Weyher, Harry F.   "Amending the Record on the Pioneer Fund."  Chronicle of Higher Education (March 21, 1990).

[30 March 1990.  Letter from Robert A Gordon to University of Delaware administrators, cited in Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) p. 113n34, and in Roger Pearson, Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe (Washington, DC:  Scott-Townsend, 1991), pp. 13-14.  Gordon writes:   "... it has been difficult for Federal granting agencies, which depend on Congress for their budget allocations, to provide for research in this hotly contested area for some time.  Accordingly private sources play a disproportionately large role, and are essential for maintaining the debate that is so essential to healthy science...having largely succeeded in interdicting Federal support, activists have been after one of the last sources of support that courageously operates at all in this intellectually taboo arena ..."]

Corr, Eva.  "Pioneer Fund Dirty."  Letter.  The Review (Newark, Delaware), April 6, 1990.

[27 April 1990.  Thomas B Edsall (Washington Post) interviews Gottfredson.  See his Chain Reaction (1991).]

[30 April 1990.  The University of Delaware announces it will no longer accept Pioneer Fund money.]

Nardone, Mark.  "UD Rejects Future Pioneer Funds."  The Review (Newark, Delaware), May 1, 1990, pp. 1, 8.

[c. May 1990.   "Within days of being denied promotion and losing her grant money last year, Linda Gottfredson split with her husband of ten years, a professor at Johns Hopkins University."  See Washington Times, July 2, 1991.]

Holland, Robert G.  In Richmond Times-Dispatch (May 30, 1990):
    [A critique of race norming, of which Holland quickly becomes the leading journalistic critic.  Seligman (1992) writes (at page 199):  "In the spring of 1990, an anonymous government official mailed off the racial conversion tables to Robert Holland, associate editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, and he hastened to publish examples of how they worked."]

"Untruth in Testing."  Editorial.  Richmond Times-Dispatch (June 1, 1990). A10.

Holland, Robert.  "Racially Rigged Job Test Scores."  Washington Times (June 7, 1990): F1, F4.
    [Reprinted from the Richmond Times-Dispatch.]

[2 July 1990. Letter from Andrew B. Kirkpatrick, Jr. (chairman of the University of  Delaware Board of Trustees) to Harry F Weyher (Pioneer Fund).   He says that the University wants to "enhance the racial and cultural diversity of faculty, staff, and students" and that it is "hampered" in pursuing this goal by the acceptance of Pioneer Fund grants.  The letter is cited in Daniel Seligman, A Question of Intelligence (1992), p. 193.]

Eysenck, Hans J., Linda Gottfredson, Richard Lynn, Roger Pearson, J. Philippe Rushton, and Harry F. Weyher.  "Scientists and Fund Reply to Article."  Letter.  London Independent on Sunday (July 8, 1990):  16.

[10 July 1990.  US Secretary of Labor Elizabeth Dole begins action to suspend use of the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB).]

[24 July 1990.  The US Department of Labor publishes official notice in the Federal Register of intent to suspend its race-normed GATB within 90 days for a two year retooling.]

Williams, Walter E.  "Official Racism Is Still Racism."  New York City Paper (July 24, 1990),

Gottfredson, Linda.  "Hiring Quotas Exist, But Employers Won't Tell."  Letter.  New York Times (August 1, 1990),
   
Cited in:
    Jared Taylor, Paved with Good Intentions, New York: Carroll and Graf 1992
    Emily Prescott, "The General Aptitude Test Battery and the Debate Over Race Norming, Racial Preferences and Affirmative Action," Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 20 (Summer 1993): 877-903


"End of the Road Near for Job Aptitude Test."  Omaha Sunday World-Herald (August 5, 1990)


Holland, Robert G.  "Civil Wrongs:  Big Brother's Test Scores."  National Review 42 (September 3, 1990): 35-36.
    [Cites Gottfredson on race norming.]

Blits, Jan.  "Equality of Opportunity and the Problem of Nature." Educational Theory 40 (Summer 1990):  309-319.

Blits, Jan, and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "Race-Norming and Testing:  Equality or Lasting Inequality?"  Current, no. 325 (September 1990):  5-11.
    [Reprinted from Society, March-April 1990.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Fairness or Bias in Job Testing."  Letter.  Issues in Science and Technology 7 (Fall 1990):  27-28.
   
Cited in:
    Alexandra K Wigdor, "Fairness or Bias in Job Testing: Reply," Issues in Science and Technology 7 (Fall 1990): 28


Gottfredson, Linda S.  "When Job-Testing 'Fairness' Is Nothing But a Quota."  Wall Street Journal (December 6, 1990), A18.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "The Science and Politics of Race-Norming," American Psychologist, 1994
    Dinesh D'Sousa, The End of Racism, New York: Free Press 1995
    Paul S Greenlaw and Sanne S Jensen, "Race-Norming and the Civil Rights Act of 1991," Public Personnel Management 25 (Spring 1996): 13-24
    Erich C Saphir, "Equality of Opportunity or Reverse Discrimination?," International Issues 39 (April 1996)

Williams, Dick.   "Helms's 'Race-Baiting' Ad May Have a Point After All."  Atlanta Journal (December 15, 1990), A23.
   [Williams refers to Gottfredson's Wall Street Journal article, concluding that her arguments may justify Sen. Jesse Helms' notorious anti-affirmative action campaign ads.]

Kemp, Evan J., Jr.  "'Race-Norming' Is Against Our Policy."  Letter. Wall Street Journal (December 20, 1990), A17.
   [Kemp disputes the claims made in Gottfredson's op-ed article.]

 

1991

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "The Evaluation of Alternative Measures of Job Performance."  In Performance Assessment for the Workplace, vol. 2, Technical Issues, edited by Alexandra K. Wigdor and Bert F. Green, Jr., 75-126.  Washington, DC:  National Academy Press, 1991.
    [This is the final report of the National Research Council's Committee on the Performance of Military Personnel.]
   
Cited in:
    Richard K. Wagner, "Intelligence, Training, and Employment," American Psychologist 52 (October 1997): 1059-1069

Holland, Robert G.   "Testscam."  Reason (January 1991):  48.

[8 March 1991.  Robert G Holland files a Freedom of Information Act request to examine the public comments on proposed change in the GATB.]

Short, Thomas.  "Big Brother in Delaware."  National Review 43 (March 18, 1991):  32.
   
Cited in:
    Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M Stratton, The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy, Washington: Regnery 1995

[19 March 1991.  House Judiciary Committee markup of H.R. 1 (the Civil Rights Act of 1991).  Rep. Henry Hyde introduces an amendment banning race-norming.   This was the first time the issue, which had been developing for several years, was addressed in statutory  language.  Gottfredson had emerged by this time as its most prominent critic.
    See the legislative history by Reginald C. Govan, Counsel to House Education and Labor Committee, in "Framing the Issues and Acquiring Codes:  An Overview of the Legislative Sojourn of the Civil Rights Act of 1991," DePaul Law Review 41 (Summer 1992) at page 1077: "The one new issue that Congress confronted in 1991 was ... race norming. It was a politically charged, divisive issue that could have killed the proposed bill ... Many proponents of the 1990 bill and of House Bill 1 concluded that within-group norming was racial or ethnic or gender queuing and one of the clearest examples imaginable of quotas."  At the time Hyde introduced the amendment, "the issue had not been explored at hearings on the bill."  The amendment was rejected in a straight party-line vote. "Consequently, Republicans thought that the Democrats were prepared to go to the floor of the House and defend within-group norming.  Opponents of the bill would have a field day.  Instead, immediately following that vote, Democrats decided just the opposite - that they were going to make within-group norming illegal ... As a result, within-group norming did not become the political destructive issue that it could have become."  Govan said 'immediately,' but the issued roiled through the rest of the spring.]

[20-23 March 1991.   "A poll by Market Opinion Research, a GOP polling firm, ... found that by a 77 to 16 percent margin voters disapproved of race-norming, even when told supporters justify the system as necessary to compensate for biased tests ..."  Peter A Brown, "Normin' Stormin,'" New Republic (29 April 1991).]

Henry, William A., III.   "Upside Down in the Groves of Academe."  Time 137 (April 1, 1991):  66-69.
    ["The University of Delaware barred Linda Gottfredson from accepting money for her educational research because it had financed unrelated studies into possible hereditary differences in intelligence among the races. The review committee judged that by underwriting such studies, Pioneer had exhibited 'a pattern of activities incompatible with the university's mission'."  Cited in William H. Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research (Urbana:  University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 347n62.]

"Race-Norming."  Editorial.  Wall Street Journal (April 8, 1991), A18.

Brown, Peter A.   "Normin' Stormin'." New Republic (April 29, 1991):  12-14.

Koch, Ed.  "Rights Bill Gets It All Wrong."  New York Post (April 12, 1991), 2.

Seligman, Daniel.  "Is America Smart Enough?"  National Review 43 (April 15, 1991):  24-31.
    [At page 29:  "There is massive evidence ... that ... most occupations are filled within identifiable IQ ranges, and indicating that in most occupations, the best predictor of performance is .. intelligence ... For generating some of these studies and pointing me to others, I am indebted to Robert A. Gordon ... and Linda S. Gottfredson ..., who together run the Project for the Study of Intelligence and Society.  The studies relating particular occupations to specific IQ ranges were developed principally by Professor Gottfredson... "]

[c. 19 April 1991.   U.S. Employment Service director Robert A Schaerfl denies Robert Holland's March 8th Freedom of Information Act request.]

Noah, Timothy.  "Job Tests Scored on Racial Curve Stir Controversy."  Wall Street Journal (April 26, 1991), B1.

Carney, Dan.  "GOP Sees Votes in New Issue."  Houston Post (April 27, 1991), A1.

Kornhauser, Anne.  "The Right Versus the Correct: Free-Market Firm Sees Campuses as Fertile Battleground."  Legal Times 13 (August 29, 1991): 1, 14-15.
    [At page 14, Kornhauser states that the Center for Individual Rights is "trying to restore foundation funding for the research of a University of Delaware professor on the differences in ability between racial groups."]

[8 May 1991.  Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League writes President Bush urging him to denounce the Department of Labor's promotion of race-norming.]

"Civil Rights Bill Pending:  Hyde Fails to Ban 'Race Norming'."  Human Events 51 (May 11, 1991):  6.

Taylor, Stuart.  "Rigging Test Scores by Race."  Legal Times (May 13, 1991):  17.

Holmes, Steven A.  "Adjusting of Test Scores Inflames Rights Debate."  New York Times (May 17, 1991), A12.

Kenworthy, Tom, and Gary Lee.  "Civil Rights Compromise Is Readied."  Washington Post (May 17, 1991), A1, A17.
    [House Democratic leaders agreed to the outlines of a compromise civil rights bill.  "It will ... restrict 'race-norming' in employment testing, a procedure under which applicants are judged only against those of their own racial group."]

Evans, Rowland, and Robert Novak.  "Brooks to the Rescue."  Washington Post (May 17, 1991), A25.
   [The compromise civil rights bill "will involve the suddenly heated issue of 'race-norming' - an old and insidious practice of segregating test scores by racial group in order to both facilitate and conceal quotas.  Opponents of HR1 believe it will breed epidemic race-norming.  Race-norming now has been taken on by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) ... on [May 8th] Foxman ... wrote Bush, urging him to denounce longtime Labor Department promotion of the practice.  In effect, the ADL was running to get to the right of the administration on this aspect of the quota issue.   But if HR1 encourages quotas ... it surely encourages race-norming.  The compromise desperately sought by Democratic leaders would have to eliminate both quotas and race-norming in order to buy peace ..."]

Biskupic, Joan.  "Son of 'Quotas'."  Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 49 (May 18, 1991):   1287.

Duke, Lynne.  "Racial Politics Envelop Job-Test Scores."  Washington Post (May 18, 1991), A1, A11.

Kilborn, Peter T.  "'Race Norming' Test Becomes a Fiery Issue."  New York Times (May 19, 1991), 5.

[21 May 1991.  Rep. Henry Hyde letter to members of the House on the subject of race norming.  House Democrats propose a new compromise civil rights bill which includes a ban on race-norming.]

Frisby, Michael K.  "House Vote on Bias Bill Faces Delay."  Boston Globe (May 21, 1991), 3.

LaFraniere, Sharon, and Tom Kenworthy.  "Democrats Outline Revised Rights Bill."  Washington Post (May 22, 1991), A5.
    [The new House bill would "prohibit employers from using separate scoring systems in testing white and minority applicants and workers."]

"Unfairly Adjusting an Unfair Test."  Editorial. Washington Post (May 22, 1991), A20.

Bronner, Ethan.  "Civil Rights Bill May Forbid Tests Bias Favoring Minorities."  Boston Globe (May 22, 1991)

Will, George F.  "Liberalism's Apartheid of 'Compassion'." Washington Post (May 23, 1991), A23.

Curley. Tom.  "UD Prof Draws Fire From Minorities:  Opposition to 'Race-Norming' Has Gottfredson Tangled in Controversy."  The News Journal (Wilmington), (May 26, 1991),

Fried, Charles.  "Quotas:  The Smoking-Gun."  Washington Post (May 29, 1991), A18.

Bolick, Clint.  "'Race Norming' - Discriminatory Hiring."  Letter.  Washington Post (May 30, 1991), A18.

"Race-Norming:  Necessary, for Now."  Editorial. New York Times (May 30, 1991),

[30 May 1991.  Date on Blits-Gottfredson letter to the New York Times.]

King, Colbert I.  "Buying Into White Supremacy."  Washington Post (May 31, 1991), A19.

Hacker, Holly.  "Adjusted Federal Employment Tests Stir Controversy." Los Angeles Times (May 31, 1991),

Committee on Faculty Welfare and Privileges.  "In the Matter of: Dr. Jan Blits vs Dr. Ralph Ferretti et al."   University Faculty Senate, University of Delaware. May 31, 1991.

Committee on Faculty Welfare and Privileges.  "In the Matter of: Dr. Linda Gottfredson vs Dr. Ralph Ferretti et al."  University Faculty Senate, University of Delaware. May 31, 1991.

"Major Differences on Civil Rights." New York Times (June 3, 1991), A14.

Barrett, Laurence.  "Cheating on Test."  Time (June 3, 1991):  47.

[5 June 1991.  The House passes the civil rights bill.  It includes a provision banning race-norming.]

Clymer, Adam.  "Rights Bill Passes in House But Vote Is Not Veto-Proof."  New York Times (June 6, 1991), A1, B10.
    ["The bill would prohibit 'race-norming,' the practice of adjusting employment test scores by race so that, for example, some blacks with fewer correct answers score higher than some whites with more correct answers.  House Republicans said the language of this provision was inadequate and also complained that a ban on biased tests that went with it was poorly drawn."]

Blits, Jan H., and Linda S. Gottfredson.  "Test Profits Blacks."  Letter. New York Times (June 11, 1991), A22.

"Delaware U. Goes PC."  Editorial. Washington Times (June 14, 1991), F2.

[June 1991.  University of Delaware acting provost Richard B Murray rejects the faculty committee's finding that Gottfredson and Blits' rights were violated.]

[18 June 1991.  After two appeals, Robert A Schaerfl, the Director of the US Employment Service, reverses his April rejection of Robert G Holland's Freedom of Information Act request for copies of public comments on the Department of Labor's proposed suspension of the GATB.  Copies were finally delivered to Holland in October 1991.]

"Delaware Strikes Again."  Editorial.  Washington Times (June 24, 1991), D2.

Colp, Judith.  "Stormin' the Norm."  Washington Times (July 3, 1991), E1-E2.

Committee on Faculty Welfare and Privileges.  "In the Matter of Dr. Linda Gottfredson vs Dr. Frank Scarpitti and Others."  University Faculty Senate, University of Delaware. July 12, 1991.

Colp, Judith.  "Two Scholars Settle a Score."  Insight 7 (July 22, 1991):  34-36.

Holland, Robert.  "Race Norming by Any Other Name." National Review (July 29, 1991):  36

Blits, Jan H.  "The Silenced Partner:  Linda Gottfredson and the University of Delaware."  Academic Questions 4 (Summer 1991):  41-47.
   
Cited in:
    Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M Stratton, The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy, Washington DC: Regnery 1995
    Neil Hamilton, Zealotry and Academic Freedom:  A Legal and Historical Perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction 1995

[5 August 1991.   Arbitrator's report (S. Strongin, Arb.), "In the matter of the arbitration between the University of Delaware Chapter of the American Association of University Professors and the University of Delaware," American Arbitration Association, Case No. 14 390 1935 90 A.  The outside arbitrator rules that the University must rescind its ban on Pioneer Fund money.]

"Free the Delaware Two."  Editorial. Washington Times (August 23, 1991), F2.

Curley, Tom.  "University Panel Suspends Activities:  'Public Game Playing' in Pioneer Fund Dispute Cited."  Wilmington News Journal (August 24, 1991), A1, A4.

[27 August 1991.  The Pioneer Fund approves an $8,000 grant to University of Delaware (Gottfredson) "for the study of the politicization of science in general and particularly the study of race."]

Nicklin, Julie L.  "Arbitrator Tells U. of Delaware to Allow Grant Requests to 'Racist' Fund."  Chronicle of Higher Education 38 (September 4, 1991), A41, A44.

Gross, Barry R.  "Times Strikes a Blow for Real Academic Freedom."  Letter.  Washington Times (September 5, 1991), G2.

[6 September 1991.  The University of Delaware's newspaper, The Review, publishes a chronology of the Gottfredson controversy.]

[23 September 1991.  The Pioneer Fund grants $80,000 to the University of Delaware (Gottfredson) for "research and dissemination activities of the Project for the Study of Intelligence and Society, covering 21 months from September 1, 1991 to May 31, 1993."]

"First Amendment Focus of 'Congress'."  UpDate 11 (October 17, 1991):  6.
   ["On Friday, Oct. 25, the First Amendment Congress of Delaware will meet at Wilmington College to focus on the most heated issues surrounding the First Amendment ... A panel dealing with academic freedom and 'political correctness' will be moderated by Linda Gottfredson, professor, and Jan Blits, associate professor, both in educational studies, and Larry Nees, a professor of art history."]

[24 October 1991.  Floor debate in the US Senate on the Civil Rights Act of 1991.  Sen. Danforth discusses the ban on race-norming.  See Robert Belton, "The Unfinished Agenda of the Civil Rights Act of 1991," Rutgers Law Review 45 (Summer 1993) at page 940.]

Belsie, Laurent.  "Bush and Senate Settle Differences on Civil Rights."  Christian Science Monitor (October 28, 1991),

Gordon, Robert A.  "University Violated Academic Principles in Pioneer Fund Ban."  Letter.  The Review (October 29, 1991), 6.

[30 October 1991.  Sen. Danforth introduces an interpretive memorandum on the Civil Rights Act of 1991:   "...section 106 is applicable only to those tests that are 'employment-related' and has no applicability in disparate impact cases that challenge whether, in the first instance, a test is employment related."  Robert Belton, "The Unfinished Agenda of the Civil Rights Act of 1991," Rutgers Law Review 45 (Summer 1993) at page 940, citing Congressional Record 137 (October 30, 1991): S15484.]

Blits, Jan.  "The Depersonalized Self: Rousseau's Emile."  Educational Theory 41 (Fall 1991):  397-406.

Akerman, Robert.  "Look at Civil Rights Bill in Broader Perspective."  Atlanta Journal (November 4, 1991), A8.

[21 November 1991.  President Bush signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991.]

LaFraniere, Sharon.  "Labor Department to Revamp Aptitude Test: Revisions Considered as Officials End 'Race-Norming' of Scores." Washington Post (December 14, 1991), A13.

Holmes, Steven A.  "State Job Agencies May Not Give Edge to Minority Testees."  New York Times (December 14, 1991),

[18 December 1991.  Notice in the Federal Register that the Department of Labor has stopped race-norming in compliance with Section 106 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991.]

Edsall, Thomas Byrne, with Mary D. Edsall.  Chain Reaction:  The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 1991.
    [At page 252:  "In the years since Griggs, a substantial assault has been mounted ... challenging the legitimacy of the primacy granted to the goal of racial equity ... The hiring practices developed under Griggs, this argument goes, ignores 'the whole issue of individual rights and individual fairness ... there is no provision for constitutional rights, the civil rights of whites' - an argument formulated in this instance by Linda S. Gottfredson of the University of Delaware, a frequently published critic of affirmative action, of race-norming, and of other practices evolving out of court and regulatory rulings."  Edsall cites his 27 April 90 interview with Gottfredson and notes that she "has written in Public Interest, Society, and in numerous journals on the subject of ability testing."]

Pearson, Roger.  Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe.  Washington:  Scott-Townsend, 1991.

 

1992

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Dilemmas in Developing Diversity Programs."  In Diversity in the Workplace:  Human Resources Initiatives, edited by Susan E. Jackson and associates, 279-305.  New York:  Guilford Press, 1992.
   
Cited in:
    Raymond A Katzell, "Contemporary Meta-Trends in Industrial-Organizational Psychology," in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd edition, vol. 4, edited by Harry C Triandis, Marvin D Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough, 1-89, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1994
    Gottfredson, "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud," Society, March-April 1994
    Gottfredson, Review of The Dictatorship of Virtue by Richard Bernstein, in Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1995
    Bruce Barry and Thomas S Bateman, "A Social Trap Analysis of the Management of Diversity," Academy of Management Review 21 (July 1996): 757-90
    J Teicher and K Spearitt, "From Equal Employment Opportunity to Diversity Management: The Australian Experience," International Journal of Manpower 17 (1996): 109
    Frederick R Lynch, The Diversity Machine: The Drive to Change the "White Male Workplace", New York: Free Press 1997

Gottfredson, Linda.   "Finding (Economic) Strength Through Diversity:  A Workplace Adaptation to Welcome Women."  In Women's Work:  Choice, Chance or Socialization?:   Insights from Psychologists and Other Researchers, edited by Nancy Smith and Sylvia K Leduc.  Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Ltd, 1992.

Holland, Robert G.   "Dirty Secrets:  Race-Norming Lives On."  Chronicles 16 (February 1992):  44-46.

"Academic Freedom, Delaware-Style (cont'd.)."  Editorial.  Washington Times (February 4, 1992), F2.

Langiulli, Nino.  "Dispatches from the War Zone."  Measure (March 1992):

"Adjusted Scoring Now Illegal:  To Test or Not To Test Is Now the Question."  HR Manager's Legal Reporter (March 1992):

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "It's Time to Face the Truth on Differences in IQ."  Letter.  Insight 8 (March 2, 1992):  4.

"'Dialogues' Forum March 12."  UpDate 11 (March 5, 1992):  7.
    ["'Race Differences in Intelligence Testing: What Do The Mean?' will be the focus of the first program in the University's 'Delaware Dialogue' series.
    "The free public forum is scheduled for 7 p.m., Thursday, March 12, in 115 Purnell Hall.
    "'Delaware Dialogues' is designed to give the campus community a close look at the ideas surrounding controversial and contemporary issues in America.
    "Presenting opposing viewpoints at the March 12 program will be Robert A. Gordon, professor of sociology at Johns Hopkins University, and Howard Taylor, professor of sociology at Princeton University.
    "They will discuss the meaning of racial differences that appear in intelligence testing and how these differences are interpreted and used.
    "Responding to their discussion will be three members of the Delaware faculty:  James Davis, assistant professor of educational studies;   Leslie Goldstein, professor of political science and international relations;   and Raymond Wolters, professor of history.
    "Gordon, who received hid Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, has lectured and published widely on such subjects as the sociology of intelligence, deviant behavior, opiate addiction, and the causes of crime and delinquency.  His research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and the Pioneer Fund, Inc."]

Taylor, Jeff A.  "On 'Race-Norming'."  Letter.  Chronicles 16 (April 1992):  6.

[30 April 1992.   Gottfredson and Blits announce that they have reached an out-of-court settlement with the University of Delaware.]

Curley, Tom.  "UD Settles with 2 Race Research Professors."  Wilmington News Journal (April 30, 1992),

Innerst, Carol.  "Two on Delaware Education Faculty Win Settlement in PC Case."  Washington Times (May 1, 1992), A3.

Holden, Constance.  "Settlement at U. of Delaware."  Science 256 (May 15, 1992):  962.

Kaufman, Ron.  "U. Delaware Reaches Accord on Race Studies."  The Scientist 6 (July 1992):   1, 6.

Gottfredson, Linda, and Jan H. Blits.  "Legislated Lawlessness on Civil Rights."  Delaware Lawyer 10 (Summer 1992):  20-23.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "The Science and Politics of Race-Norming," American Psychologist, November 1994

Govan, Reginald C.  "Framing the Issues and Acquiring Codes:  An Overview of the Legislative Sojourn of the Civil Rights Act of 1991."  DePaul Law Review 41 (Summer 1992):  1057-1083.

Anderson, Craig B.  "Political Correctness on College Campuses:  Freedom of Speech v. Doing the Politically Correct Thing."  SMU Law Review 46 (Summer 1992):   171-224.
    [Discusses the Gottfredson case at pp. 221-223.]

[11-12 August 1992.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, in Toronto.   Gottfredson presents "Changes and Challenges in Gottfredson's Revised Theory of Circumscription and Compromise" and "Critical Considerations in Cross-Domain Research on Abilities, Interests, and Personality."]

Gorman, R.A.  "Report of Committee A, 1991-1992."  Academe (September-October 1992):  43-50.

Povich, Elaine S.  "Lipinski Targets Old Job-Test Practice."  Chicago Tribune (September 30, 1992), 2C, 4.

Crawford, James.  Hold Your Tongue:  Bilingualism and the Politics of  "English Only".   Reading, Massachusetts:  Addison-Wesley, 1992.
    [At pages 267-68, note 5:  "A year later [in 1989 John] Tanton came to the defense of another Pioneer Fund grantee, Linda Gottfredson of the University of Delaware.  One of Gottfredson's colleagues, William Frawley, has protested a $174,000 Pioneer grant to support her research on educational 'ability differences' among racial and ethnic groups.  Frawley asked, 'Does the University of Delaware wish to lend its name - wittingly or unwittingly - to an organization that unabashedly promotes intolerance?'  In a letter supporting Gottfredson, Tanton replied:  'If the  new standard being promulgated is that funds can be received only from sources that pass some social litmus test, then this is a stringent requirement indeed.  No organization could receive funds from the Ford Foundation unless it approved of Henry Ford's anti-Semitism, or of Ford's use of harry Bennett and his goons to break union heads at the Battle of the Overpass, [or of] Mr. Ford's continuing to run his factories in Nazi Germany up until the time that the U.S. declared war on the country.'   Unconvinced, University of Delaware president E.A. Trabant decided to accept no additional grants from the Pioneer Fund as long as it 'remained committed to ... a pattern of activities incompatible with the university's mission'."]

Seligman, Daniel.  A Question of Intelligence:  The IQ Debate in America.  New York:  Birch Lane, 1992.

"Senate Addresses Speech Code, Faculty Honors."  UpDate 12 (December 10, 1992):  2.
    ["In other actions, the [University faculty] Senate established new criteria and procedures for granting student and faculty honors ...
    "The new procedures and criteria for the Committee on Student and Faculty Honors provide 'a document to fall back on' when selecting recipients of teaching and advising awards, according to David Smith, chairperson of the Senate's Committee on Committees and Nominations.  Revised procedures for the annual Francis Alison award will be presented to the Senate in February, he said.
    "Sen. Stanley Sandler questioned the value of teaching awards that simply go to those faculty with 'excellent stage presence' and 'don't address the impact of the person nationwide in their field.'  Linda Gottfredson said her writing committee attempted to go beyond simple popularity by making the first criteria for nomination 'highly knowledgeable and intellectually rigorous' in their chosen field.   Other criteria include a deep commitment to teaching and students, skilled interaction with students and a positive and lasting impact."]

 

1993

Holland, Robert G.   "Cultural Revolutions."  Chronicles 17 (January 1993):   6-7.
   [More on race-norming.]

Dawes, Robyn M. and Lloyd G. Humphreys.  "Racial Norming:  A Debate."  Academe 79 (May-June 1993):  31-37.

Innerst, Carol.  "Education Bill Raises GOP Fears of 'Race Norming'."  Washington Times (May 8, 1993), A5.

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Clinton's New Form of Race-Norming."  Wall Street Journal (June 3, 1993), A14.

"The Return of Norming."  Fortune (June 14, 1993):

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Truth in the Balance?  A Comment on Estes."  Letter. Psychological Science 4 (July 1993):  271.

Gottfredson, Linda S., Robert J, Sternberg, and Richard K. Wagner.  "At Issue:  Is IQ the Best Predictor of Job Performance?"  CQ Researcher 3 (July 30, 1993), 665.

Lefever, Ernest W.  "America Is Being Ripped Apart."  Los Angeles Times (August 1, 1993), M5.
   [Refers to race norming.]

Prescott, Emily.  "The General Aptitude Test Battery and the Debate Over Race Norming, Racial Preferences, and Affirmative Action."  Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 20 (Summer 1993):  877-903.

Gray, C. Boyden, and Evan J. Kemp, Jr.  "A Look at...The Meritocracy."  Washington Post (September 19, 1993),

[23 September 1993.  The Pioneer Fund approves $60,000 grant to the University of Delaware "for research and dissemination activities of the Project for the Study of Intelligence and Society, covering 21 months from September 1, 1991 to May 31, 1993 [sic]." This brings the total amount granted since 1988 to $342,000.  (Joyce Mercer, Chronicle of Higher Education (December 7, 1994) reported that Gottfredson had received $335,000 since 1988, "and hasn't sought support from any other foundations since then.")]

Carlson, Tucker.  "Washington's Inept Police Force."  Wall Street Journal (November 3, 1993), A23.
   [Cited by Gottfredson.  Carlson also published an article on this subject in the Heritage Foundation's Policy Review.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "The Battle to Establish a Sociology of Intelligence:  A Case Study in the Sociology of Politicized Disciplines."  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, 1993.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud," Society, March-April 1994

Goldberg, David Theo.  Racist Culture:  Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning.  Oxford:  Blackwell, 1993.
    [At pp. 254n54, 271n51, Goldberg includes Gottfredson in a list of academics who have perpetuated long-discredited racist views.  "...Levin, Linda Gottfredson, and her collaborator Robert Gordon have been arguing over the last decade that black people are one standard deviation less intelligent than whites.  The evidence they continue to rely upon is traceable to the long-discredited intelligence testing by Audrey Shuey in the 1960s ... Gottfredson received a grant from the Pioneer Foundation [sic], long committed to perpetuating white supremacy, which she used not for research but to send materials, in the name of both the foundation and her university, to medical school registrars to discourage them from pursuing preferential admissions policies."]

 

1994

[1994.  Gottfredson is elected a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.]

Kühl, Stefan.  The Nazi Connection:  Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1994.

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud."  Society 31 (March-April 1994):  53-59.
    [This appears as part of an issue on fraud in social science that also included papers by Joynson (on Burt) and Rushton.  These were reprinted in Fraud and Fallible Judgment (Transaction 1995).]
  
Cited in:
    J Philippe Rushton, "The Equalitarian Dogma Revisited," Intelligence 19 (November-December 1994): 263-80
    Mark A Graber, "Old Wine in New Bottles: The Constitutional Status of Unconstitutional Speech," Vanderbilt Law Review 48 (March 1995): 348-89
    Gottfredson, Review of The Dictatorship of Virtue by Richard Bernstein, in Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1995
    Michael Peters, Review of Race, Evolution and Behavior by J Philippe Rushton, in Aggressive Behavior 21 (1995): 463-68
    Andrew S Winston, "The Context of Correctness: A Comment on Rushton," Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 5 (April 1996): 231-50
    Lee Ellis, "A Discipline in Peril: Sociology's Future Hinges on Curing Its Biophobia," American Sociologist 27 (Summer 1996): 21-41
    Gottfredson, "Confronting the New Particularism in Academe," Journal of Management Inquiry 5 (1996): 319-25

    Gottfredson, "Forward to 'Intelligence and Social Policy'," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 1-12
    David C Rowe, "A Place at the Policy Table?: Behavior Genetics and Estimates of Family Environmental Effects on IQ," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 133-158
    JH Kranzler, "Educational and Policy Issues Related to the Use and Interpretation of Intelligence Tests in the Schools," School Psychology Review 26 (1997): 150-162

Bukowski, Jeffrey.  "Delaware Professors, Administrators Battle Over Political Correctness."   Delaware State News (March 8, 1994):
    [Cited in Whitaker, White Male Applicant, 1997.]

[14 March 1994.  Letter from Jan Blits to Edward Barry, the President of Oxford University Press, criticizing him for publishing Stefan Kühl's The Nazi Connection.  "While I am not in a position to judge the accuracy of everything in the book, I know very well some of the matters that Stefan Kuhl discusses.  In fact, I investigated some of his charges myself (they were then Barry Mehler's charges) after questions were raised here at Delaware about the Pioneer Fund's support for a faculty member's research.  Those charges have not only been addressed;  they have been thoroughly refuted. They are simply untrue, as the University of Delaware found out when it tried (unsuccessfully) to ban Pioneer funding on the basis of them.  Just ask President David Roselle about his mortifying day on the witness stand at a national arbitration hearing brought by the American Association of University Professors.
    Kuhl, however, not only ignores the refutations, but suppresses even the fact that the charges have ever been addressed.  Instead, he relies on distortion, innuendo, sheer falsehood, and silence.  On the one hand, for example, he sweeps together as 'Nazi race hygienists' a group of people that would include Theodore Roosevelt, Margaret Sanger, HerbertCroly, George Bernard Shaw, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Harold Laski, and Gregor Mendel as well as Adolf Hitler:  'When I speak of 'Nazi racial hygienists,' I mean the German rcail hygienists who supported Nazi race policies, participated in their implementation, or provided Nazi race ideology with scientific legitimation' (p. 108).  On the other hand, he utterly ignores contrary evidence.   Doing his best to associate the founders of the Pioneer Fund with people who 'supported Hitler's race policy'  (p. 6), he completely ignores John Marshall Harlan, who served on the Fund's Board of Directors during its first seventeen years (1937-54) and who sided with every civil rights plaintiff while a U.S. Supreme Court Justice (1955-71).
    "Oxford should be ashamed of itself, not for publishing a controversial book, but for publishing an irresponsible and unprofessional book.  The book is pure political smear and deeply tarnishes the reputation of a publishing house that once stood for the highest intellectual standards."]

[16 March 1994.  Washington Post, p. A15, carries a full-page ad opposing the Clinton health plan.  It was signed by 565 economists and 76 others and paid for by the conservative Independent Institute of Oakland, CA.  LS Gottfredson and Jan Blits were among the 76 non-economist signatories.  Cf. "Dear Mr. President ...," in Wall Street Journal (January 14, 1994), p. A10.]

Muñoz Sastre, Maria Teresa.   "La theorie de Gottfredson:  Expose critique."  Orientation scolaire et professionelle 23 (June 1994):  233-251.

[30-31 July 1994.  New Nassau county police exam is administered.]

Nelson, M., and P.H.B. Shin.  "Testers' Bad Mark."  Newsday (August 1, 1994), A5, A22.

Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray.  The Bell Curve:  Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life.  New York:  Free Press, 1994.
    [Published October 19th.]

Miller, Adam.   "Professors of Hate."  Rolling Stone, no. 693 (October 20, 1994):  106-114.
   [At page 114:  Robert A. "Gordon's former wife, University of Delaware educational studies professor Linda Gottfredson, was for many years the only woman receiving Pioneer funding.  Gottfredson, whose work has been embraced by the white supremacist National Alliance and the David Duke-edited National Association for the Advancement of White People magazine, argues that low black representation in high-status schools and jobs is due to blacks' inferior intelligence, which she says undermines the justification for quotas."  A table lists the total amount she received from the Pioneer Fund through 1992 as $267,000.]

[21 and 28 October 1994.   Ben Wattenberg's Think Tank TV show discusses The Bell Curve. Gottfredson is a panelist.]

Sedgwick, John.  "The Mentality Bunker."  GQ:  Gentlemens Quarterly 64 (November 1994):   228-235.

Gottfredson, Linda.   "From the Ashes of Affirmative Action."  The World and I 9 (November 1994):  365-77.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, Review of The Dictatorship of Virtue by Richard Bernstein, in Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1995
    Gottfredson, "Confronting the New Particularism in Academe," Journal of Management Inquiry 5 (1996): 319-25

Gottfredson, Linda.   "The Science and Politics of Race Norming."  American Psychologist (November 1994):  955-63.
   
Cited in:
    Dianne C Brown, "Subgroup Norming: Legitimate Testing Practice or Reverse Discrimination?," American Psychologist 49 (November 1994): 927-8
    Kevin L Moreland, et. al., "Assessment of Test User Qualifications," American Psychologist 50 (January 1995): 14-23
    Kevin R Murphy, Kevin Osten and Brett Myors, "Modeling the Effects of Banding in Personnel Selection," Personnel Psychologist 48 (Spring 1995): 61-84
    Dinesh D'Sousa, The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society, New York: Free Press 1995
    Samuel Messick, "Validity of Psychological Assessment," American Psychologist 50 (September 1995): 741-9
    Wayne F Cascio, et. al., "Selective Science or Selective Interpretation?," American Psychologist 50 (October 1995): 881-2
   M Helms-Lorenz and FJ Van Devij, "Cognitive Assessment in a Multicultural Society," European Journal of Psychological Assessment 11(1995): 158-69
   NM Robinson, in Gifted Child 39 (1995): 180

   Nathaniel J Pallone and James J Hennessy, Tinder-Box Criminal Aggression: Neuropsychology, Demography, Phenomenology New Brunswick: Transaction 1996
   Raymond Wolters, Right Turn: William Bradford Reynolds, the Reagan Administration and Black Civil Rights, New Brunswick:  Transaction 1996
   Murray J Dyck, "Cognitive Assessment in a Multicultural Society: Comment," Australian Psychologist 31 (1996): 66-69
   G Davidson, "Fairness in a Multicultural Society: Reply," Australian Psychologist 31 (1996): 70-72
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test: Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-320
   BN Phillips, "On the Interface Between Science and Practice in School Psychology," School Psychology International 18 (1997): 217-228
   ML Tenopyr, "The Complex Interaction Between Measurement and National Employment Policy," Psychology, Public Policy and Law 2 (1997):   348-362
   Roger E Millsap, "Invariance in Measurement and Prediction: Their Relationship in the Single-Factor Test," Psychological Methods 2 (1997):  248-260
   W Terris, "The Traditional Regression Model for Measuring Test Bias Is Incorrect and Biased Against Minorities," Journal of Business and Psychology 12 (1997): 25-37
   Walter C Borman, Mary Ann Hanson and Jerry W Hedge, "Personnel Selection," Annual Review of Psychology 48 (1997): 299-337
   Jan te Nijenhuis and Henk van der Flier, "Comparability of GATB Scores for Immigrants and Majority Group Members: Some Dutch Findings," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (October 1997): 675-687

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Scientific Hoax:  Reply."  Letter. Society 32 (November-December 1994):  5-6.

[21 November 1994.   Gottfredson fax-letter to Bill Blakemore, Albert Oetgen, and Diane Mendez of ABC News criticizing ABC's forthcoming report on The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund and defending the Pioneer Fund's president, Harry Weyher.  Her former husband, Robert A. Gordon cites the letter in his "How Smart We Are About What We Broadcast:  An Open Letter to ABC News" (June 17, 1997):  "Indeed, in light of this analysis of your overedited broadcast, Linda Gottfredson's question, after seeing your correspondence concerning Mr. Weyher's unwillingness to grant an interview on camera to ABC News, becomes especially prescient:  'The issue is not 'Why won't he?' but rather 'Why would he?'' (fax-letter from L.S. Gottfredson to Messrs. Blakemore at Oetgen, and Ms. Mendez, November 21, 1994)."
    In the same or another fax-letter dated November 21th, Stephen E. Jenkins, a lawyer with the Wilmington DE firm of Ashby and Geddes, who was acting as pro-bono counsel to Gottfredson, stated (also as quoted in Gordon's June 17, 1997 letter):   "Your letter of November 15th requests Mr. Weyher to respond in two days to 15 categories of questions, each with numerous subparts, raising allegations about events over the past 80 years, in the ostensible (but one would suspect, almost certainly disingenuous) belief that Mr. Weyher would have the answers to these questions at his fingertips ... Standing alone, your November 18th [15th?] letter could merely indicate a propensity for incivility and posturing that is regrettable but not actionable.  Your November 18th letter, however, would seem to constitute proof that not only do you believe that your profession gives you license to behave poorly, but it gives you the right to treat truth with casual disdain as well.  In response to your letter of November 15th, Mr. Weyher reasonably requested that you provide him with your documentation so that he could attempt to reply coherently to your charges.  I say that was a reasonable request because proving a negative--which is what you repeatedly ask him to do--is, as you know, impossible.  All one can do is show that the proof of the affirmative case is wrong ... Your ultimate purpose, as with several other such recent pieces, would seem to be to discredit The Bell Curve by smearing researchers on which it relies."   Gordon's letter is available on the Pioneer Fund's website at www.pioneerfund.org/ABCletter.html .]

[22 November 1994.  ABC World News Tonight broadcasts an eight-minute report on The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund.]

[28 November 1994.   Gottfredson letter to other intelligence researchers:  "I recently spoke with David Brooks, editorial features editor of the Wall Street Journal, to find out what he might consider a constructive contribution to the current debate over The Bell Curve. He suggested a statement from experts describing what is, in fact, 'mainstream' in the field of intelligence."  She later recounted that she had approached Brooks "to see if he would be interested in my writing an essay on the rising crescendo of misinformation on intelligence.  He was not.  He said he would, however, consider a short statement signed by 10 to 15 experts on what knowledge they do, in fact, consider to be mainstream in the study of intelligence.  Timeliness required that any statement be submitted within 2 weeks."  LS Gottfredson, "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 13-23]


Lane, Charles. "The Tainted Sources of 'The Bell Curve'." New York Review of Books 41 (December 1, 1994): 14-19.
    [At page 15:  "Other scholars who have received substantial amounts of money from Pioneer include...Linda Gottfredson of the University of Delaware, cited [in The Bell Curve] on the disproportionate representation of lower-IQ blacks in the professions..."]

Mercer, Joye.  "A Fascination with Genetics:  Pioneer Fund is at Center of Debate Over Research on Race and Development."  Chronicle of Higher Education (December 7, 1994): A28-A29.
    ["For scholars like Linda Gottfredson, a professor of educational studies at the University of Delaware who examines I.Q. and employment testing, the Pioneer Fund has been a godsend.  'When I would apply to federal agencies to get funding to study the role of intelligence in the work place, I was simply dismissed,' says Ms. Gottfredson, who has received $335,000 from the Pioneer Fund since 1988 and hasn't sought support from other foundations since then.  'Any proposal that investigates politically incorrect questions with regard to race and gender tends to be blackballed in the peer-review process. For some of us, the Pioneer Fund has been the only option.'  ...  'What annoys me is that questions are asked about the Pioneer Fund that are not asked about other organizations, questions about a political agenda, about its history,' says Jan H. Blits, a professor of educational studies at the University of Delaware who has worked with Ms. Gottfredson."]

[13 December 1994.  An open letter on race differences in intelligence, signed by 52 social scientists, appears under the title "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" in the Wall Street Journal.  Gottfredson initiated and drafted it and was a signatory. See Kohn, The Race Gallery, pp. 113-4.  It subsequently was reprinted in the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology's newsletter, The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 32 (April 1995): 67-72, and in a special issue of Intelligence (January-February 1997) edited by Gottfredson.]

[15 December 1994.  Ken Silverstein and Alexander Cockburn, in Counterpunch, discuss the December 13th open letter.]

Blits, Jan H.   "Caesar's Ambiguous End."  In Julius Caesar.  New York:  Chelsea House, 1994.

Roth, Byron.  Prescription for Failure:  Race Relations in the Age of Social Science.  New Brunswick:   Transaction, 1994.
    [There is a comment by Gottfredson on the dust-jacket:   "Roth strips away the social science orthodoxy on race to take an unflinching look at the underclass pathologies it has created."  There's also a blurb from Robert A Gordon.  Roth cites them both.  Gottfredson reviews the book in Personnel Psychology (March 1997).]

 

1995

Hentoff, Nat. "Against the Odds: A Historic Free Speech Victory." Village Voice (May 2, 1995), 20.
    [Cited in Robert M O'Neil, Free Speech in the College Community, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press 1997.]

[June 1995.  Gottfredson is elected to National Council of the Federation of American Scientists. See FAS Public Interest Report 40 (September-October 1995).]

D'Sousa, Dinesh. The End of Racism:  Principles for a Multiracial Society.  New York:  Free Press, 1995.
   [Discusses Gottfredson in several places.  The epigraph in Chapter 11 ("The Content of Our Chromosomes: Race and the IQ Debate") is from "Sociologist Linda Gottfredson": "Nothing frightens the liberal mind more than the prospect of inherited differences in intelligence between the races."]

HRStrategies.  "Nassau County, New York:  Design, Validation and Implementation of the 1994 Police Officer Entrance Examination."  Project Technical Report.  Detroit:   HRStrategies, July 1995.
   [Technical report of the Nassau County Test Construction and Validation Project. Says the innovative 1994 Nassau county exam will "improve on 'typical selection procedures'." (HRStrategies is now a division of Aon Consulting, Inc.)]

[11 August 1995.  At the 103rd annual convention of the American Psychological Association in New York, Gottfredson presents a paper on "The Nature of Vocational Interests:  A Discussion."  This is cited in Nadya A Fouad and Philip L Smith, "A Test of a Social Cognitive Model for Middle School Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (July 1996): 338-46.]

Kohn, Marek. The Race Gallery:  The Return of Racial Science.  London:  Jonathan Cape, 1995.
   [Published September 15th.  Discusses Gottfredson at pages 96, 98, 112, and 113.]

[20 September 1995.  At a National Skill Standards Board public forum on occupational clustering in Washington DC, Gottfredson presents a paper on "Occupational Clusters for Implementing Goals 2000."]

[22 September 1995.   U.S. v. Nassau County. CV 77 1881, US District Court, Eastern District of New York.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  Review of The Dictatorship of Virtue by Richard Bernstein.  In Personnel Psychology 48 (Autumn 1995):  667-71.

Rosenthal, Steven J.  "The Pioneer Fund:  Financer of Fascist Research."  American Behavioral Scientist 39 (September-October 1995):  44-61.
   [Rosenthal taught sociology at Hampton University.  This issue of ABS is devoted to "The Bell Curve: Laying Bare the Resurgence of Scientific Racism" and is edited by Robert G Newby, a professor of sociology at Central Michigan University.  (Newby is a 1974 Stanford Ph.D.)]

"Authoritarian Administrators:  Censorship of Faculty on Campus."  Democratic Culture (Fall 1995):

Cascio, Wayne F, Sheldon Zedeck, Irving L Goldstein and James Outtz.  "Selective Science or Selective Interpretation?"  American Psychologist 50 (October 1995):   881-882.
   [Response to Gottfredson (November 1994).  Zedeck, Goldstein and Outtz are also involved in the Nassau County Test Construction and Validation Project.   Zedeck is associate editor of Human Performance.]

[16 October 1995.   Gottfredson presents a lecture on "Implications of Issues in The Bell Curve for Human Resource Management" at the College of Business at Indiana University in Bloomington.]

[22 October 1995.  At the Federation of American Scientists' Fiftieth Anniversary Retreat at Airlie House, Virginia, Gottfredson speaks on "Issues of Human Intelligence and Society."]

Jackson, Thomas.  "The End of Racism?"  Review of The End of Racism by Dinesh D'Sousa.   In American Renaissance 6 (November 1995):
    ["[D'Sousa] starts with a definition, asserting that 'racism is an ideology of intellectual or moral superiority based upon the biological characteristics of race.'  Unfortunately, this means that Arthur Jensen and Linda Gottfredson are racists but Eldridge Cleaver and Colin Ferguson are not."   Available at http://www.amren.com/dsouza.htm .]

Topping, R.  "Will 'The Test' Pass the Test?"  Newsday (November 17, 1995), A5, A28.
   [On Nassau county police exam.]

"Who Are the Academic Proponents of the Theory of Inferior IQs of Black People?"  Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 10 (Winter 1995-96):  18-19.

Price, Susan.  "The Bell Curve as Assigned Reading on College Campuses."  Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 10 (Winter 1995-96):  101-05.
    ["The Bell Curve ... has thrown an umbrella over the heads of academic conservatives and protected them on politically correct campuses, says University of Delaware sociologist Linda Gottfredson, who drafted a December 1994 statement defending the book's science as mainstream, which was published in The Wall Street Journal, says she has received numerous invitations to attend forums and write journal articles on the book's influence. While psychologists ... and sociologists have grappled with cognitive ability research for years, Gottfredson says the controversy ignited interest in the field outside those disciplines. 'Public policy and business school faculties are among those taking a new look at intelligence research. People are now more willing to associate with the discussion. The book will serve as cover. You, yourself, are not bringing up a forbidden topic. It is a public issue,' she says."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "The Egalitarian Fiction."  In Fraud and Fallible Judgment: Varieties of Deception in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by Nathaniel J. Pallone and James J. Hennessy, 95-106.  New Brunswick:  Transaction, 1995.
    [Reprinted from Society 1994.]
   
Cited in:
    Pallone and Hennessy, Tinder-Box Criminal Aggression New Brunswick: Transaction 1996

Hamilton, Neil.  Zealotry and Academic Freedom:  A Legal and Historical Perspective.  New Brunswick:  Transaction, 1995.
    [Discusses the Gottfredson case.]

Wilson, Robert K. The Myth of Political Correctness.  Durham:  Duke University Press, 1995.
    [Discusses the Gottfredson case at page 53.]

[4 December 1995.  A press release from Cornell University announces a new interdisciplinary course for Spring 1996:  "Psycho-Economic Perspectives on Human Intelligence and Achievement:   Did The Bell Curve Get It Right?," to be taught by Stephen Ceci and Elizabeth Peters.  The course was linked to a parallel speakers series, which included a lecture by Gottfredson.  (The other speakers included Robert Sternberg, Eric Hanuschek, James R Flynn, Marvin Harris and Larry Hedges.)]

 

1996

[1996.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $99,251 to Gottfredson, distributed through the University of Delaware.  It also approves a grant of $5,000 to the Atlantic Legal Foundation, which soon thereafter initiates a legal challenge to the Nassau County police test.]

Gottfredson, Linda.  "What Do We Know About Intelligence?"  American Scholar 65 (Winter 1996):  15-30.
   
Cited in:
    Gottfredson, Review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by J Philippe Rushton, in Politics and the Life Sciences, March 1996
    Gottfredson, "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 13-23
    Gottfredson, "Why g Matters," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    Richard A Posner, "Equality, Wealth, and Political Stability," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 13 (1997): 344-365
    Julian C Stanley, "Varieties of Intellectual Talent," Journal of Creative Behavior 31 (1997): 93-119

Blits, Jan H.  The Insufficiency of Virtue:  Macbeth and the Natural Order.  Lanham, MD:   Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

[Feb 1996.  Letter from Joshua Rose (attorney for NAACP) to Katrina Wright (New Jersey Deputy Attorney General).   The NAACP threatens to sue the New Jersey State Police for discrimination.   Rose suggests that litigation may be avoided if the Nassau county test is adopted. The letter is cited in Gottfredson, "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy U.S. Justice Department."  The New Jersey State Police decline the proposal and a lawsuit is filed on June 24th.]

Tracy, Jeffrey.   "Affirmative Action Will Be the Focus of Omaha Forum."  The Creightonian 75 (February 23, 1996):
    ["The National Conference of Christians and Jews (NCCJ) and the Creighton University Journalism Department will co-sponsor an Affirmative Action Forum, to be held ... March 8 ... The forum will open with speeches from Dr. Linda Gottfredson from the University of Delaware, and Cathy Retzlaff from the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) in Omaha."  See http://press.creighton.edu/o2-23-96/default.html .]

[25 February 1996.  At the Midwinter Conference of the Society of Psychologists in Management, in San Diego, Gottfredson speaks on "Multiculturalism in the Workplace."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   Review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by J Philippe Rushton.  In Politics and the Life Sciences 15 (March 1996):  141-43.
   
Cited in:
    Malcolm James Ree, Review of Race, Evolution and Behavior, in Personnel Psychology 49 (Spring 1996): 250-253  (cited in press)

[25 March 1996.   Gottfredson speaks on "The Meaning of Intelligence in Everyday Life" at Cornell University (4pm, Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center, David L Call Auditorium, Kennedy Hall).]

Rechtman, Mel.  "What Do We Know About Intelligence?"  Letter.  American Scholar 65 (Spring 1996):  320.
    [A criticism of Gottfredson's article in the previous issue.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   Response.  American Scholar 65 (Spring 1996):  320.

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The New Challenge to Academic Freedom."  Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 5 (April 1996):  205-212.
    [This appeared in a section on political correctness that also contained articles by J Philippe Rushton and Andrew S Winston.]

[8 April 1996.  Annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, in New York.   Gottfredson was a member of a panel, "The Bell Curve Debate Continues;"   her affiliation was listed as Harvard.  The moderator was Carole Bleistein (ETS) and the other panelists were Cecil Reynolds (Texas AandM), Nancy Cole (ETS), and Ernest House (University of Colorado).]

[Spring 1996.  Aon Consulting, Inc., issues a widely-circulated invitation to police departments to join a test validation consortium, the purpose of which "is to produce yet additional refinements to the Nassau County-specific test, and to reduce even further the level of adverse impact among minority candidates ... Ongoing review of the project by Department of Justice experts will provide a device that satisfies federal law."  Cited in Gottfredson, "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy the U.S. Justice Department."]

[April 1996. David Jones of Aon Consulting, Inc., speaks at annual meeting of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.]

"Senate Delays Reapportionment, Tours New Center."  UpDate 15 (April 4, 1996):   7.
    [A University of Delaware publication.  The story is on the April meeting of the University Faculty Senate.  "A change made in the Faculty Handbook regarding the University's policy against sexual harassment, prompted some discussion during the meeting ... Sen. Linda Gottfredson suggested that the policy statement needed more detailed procedures on how a complaint is handled ... "]

[June 1996.  Gottfredson becomes involved in dispute over the Nassau county police exam. See her "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy U.S. Justice Department":    "With Justice's promoting the Nassau exam, members of the professional test development community became increasingly concerned about its interference in test development.  To confirm their concerns, some of them called upon selected academics in June 1996 to evaluate the long technical report describing Nassau County's new test.   I was one of the academics called.  We all read the report independently of one another, without prior knowledge of who the project consultants were, without prior information about the report's contents or origins, and without compensation offered, expected, or received.  (I have never had any financial interest in any testing enterprise.)  After reading the report, I obtained court records and interviewed a variety of people in Nassau County and test developers nationwide.  In the following months three researchers wrote critiques of the new test (Gottfredson, 1996a, b, c; Russell, 1996; Schmidt, 1996a, b)." Those evaluations were all highly critical ... "]

[6 June 1996.  Hayden, et. al. v. Nassau county, in New York Supreme Court, Trial I.A.S. Part 13 (Justice Goldstein), Index number 14699/96.  Affirmation in opposition by William H Pauley III, special counsel to the Nassau county police department.]

[24 June 1996.  NAACP v. New Jersey filed.]

[1 July 1996.  Hayden, et. al. v. Nassau county, in New York Supreme Court, Trial I.A.S. Part 13 (Justice Goldstein), Index number 14699/96.  Motion.]

Schmidt, Frank.  "Some Comments on the Nassau County Police Validity Study."  Unpublished paper, July 2, 1996.
    [Available at www.impaac.org/nassau. ]

Russell, Craig J. "The Nassau County Police Case: Impressions." Unpublished paper, July 12, 1996.
    [Available on the IPMAAC web page at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/russell.html .   Russell holds the JC Penney Chair of Business Leadership at the University of Oklahoma.]

[25 July 1996.  Letter from John Gadzichowski of the Civil Rights Division of the US Justice Department to Frank Erwin, the president of Richardson, Bellows, and Henry.  He dismisses criticism of the low reading minimum in the 1994 Nassau county police exam as "unfounded."   Cited in Gottfredson, "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy the U.S. Justice Department," Feb 6, 1997.]

[August 1996.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, in Toronto. Gottfredson is a discussant on a panel on "Contemporary Issues in Scientific Psychology:  Inter-Domain Relationships and Applications."]

[14 August 1996.  At a meeting of the Personnel Testing Council of Metropolitan Washington, Gottfredson speaks on "Perspectives on Diversity."]

Gottfredson, Linda. "The Hollow Shell of a Test: Comment on the 1995 Technical Report Describing the New Nassau County Police Entrance Examination." Unpublished paper, September 17, 1996.

[3 October 1996.  A listing of faculty grants in the University of Delaware's UpDate, vol. 16, includes:  "Linda Gottfredson, educational studies, $99,251 from The Pioneer Fund Inc. for "The Study of Intelligence and Society."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Racially Gerrymandered Police Tests." Wall Street Journal (October 24, 1996), A16.
   
Cited in:
    Robert D Alt (Center for Individual Rights), "Toward Equal Protection: A Review of Affirmative Action," Washburn Law Journal 36 (Winter 1997)
   Frank W Erwin, Review of Backfire: A Reporter's Look at Affirmative Action by Bob Zelnick, in Personnel Psychology 50 (Summer 1997): 478-481
    Neal Schmitt, et. al., "Adverse Impact and Predictive Efficiency of Various Predictor Combinations," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (October 1997): 719-730

[28 October 1996.   Gottfredson posts a message "Reply to Questions on WSJ Article" on the HR Net mailing list.]

Patrick, Deval L.   "Police Test Is Fair to All Who Take It."  Letter.  Wall Street Journal (November 13, 1996), A23.

[16 November 1996.   Sheldon Zedeck posts a message on the IPMAAC mailing list:  "Dr. Gottfredson was not involved in the Nassau project and never asked anyone on the project any questions or for information about what was done prior to her submission of the Wall Street Journal letter or her transmission of a 'paper' over email.  The letter and article contain incorrect information and make assumptions about the procedures, strategies, and motives of the experts involved that have no foundation."]

[21 November 1996.   Gottfredson letter to the editor of the Wall Street Journal responding to Duval Patrick's November 13th letter.  She posts the letter under the heading "Response to Deval Patrick on Nassau County Test" on the HRNET and IPMAAC mailing lists.  It is published in the December 10th edition of the Wall Street Journal.]

[28 November 1996.   Gottfredson posts three messages on the HRNET and IPMAAC mailing lists:    internet postings, "F. Schmidt Commentary on Nassau," "C. Russell Commentary on Nassau Police Exam," and "Success Getting Nassau Report?"]

[9 December 1996.   Gottfredson posts a message, "SIOP Session on Nassau County Test," on the IPMAAC mailing list, in which she protests that the arrangements are "a stacked deck."]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "New Police Test Will Be a Disaster."  Letter.  Wall Street Journal (December 10, 1996), A23.
    [Gottfredson posted a message on the IPMAAC mailing list on December 10th offering to FAX copies of her and Schmidt's WSJ letters to interested persons.]

Schmidt, Frank L.  "New Police Test Will Be a Disaster."  Letter.  Wall Street Journal (December 10, 1996), A23.

[11 December 1996.  Gottfredson posts a message headed "Am Writing More on Nassau Test" on the IPMAAC mailing list:  "I am writing an article on the Nassau County police test, due January 1, for a special issue of APA's new journal, PSYCHOLOGY, PUBLIC POLICY, AND LAW.
    "Some weeks ago I invited Sheldon Zedeck to respond to my criticisms so that I could take the Nassau team's views into account in writing the piece.   He and his Nassau test development colleagues agreed, and I look forward to receiving their comments."]

[18 December 1996.  Gottfredson posts a message titled "Critique and Data," addressed to the Nassau County test development team, on the IPMAAC mailing list.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Confronting the New Particularism in Academe."  Journal of Management Inquiry 5 (1996):  319-325.
    [Vol. 5, no. 2.]
   
Cited in:
    KR Xin, "Attention Globetrotters: Read Between the Lines," Journal of Management Inquiry 6 (1997): 355-359
    LA Krefting, SL Kirby and FJ Krzystofiak, "Managing Diversity as a Proxy for Requisite Variety: Risks in Identity-Conscious Inclusion and Pressures to Conform," Journal of Management Inquiry 6 (1997): 376-389

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise."  Career Choice and Development, edited by Duane Brown and Linda Brooks.  Third edition.   San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass, 1996.
   
Cited in:
    Jay W Rojewski, "Characteristics of Students Who Express Stable or Undecided Occupational Expectations During Early Adolescence," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Winter 1997): 1-20

   Roger L Worthington and Cindy L Juntunen, "The Vocational Development of Non-College-Bound Youth: Counseling Psychology and the School-to-Work Transition Movement," Counseling Psychologist 25 (July 1997): 323-363
    Helen S Farmer, "Women's' Motivation Related to Mastery, Career Salience, and Career Aspiration: A Multivariate Model Focusing on the Effects of Sex-Role Socialization," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 355-381
    Leonore W Harmon, "Do Gender Differences Necessitate Separate Career Development Theories and Measures?," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 463-470

 

1997

Lynch, Frederick R.  The Diversity Machine:  The Drive to Change the "White Male Workplace".   New York:  Free Press, 1997.
    [Lynch refers to Gottfredson (p. 372) among "professional social science colleagues providing useful, critical input." She is cited in the text.  Lynch's earlier work on affirmative action had cited Robert A. Gordon.]

Goldberg, David Theo.  Racial Subjects:  Writing on Race in America.  New York:  Routledge, 1997.
    [At page 145, in a chapter entitled "Between Blacks and Jews," Goldberg writes: "It is this sensitivity [to the concerns of others] that has been all but drowned out, if not altogether lost, to the bellows of Farrakhan and his followers, and the grunts of Jews about schwarzes;  to the groans and grumblings over affirmative action;  to Johnnie Cochran's Nation of Islam bodyguards and Bob Schwartz's acrimonious accusations of anti-Semitism;  to Afrocentric claims about Jewish control of the slave trade and Hollywood;  to Pat Robertson's claims about the cabal of Jewish bankers controlling global capital markets;  and to Michael Levin's, Richard Herrnstein's, and Linda Gottfredson's insupportable claims about inherent black criminality or intellectual inferiority.  Lost beneath the clatter are quiet alliances between blacks and Jews ..."  Goldberg mistakenly identifies controversies surrounding Gottfredson as a special problem for Jewish-Black relations.]

Dunnette, Marvin, Irwin Goldstein, Leaetta Hough, David Jones, James Outtz, Erich Prien, Neal Schmitt, Bernard Siskin, and Sheldon Zedeck.  "Response to Criticisms of Nassau County Test Construction and Validation Project."  Unpublished manuscript, January 12, 1997.
    [This is available on the IPMAAC web page at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/zedeck.html .]

[December 1996-February 1997.   Chris Brand's The g Factor Newsletters (Dec. 1996-Feb. 1997), available at www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/news/tgfc96-97.html , contains three items related to Gottfredson:
    (1)   In an entry dated January 10, 1997, Brand lists individuals he "would like to thank for their help and encouragement in 1996."   Gottfredson is among them.
    (2)   "ECONOMIST RECOGNIZES IMPORTANCE OF IQ!  A new book about the long-term unemployed does not hesitate to point to low intelligence as a key feature of what is quite often sheer unemployablility in a modern economy ... The more usual attitude is that of Howard Davies, the deputy governor of the Bank of England who, in reviewing [How to Save the Underclass by Robin Marris] found Marris' stress on IQ 'uncomfortable' ... and opined 'I doubt that IQ is the best proxy measure of skill.'   -- Davies is in for a shock when he reads Linda Gottfredson's article 'Why 'g' matters: the complexity of everyday life' (forthcoming in a Special Issue of the journal 'Intelligence')."
    (3)   "DUMBING DOWN THE POLICE  In New York, my 'Journal of Biosocial Science' article about the importance of intelligence, especially in police work, has yet to achieve significant circulation.  Judging by the letter to the 'Wall Street Journal', US police forces (most recently in Nassau County) are caving in to PeeCee pressures to abandon selection by IQ.  Instead, new tests have supposedly been invented that allow near-illiterate Black applicants to pass.  Just what these new tests measure is quite unknown since the Justice Department and its consulting team will not release the evidence necessary to support their validity claim (Linda Gottfredson, "WSJ', 10 xii 1996)."]

Seligman, Daniel.   "Brains in the Office."  Fortune 135 (January 13, 1997):   38.
    [Discusses the January-February issue of Intelligence.]

[27 January 1997.   Gottfredson posts a message, "Intelligence in Jobs and Everyday Life," on the HR Net mailing list, describing the forthcoming special issue of Intelligence.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Forward to 'Intelligence and Social Policy'."  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  1-12.
    [This is a special issue, edited by Gottfredson, devoted to "Intelligence and Social Policy."  She notes:  "Acknowledgement:   I gratefully acknowledge a grant from the Pioneer Fund, Inc., which enabled me to double the number of pages in this special issue."
    Douglas K Detterman, the editor of Intelligence, said the issue "was planned as an ... extension of the collective statement, 'Mainstream Science on Intelligence,' which was published in the Wall Street Journal in December 1994."  Most contributors to the issue signed the 1994 statement.
    Gottfredson distributed copies of this issue free upon request, compliments of the Project for the Study of Intelligence and Society, which she directs with Robert A Gordon.  An accompanying letter stated:  "There has been much public debate since publication of The Bell Curve about the role of intelligence in social life and social policy.  That discussion has been highly emotional and often badly mistaken about basic scientific knowledge concerning intelligence.
"The enclosed special issue of ... Intelligence ... aims to move discourse in more productive directions.  It first clears away common misconceptions about intelligence and then illustrates new ways of understanding the relevance of intelligence in policy domains, including education, employment, crime, health, HIV prevalence, poverty, and public opinion on the O.J. Simpson trial."
    The other contributors are:
    John B Carroll, "Psychometrics, Intelligence, and Public Perception" (pp. 25-52)
    Robert Plomin and Stephen A Petrill, "Genetics and Intelligence" (pp. 53-77)
    David C Rowe, "A Place at the Policy Table?: Behavior Genetics and Estimates of Family Environmental Effects on IQ" (pp. 133-158)
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences" (pp. 159-201)
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test:   Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context" (pp. 203-320)]
   
Cited in:
    Chris Brand, "Doing Something About g," Intelligence 22 (1996): 311-326
    LS Gottfredson, "Confronting the New Particularism in Academe," Journal of Management Inquiry 5 (1996): 319-325
    LS Gottfredson, Review of Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science by Byron Roth, in Political Psychology, March 1997
    Gottfredson, "The Flight from g in Employment Testing" (1997)
    Julian C Stanley, "Varieties of Intellectual Talent," Journal of Creative Behavior 31 (1997): 93-119

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Mainstream Science on Intelligence:  An Editorial with 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography." Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  13-23.
   
Cited in:
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Camilla Persson Benbow, "Psychological Aspects of Giftedness," Review of Gifted Children by Ellen Winner, in Contemporary Psychology 43 (January 1998): 13-15

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Why g Matters:  The Complexity of Everyday Life."  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  79-132.
   
Cited in:
    John B Carroll, "Psychometrics, Intelligence, and Public Perception,"  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 25-52
    David C Rowe, "A Place at the Policy Table?: Behavior Genetics and Estimates of Family Environmental Effects on IQ," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 133-158
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Robert A Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test: Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-320
    Gottfredson, "The Flight from g in  Employment Testing," (1997)
    Frank Schmidt, Review of The Mismeasure of Man (revised and expanded) by Stephen Jay Gould, in Personnel Psychology 50 (Summer 1997): 485-489
    Stephen J Ceci and Wendy M Williams, "Schooling, Intelligence, and Income," American Psychologist 52 (October 1997): 1051-1058
    Wendy M Williams and Stephen J Ceci, "Are Americans Becoming More or Less Alike?: Trends in Race, Class, and Ability Differences in Intelligence," American Psychologist 52 (November 1997): 1226-1235

   
Camilla Persson Benbow, "Psychological Aspects of Giftedness," Review of Gifted Children by Ellen Winner, in Contemporary Psychology 43 (January 1998): 13-15

Lubinski, David, and Lloyd G. Humphreys.  "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences."  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  159-201.
    [The authors acknowledge discussions and suggestions provided by LS Gottfredson and Robert A Gordon.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test:  Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context."  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  203-320.
    ["Acknowledgment:  Linda S. Gottfredson, guest editor of this special issue, provided especially relevant references and insightful comments, as well as extremely helpful editing suggestions.  her valuable contributions are acknowledged with gratitude."]

[February 1997.  A paperback edition of Rushton's Race, Evolution and Behavior is released.  The back cover and publisher's promotional material feature a quote from Gottfredson's  Politics and the Life Sciences review the book (the opening line of the review).  This edition includes a new afterword by Rushton in which he cites her review.]

Whitaker, William A.  White Male Applicant:  An Affirmative Action Exposé.  Smyrna, Delaware:   Apropos Press, 1997.
    [The author included a chapter on race norming largely based on Gottfredson.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy U.S. Justice Department:  A Case Study."  Unpublished paper, February 6, 1997.
   [To appear in the APA journal Psychology, Public Policy, and Law.   Available online at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/gottfredson3.html .]

Gottfredson, Linda S. "TDAC's Defense of Its Nassau County Police Exam Makes My Point." Unpublished paper, February 28, 1997.
    [Available at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/gottfredson4.html .]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  Review of Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science by Byron M. Roth.  In Political Psychology 18 (March 1997):  209-215.
    [This is part of a paired review of Roth.  The other evaluation of the book, by David O Sears of UCLA, appears on pages 215-222.]

O'Neil, Robert M.  Free Speech in the College Community.  Bloomington and Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 1997.
   [Published March 1997.  Chapter 8, on the permissible limits on freedom of academic research, contains a long discussion of the Gottfredson case at Delaware.]

[5 March 1997.   Gottfredson posts a message on the IPMAAC mailing list informing readers that she has put two new papers on the IPMAAC website.  They are "Racially Gerrymandering the Content of Police Tests to Satisfy U.S. Justice Department: A Case Study" (February 6, 1997) and "TDAC's Defense of Its Nassau County Police Exam Makes My Point" (February 28, 1997).]

[13-14 March 1997.  The Personnel Testing Council of Northern California holds its 11th annual spring conference in Sacramento.  Gottfredson speaks on merit-based selection.]

[24 March 1997.  68 co-plaintiffs file suit against Nassau county in federal district court. They are represented by the Atlantic Legal Foundation, which, like Gottfredson, has received Pioneer Fund grants.]

[12 April 1997.  Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), in St Louis.   Gottfredson presents a paper, "Vacuous Defense of a Hollow Test:   Commentary on the 1994 Nassau County Police Exam," at a session on "Police Selection in Nassau County:  Validity and Demographic Diversity."   The paper is available online at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/gottfredson5.html .  Paul R Sackett and Kevin R Murphy also participated in the session.  See the paper by Frank Schmidt, "Comments on the 1997 SIOP Symposium on the Nassau County Police Test," April 1997, which is available online at http://www.ipmaac.org/nassau/schmidt2.html .  Schmidt writes:  "This symposium may have been the most popular event on the program at the ... [SIOP meeting].  More than 300 people attended it.  The idea for this symposium came from Linda Gottfredson, and it was her intent that I be on the panel, to ensure some semblance of balance.  But panel members involved in developing the Nassau test, and who were defending it, threatened to withdraw if I was included.  So the panel wound up with only one critic of the test (Linda) and many defenders -- a very unbalanced panel."
    Also see Frank W. Erwin, "SIOP - St. Louis - 1997 and The Nassau County Police Test Symposium," June 1997, available at http://www.ipmaac.org/nassau/erwin.html .  Erwin writes:  "There was ... on event -- an 'invited' symposium on the Nassau County Police Test -- which wasn't really invited or a symposium at all.  It was a one-sided gangup instead of the debate it could and should have been and Linda Gottfredson, who was alone on the dais in terms of position, had been denied the debate she requested, or even a more balanced group.  She had asked, for example, that Frank Schmidt be on the panel and even offered to give him half of her time instead of additional time, but those involved in developing the Nassau work threatened to withdraw if he were to be included.  Although Dr. Gottfredson held her own her view and the view of many other leading professionals on the Nassau project, there have been a number of demonizings and misleading representations made about Dr. Gottfredson and the Nassau project which could have been cleared up had those attending been given a more balanced presentation.  Because she has objected to what was done in Nassau, Linda Gottfredson has been called a racist, she has had previous views misrepresented, she has been castigated in terms of funding she's received on other works (as if the Justice Department's money, support or coercion was angelic) and she has been falsely and repeatedly repeatedly accused of having been paid to review the Nassau work.  She's also been chastised by the developers for not asking for the Nassau report's missing data before she wrote her Wall Street Journal article."]

Barnes, John A.  "Quota Hires in Blue." The Weekly Standard 2 (April 14, 1997):  15-16.
   [Barnes is an editorial writer for the New York Post.    He writes:  "... as Linda Gottfredson, a University of Delaware education professor who analyzed the validation criteria that were used to grade the test, commented, the Nassau exam constitutes 'a case study in racially gerrymandering the content of a test.' ... After Gottfredson published her findings in the Wall Street Journal last October, then-assistant attorney general for civil rights Deval Patrick replied with an exceedingly tendentious letter in which he refused to rebut the professor's arguments in detail.  He blandly asserted, without offering evidence, that the Nassau test would 'improve the police department.'  Patrick then added the scurrilous (and totally false) charge that Gottfredson had a financial interest in discrediting the Nassau test.  The likely upshot?  As Gottfredson herself noted, the consequences of dumbing-down police tests are already well known."   Gottfredson arranged for Barnes's article to be posted on the IPMAAC web site at www.ipmaac.org/nassau/wklystd.html .]

[May 1997.  Law and Order magazine carries a report on the Nassau County controversy.]

[20 May 1997.  Linda Gottfredson testifies before the Constitution Subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee on the U.S. Department of Justice's involvement with the 1994 Nassau County Police Entrance Examination.  The text of her testimony is available online at http://www.ipmaac.org/nassau/gottfredson6.html .]

[22-23 May 1997.  Conference on "Vocational Interests: Meaning, Measurement, and Use in Counseling," at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, PA, co-sponsored by the Society for Vocational Psychology, Lehigh's counseling psychology program, and the Behavioral Sciences Department of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM).  This was the third conference in the "Advances in Vocational Psychology" series.  Its organizers were Arnold R. Spokane of Lehigh University and Mark L. Savickas of NEOUCOM.  Gottfredson spoke on the first day.  Her lecture, entitled "Origin and Development of Interests," was described in Vocational Psychology News 8 (Spring-Summer 1997):  "Linda Gottfredson, Ph.D. then examined [vocational] interests in terms of behavioral genetics and heritability.  Dr. Gottfredson described the synergy of heredity and environment, commenting that environment may spark hereditary predispositions by providing opportunities for realizing those predispositions."]

[9 June 1997.  Gottfredson posts a message, "New Commentary and Testimony on Nassau Controversy," on the IPMAAC mailing list, informing readers that Frank Schmidt's commentary on the April 12th SIOP symposium and her own May 20th House testimony are now available on the IPMAAC website.]

Price, David A.  "Dumbing Down the Police Force:  For Diversity's Sake, Feds Fight Cognitive Tests."  Investor's Business Daily (June 13, 1997)
    [Available at http://www.ipmaac.org/nassau/ibd.html .  The author quotes Gottfredson:  "'Police jobs, like all middle- and high-complexity jobs, require cognitive skills,' said Linda Gottfredson of the University of Delaware education department, a critic of Justice's campaign.  'The research shows that cognitive tests will to some extent predict performance in those jobs'."]

[17 June 1997.  Robert A. Gordon, "How Smart Are We About What We Broadcast:  An Open Letter to ABC News."  This is available at www.pioneerfund.org/ABCletter.html .   Gordon writes:  "The two American Agenda segments on intelligence, using different reporters, thus cannily excluded from the discussion of scientific issues scientists who were interviewed at length by ABC News, such as Professors Gordon, Linda Gottfredson, and Philippe Rushton, who could have addressed scientific criticisms knowledgeably if afforded an opportunity to do so ... Long interviews recorded with two of these individuals [i.e., Gottfredson and Rushton] were not included at all in either segment ... No notice at all, in fact, was taken of the large amount of material supplied to you by Professor Linda Gottfredson and me of the stature of many Pioneer recipients and their frequent citation in a standard work on intelligence other than The Bell Curve."]

[22-26 June 1997.  International Personnel Management Association Assessment Council (IPMAAC) Conference on Professional Personnel Assessment, in Newport Beach, CA (see http://www.ipmaac.org/conf97.html .)  On June 25th, Gottfredson is the Mid-Atlantic Personnel Assessment Consortium (MAPAC) Invited Speaker.  She reads "The Flight from g in Employment Testing" (see http://ipmaac.org/files/conf97/gottfredson.pdf .)]

Schmidt, Frank.  Review of The Mismeasure of Man (revised and expanded) by Stephen Jay Gould.  In Personnel Psychology 50 (Summer 1997):   485-489.
    [Cites Gottfredson, "Why g Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life," Psychology, Public Policy, and Law (in press).]

[24-26 September 1997.  Fall Meeting of the Mid-Atlantic Personnel Assessment Consortium, in Baltimore.  Gottfredson speaks on "Cognitive Ability Testing."  See Assessment Council News, August 1997.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Race in the U.S.A.:  We've Come a Long Way, Baby?"  Review of America in Black and White by Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom.  In Washington Times (September 28, 1997), B8.

Gottfredson, Linda S., and Richard T. Lapan.  "Assessing Gender-Based Circumscription of Occupational Aspirations."  Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997):  419-442.
   
Cited in:
    Leonore W Harmon, "Do Gender Differences Necessitate Separate Career Development Theories and Measures?," Journal of Career Assessment 5 (Fall 1997): 463-470

Gottfredson, Linda S.  Review of Inequality by Design:  Cracking the Bell Curve Myth by Claude S. Fischer, et. al.  In Personnel Psychology 50 (Autumn 1997):  741-74

Seligman, Dan.  "The Gary Cooper Factor."  Forbes (November 3, 1997):
    [Refers to the issue of Intelligence edited by Gottfredson.]

Shearer, Stevan Ray.  "Racism and The Bell Curve:  Christians Had Better Be Careful."  In An Anthology:  Selected Articles from Three Years of Religion in Politics, edited by Stevan Ray Shearer.  Sacramento:   Institute for the Study of Religion in Politics, 1997.
   [" ... the references that [Herrnstein and Murray] cite in The Bell Curve do little to alleviate the fear the book has engendered in the minority communities.  For example, they approvingly allude to the works of men and women like William Shockley, Arthur Jensen, Linda Gottfredson, and J. Philippe Rushton - scholars whose research, they contend, has been maligned by ideologically motivated 'environmentalists,' 'egalitarians,' and 'politically correct' liberals.  The authors strenuously contend that Shockley, Jensen, Gottfredson, Rushton, etc. are nothing more than tough-minded scientists who are courageously pursuing the truth in the face of great personal danger and academic ostracism ...
    "Rushton, along with nearly all those who are similarly engaged, is a major recipient of Pioneer grants.  This includes Arthur Jensen, William Shockley, Linda Gottfredson, Thomas Bouchard ... , as well as Richard Lynn."   This essay was reprinted from the journal Religion in Politics and is available at http://www.isrp.org/bellcrv.html .]

Levin, Michael.  Why Race Matters:  Race Differences and What They Mean.   Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence Series, edited by Seymour Itzkoff.   Westport, Connecticut:  Praeger, 1997.

 

1998

Andrews, Louis R.  "Does Race Matter?:  New Developments."  pinc 2 (February 1998):
    [pinc is an on-line journal edited by Gavan Tredoux, who also maintains the Upstream website.  Andrews' article is at http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/pinc/feb98/lrand-race.html .  He is on pinc's editorial board and maintains the Stalking the Wild Taboo website.  He writes:  "The Thernstroms [in America in Black and White] note that there has been little change in the relative wages of black versus white men since the early 1970s.  They have lots of interesting data about the effect, or lack of effect, of affirmative action on black employment.  However, it is curious that they do not once mention the pioneering work of Linda Gottfredson on black employment.
    "[Michael] Levin [in Why Race Matters] summarizes Gottfredson's work, originally published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior in 1986 and 1988.  Using US Department of Labor IQ estimates for various job descriptions from meat cutter to physician, Gottfredson demonstrates that blacks are more numerous in higher IQ level positions that [sic]  their IQ would allow based on population size.  Instead of discrimination against blacks in these areas there appears to have been discrimination in favor of blacks."]

Miele, Frank.  "IQ in Review:  Getting at the Hyphen in the Nature-Nurture Debate."  Review of Intelligence (vol. 24, no. 1) edited by Linda S. Gottfredson, The Scientific Study of Human Nature edited by Helmuth Nyborg, Uniting Psychology and Biology edited by Nancy Segal, Glen E. Weisfeld, and C.C. Weisfeld, Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment edited by Robert J. Sternberg and Elena Grigorenko, and American Psychologist (vol. 52, no. 10).   In Skeptic 5 (1997):  91-95.

[9 March 1998.  Louis R. Andrews posts a message on the American Renaissance and Upstream mailing lists:  "The latest issue of Skeptic has an article - "IQ in Review: Getting at the Hyphen in the Nature-Nurture Debate" - which reviews the most recent publications including the special issue of Intelligence by Linda Gottfredson.  Very well done and recommended."]

[3 May 1998.  Gottfredson message on the HBE-L mailing list:  "I have followed the discussion of intelligence with great interest.  I second the suggestion that people look at Art Jensen's new book, THE g FACTOR.  You might also find useful the Jan 97 special issue of the journal INTELLIGENCE, which was devoted to 'Intelligence and Social Policy.'
"I would be happy to snail mail that issue (gratis) to anyone who emails me their address ... "]

[14 May 1998.  A message posted on the ANTHRO-L list by Andrew Smyth on the subject "Egalitarians Who Have Changed Their Minds" states:  "Linda S. Gottfredson once espoused egalitarian views but slowly changed her mind."  A second message on the subject "Quotes from Linda Gottfredson" posted by him the same day quotes a long passage from her Winter 1996 article in American Scholar.]

[21-23 May 1998.  Fourth Biennial Henry B. and Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on Talent Development, University of Iowa, Iowa City.  Gottfredson is an invited presenter.  (Others include Douglas K. Detterman and David Lubinski.)]

 

"Forthcoming"

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Intelligence versus Training: Job Performance and Black-White Occupational Inequality."  Personality and Individual Differences
   [Gottfredson cited this as forthcoming "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior (1986) and "Reconsidering Fairness," Journal of Vocational Behavior (1988).   Nothing by her has appeared in Personality and Individual Differences.]

Revised:  June 29, 1998

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