Donald Arthur Swan (1935-1981)

[28 March 1935.  Donald Arthur Swan is born in Jersey City, NJ.  He is the only child of a working-class couple, Arthur James Swan and Daisy Mae Swan, who had immigrated from Liverpool, England in 1929.   They are relatively old when he is born;  his mother is 32-34 yr. old.   The parents divorced when he was young and he was raised by his mother in Queens Village.  He was precociously intelligent but in poor health (with juvenile-onset diabetes) and temperamentally difficult.]

[February 1951.  Swan enters Queens College at the age of 15.  In a 1987 interview, his mother said sorrowfully that he was "ruined" by being thrown in with older students.  Apparently he did come into contact with people who influenced his development into a committed racist.]

[February 1952.  Swan is granted "a leave of absence at the request of the college following numerous incidents involving [Swan] which resulted in disturbances of the peace on the college campus.  There were conferences between [Swan], his mother and the college officials as a result of which he went on 'leave'."  He was disciplined for racist and anti-Semitic activity on campus.]

[April 1953.  Swan applies for reinstatement at Queens College.]

[May 1953.  Swan is informed that he has been granted reinstatement on probation for the Summer 1953 semester.]

[July 1953.   Swan is "again interviewed by the dean of students [at Queens College] at which conference [Swan] agreed to discontinue the type of actions which led to his suspension."]

[1954.  Swan graduates from Queens College.]

 

Swan, Donald A.  "Likes Fascism."  Letter.  In Exposé, no. 34 (September 1954), 4.
   [This letter sheds unique light on the development of Swan's political attitudes.  In it he calls himself an "American Fascist."
    Exposé was tabloid paper of the publisher Lyle Stuart. It was established in 1951 and renamed Independent in 1956.  It was published for a while out of Mad magazine's building.  Paul Krassner wrote for it.  It adopted a mildly prurient that rested uneasily with  pretensions to serious muckraking.  Its subjects included such things as sexology, quack health cures, atheism, the Catholic Church, conspiracies, Nazis, etc.  Its masthead said it ran stories "most papers dare not print."
    Swan's letter is a response to a confessional piece by H. Keith Thompson Jr., a leading American representative of the Nazi underground, entitled "I Am an American Fascist," the first part of which appeared in August issue.  On Thompson, see Martin A. Lee, The Beast Awakens (Boston: Little, Brown, 1997).   It is unclear whether Thompson ever had any direct contact with Swan, but they may have traveled in the same political circles.  Both Swan and Thompson had long relationships with Willis Carto.
    A copy of the issue of Exposé that contains Swan's letter is in the H. Keith Thompson section of the Hoover Institution Special Collection Library, Stanford University.  The Hoover Institution's extensive holdings of the Exposé, as well as of Right, Northern World , and The Northlander were a gift from Thompson.]

[1954-1955 to 1957.  Swan is a graduate student in economics at Columbia University.  He is eventually expelled and denied a degree after having been found to have stolen many books from the Columbia library.  He later claimed that his treatment by the university was a case of political persecution.]

[1958. "En 1958, il avait été nommé expert économique dans un important cabinet de gestion commerciale" (Nouvelle école).]

 

1959

[April 1959. In Supreme Court of NY, Queens County, 10 people file a certificate for incorporation for the Association for the Preservation of Freedom of Choice (APFC). They include Swan, Alfred Avins, Henry Garrett, et. al. This group brings together for the first time some people who will become important racist propagandists during the 1960s.]

[23 April 1959.  The International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, Inc., is chartered in Baltimore.  The three incorporators were:
                                                          A. James Gregor [q.v.]
                                                          Robert E. Kuttner [q.v.]
                                                          Lawson Purdy.
Purdy was an eminent old New Yorker.  He was a prominent supporter of Henry George and was Tax Commissioner of the City of New York, a founder of the National Tax Association, and a prominent figure in the Charity Organization Society and the City Club of New York.  There were three witnesses to the incorporation:
                                                          Donald A. Swan
                                                          Arthur J. Swan  (his father)
                                                          W.J. Neilan  (New York lawyer).
The initial officers were:
                                                          President:             Robert E. Kuttner
                                                          Vice-President:     John Brockenbrough Fox
                                                          Secretary:             A. James Gregor
                                                          Treasurer:             Donald A. Swan.
Fox (born 1916) was a Baltimore attorney.  He also served as IAAEE's initial registered agent.  He was the author of "Morality and the Empire," a letter to the editor of National Review 7 (August 15, 1959), p. 237, in which he disputed a claim that had been made in the magazine that Sir Oswald Mosley's racist solution to "the Notting Hill problem" was unthinkable and that it would undermine the moral basis of the Empire.  He also wrote a review of Nathaniel Weyl's The Negro in American Civilization in Mankind Quarterly 1 (January 1961), pp. 223-225.   The first issue of Western Destiny (June 1964) carried an ad for IAAEE that used Fox's law office for its Treasurer's address.
    The notary to the incorporation was Alfred Avins.  The founding members of IAAEE's executive committee included:
                                                          Robert Gayre
                                                          R. Ruggles Gates
                                                          Henry E. Garrett
                                                          Corrado Gini
                                                          Charles C. Tansill
                                                          Heinrich Quiring.]

[13 May 1959.  Supreme Court of NY, Queens County (Shapiro, Judge) denies approval to APFC's certificate of incorporation.  See 17 Misc. 2d 1012 and 187 NYS 2d 706.]

"Judge Denies Charter to Hate Group Here." New York Post (May 14, 1959),

"Freedom Outfit Biased, Judge Rules." Long Island Press (May 14, 1959),

[16 May 1959. Avins letter to Judge Shapiro.]

[18 May 1959.  Judge Shapiro's opinion appears in NY Law Journal, p 14, col 3.]

[3 June 1959.  Neilan and Avins memorandum in support of application.  They send it and a letter to Judge Shapiro on June 4th.]

[16 June 1959.  Judge Shapiro tells Neilan, who is trying to arrange a hearing date, that he is reconsidering his opinion and that they should follow the NY Law Journal for developments.]

[23 June 1959.  Avins, Charles C Tansill and Louis Martin Sears sign a DC certificate of incorporation for APFC.
    Sears (6/4/1885 - 5/14/1960) is the least significant.  At 74, he is a year from death.  He also is listed on the 1960 DC certificate of incorporation of the APFC Legal Education Fund, along with Avins & Sam Crutchfield.  He was born in Chicago & educated at the University of Chicago (A.B. 1905, A.M. 1909, & Ph.D. 1922).  He taught high school in Chicago as a young man and then spent 36 years on the history faculty at Purdue University (1920-1956). His books include:
                        The Puritan and His Indian Wards (1916)
                        The Middle States & the Embargo of 1808 (1922)
                        John Slidell (1925)
                        Purdue University (1925)
                        Philadelphia and the Embargo of 1808 (1925)
                        Jefferson & the Embargo (1927)
                        A History of American Foreign Relations (1927)
                        American Presidents (1933)
                        George Washington (1932)
                        George Washington & the French Revolution (1958).
The APFC certificate listed Sears' address as the Cosmos Club, Washington, DC (of which Tansill also is a member).  He was an old friend of Tansill & also a defender of the revisionist historiography of WW1 & WW2 that is associated with Tansill.  See his "Historical Revisionism Following the Two World Wars," in Issues & Conflicts: Studies in Twentieth Century American Diplomacy, ed. George L Anderson, 127-46 (Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press 1959).]

[9 July 1959.  Judge Shapiro again denies approval to APFC for incorporation.  See 18 Misc. 2d 534 and 188 NYS 2d 885.]

[14 July 1959.  New York Law Journal publishes Shapiro's second opinion at p. 4, col. 8 and p. 5, cols. 3,4.]

"Charter Denied to 'Hate' Group." New York Times (July 15, 1959), 12.

"Court Refuses to Charter Hate Group."  New York Post (July 15, 1959).

"Persecution of the Right."  Right, no. 47 (August 1959): 2.
      [Right is a publication of Willis Carto's group. "No New York Zionist has ever told the NAACP or the B'nai Brith that it could not promote its peculiar racial ideals. But Judge Irving Shapiro has just ruled that the ASSOCIATION FOR FREEDOM OF CHOICE [sic] cannot get a corporate charter in New York because it is a 'hate group.' Headed by some brave patriots, the group had intended to promote the ancient Anglo-Saxon concept of freedom of choice. Thus another sordid example of Zionist perversion of traditional Nordic-American concepts of law and individual liberty, to say nothing of legal discrimination against the White Christian in his 'own' country."]

[7 August 1959. The Association for the Preservation of Freedom of Choice is incorporated in the District of Columbia.]

[15 August 1959.  APFC presents certificate of DC incorporation for approval in New York.]

[6 October 1959.  Court order dismissing Swan's petition in Swan v. Columbia University.]

[6 October 1959.  Judge Shapiro signs order denying approval.]

[22 October 1959.  Final order in Swan v. Columbia University, amending the court's October 6th order.   Denies Swan's application under article 78 of the Civil Practice Act, dismisses his petition, with $20 costs to the respondent.]

[16 November 1959.  Supreme Court of NY, Appellate Division, 2nd Dept., rejects the APFC's appeal of Judge Shapiro's decision.]

"Psychological Warfare at Work."  Review of Brain-Washing: A Synthesis of the Soviet Textbook on Psychopolitics by Kenneth Goff.  In Northern World 4 (Yule 1959/60):   39-43.
   [Roger Pearson established Northern World in 1956. The present issue, vol. 4, no. 2, is the first one to list "Edward Langford" rather than Pearson as editor.
    This article seems to refer to Swan.  Kenneth Goff was a an ex-communist recruit to the radical right.  He worked for Gerald L.K. Smith and more recently has operated a church in Colorado.  His book was distributed in the UK by the racist and anti-Semitic Britons Publishing Co., and still sometimes appears on the reading lists of radical right wing groups.  At p. 39 of the review:  "Goff employs the expressive term 'psychopolitics', and reveals how political propaganda can be given especial weight and power when aligned with 'mental health'. Those who accept the required political tenets are then described as 'socially adjusted' while those who prefer independence of spirit and mind are labeled as 'mentally ill'..."
    At p. 41 the reviewer continues: "... any individual who revolts against the approved ideologies ... can be labeled as 'ill-adjusted' to his fellows, or plainly and simply 'mentally-ill'. An excellent example of this was found in the schoolboy at Queen's College in America, who founded a 'Nordic League', in what was a racially mixed school.  This youth was promptly handed over to a panel of 'experts', who were honest enough, in this instance, to admit that he was quite fit, and after tests actually announced that his I.Q. rating was brilliant."  (Emphasis added.)   The schoolboy referred to here almost certainly was Swan.]

 

1960

[5 February 1960.  Avins letter to New York Secretary of State Simon, submitting a copy of the APFC's certificate of incorporation for filing.]

[8 February 1960.  Having gotten no response to his February 5th submission to New York Secretary of State Simon, Avins makes an oral demand for filing at the Secretary of State's NYC office.  The demand is refused.]

[10 February 1960.  The APFC initiates a mandamus proceeding in State Court seeking an order to compel New York Secretary of State Simon to file its certificate of incorporation, despite the fact that it lacks approval of a State Supreme Court Justice.]

[12 February 1960.  New York Secretary of State Simon issues a press release on the APFC.]

[May, Ronald W.]   "Draper Grants Adviser Helped Try to Form N.Y. Hate Group."  York Gazette and Daily (March 9, 1960), 1, 18.
    [On page 18:  "Heading the group was Donald A. Swan of Queens Village, N.Y., who has described himself as an 'American Fascist,' according to the New York Post.]

[11 March 1960.  Avins, Sam S. Crutchfield and Louis Sears sign the DC certificate of incorporation for the APFC Legal Education Fund.  Sears, the oldest and least active of the three, dies within a few months.]

[14 March 1960.  DC certificate of incorporation filed for APFC Legal Education Fund.]

May, Ronald W.  In Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin), March 18, 1960

"Books and Pamphlets on the Right."  Right, no. 55 (April 1960):  6.
   ["The ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRESERVATION OF FREEDOM OF CHOICE has had reprints made of a 37-page, annotated article by its counsel [Alfred Avins] titled, 'Anti-Discrimination Legislation as an Infringement on Freedom of Choice.'  First printed in the New York Law Forum.  25c from Sam Critchfield [sic], 909 20th St., N.W., Washington 6, D.C."]

[1 April 1960.  In the Supreme Court of New York, Special Term, New York County, Part I, in APFC v. Simon, the court denies the APFC's petition for an order compelling Simon to file its certificate of incorporation and hold the statutes to be constitutional.  See 22 Misc. 2d 1016 and 201 NYS 2d 135.]

[18 April 1960.  In Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 2nd Department, in APFC v. Shapiro, the court denies the APFC's application for an order directing Judge Shapiro to reverse his decision and upholds his refusal to sign and approve its certificate of incorporation.   See 202 NYS 2d 218.]

May, Ronald.  "Genetics and Subversion."  Nation 190 (May 14, 1960):  420-422.
   [On page 422 May writes:  "... Garrett ... was one of a group of New Yorkers who a year ago sought a certificate of incorporation from the Queens County, N.Y., Supreme Court to form an 'Association for the Preservation of Freedom of Choice.'   Heading the petitioners was Donald A. Swan, whom the New York Post has referred to as a 'self-described American Fascist'."]

[14 May 1960.  Louis Martin Sears, a DC incorporator of the APFC and the APFC Legal Education Fund, dies.]

[26 May 1960.  In the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 1st Department, in Swan v. Columbia University, the court accepts Swan's appeal.  See 10 AD 2d 942 and 205 NYS 2d 03.]

[30 (or 3) May 1960.  Action commenced in APFC and Donald Swan v. New York Post.]

[21 June 1960.  In Supreme Court of NY, Appellate Division, 1st Department, in Swan v. Columbia University, the court unanimously upholds lower court's order dismissing Swan's petition.  See 11 AD 2d 670.]

[July 1960.  The first issue of Mankind Quarterly is published.]

[August 1960.  Letter  from Swan to Dr. J.M. Tabb of the Mississippi Department of Education, proposing that the Mississippi Department of Education purchase subscriptions to Mankind Quarterly for distribution to state educators and school superintendents.]

[14 September 1960.  Letter from Dr. J.M. Tabb to Swan, indicating that he has passed Swan's request for subscriptions to Mankind Quarterly along to Ada Sumrall, the Library Supervisor for the Mississippi Department of Education.]

 

1961

[20 February 1961.   Arguments are heard in the cases of APFC v. Shapiro and APFC v. Simon.]

[14 March 1961.  The Court of Claims dismisses APFC v State of New York.  See 26 Misc. 2d 929.]

[30 March 1961.  The Court of Appeals of New York reaches decisions in the cases of APFC v. Shapiro and APFC v. Simon.  See 9 NYS 2d 376.]

[31 March 1961.  In the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 1st Department, motions are filed in the cases of APFC v. The Nation Associates and APFC v. Kirstein.   See 13 AD 2d 493.]

 

Wesley, David.  Hate Groups and the Un-American Activities Committee.  New York:  Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, 1961.
    [This pamphlet was published on April 3, 1961.  It included a discussion of the APFC and gave rise to a libel action.  A 2nd revised edition appeared in 1962.] 

[6 June 1961.  In the case of APFC v. The Nation Associates, the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 1st Department, denies motion to add appeal to its calendar.]

[8 June 1961.  Letter from Swan to Ada Sumrall (Mississippi State Department of Education).  "Dr. A. James Gregor (see enclosed photostat of article entitled 'On the Nature of Prejudice') and I will make a two-week trip in July through several of the Southern states in order to discuss educational projects in the fields of race and race relations with state educational officials.  If it would be convenient for you, we would like to get together with you and any other interested officials at that time."]

[9 June 1961.  In the case of APFC v. Dudley, the Supreme Court of New York, Special Term, New York County, dismisses the APFC's petition seeking to annul the New York State Commission Against Discrimination's dismissal of the APFC's complaint alleging an unlawful conspiracy to foist a Negro President on the Borough of Manhattan.  See 29 Misc. 2d 710 and 222 NYS 2d 631.]

[12 July 1961.  In US District Court for the Southern District of New York (Thomas Murphy, D.J.), APFC v. Simon is initiated by filing and service of summons and complaint.]

[27 July 1961.  Notice to Avins of a motion to dismiss the complaint against Simon.]

[1 August 1961.  Alfred Avins files a motion requesting a three-judge panel in APFC v. Simon.]

[9 August 1961.  US District Court Judge Thomas Murphy denies the APFC's motion requesting that APFC v. Simon be heard by a three-judge panel.]

[15 August 1961. In US District Court, Southern District of New York (Thomas Murphy, District Judge), in APFC v. Simon, the defendant moves to dismiss and the plaintiff cross-moves for summary judgment.]

Comas, Juan.   "'Scientific' Racism Again?" Current Anthropology 2 (October 1961):  303-340.

[9 October 1961.  In US District Court, Southern District of New York (Thomas Murphy, District Judge), in APFC and APFC Legal Education Fund v. Simon, the court dismisses the complaint.]

[31 October 1961.  The Supreme Court of New York, Special Term, New York County, Part I. APFC and Swan v. Pickering.   See 226 NYS 2d 857 and 31 Misc. 2d 847.]

[8 November 1961.  APFC and APFC Legal Education Fund v. Simon.  Notice of appeal from US District Court to the US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.]

[7 December 1961.  In APFC and APFC Legal Education Fund v Simon, Avins files Brief for Appellants with US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.]

[8 December 1961.  Order of the Appellate Division in APFC and Donald Swan v. Kirstein and the Nation Company.]

[14 December 1961.  The Court of Claims dismisses the complaint in APFC v. State of New York.   (See 14 March 1961.)  See 30 Misc. 2d 808.]

 

1962

[15 January 1962.  US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit gets and files the Defendant-Appelle's Appendix in APFC & APFC Legal Education Fund v. Simon.]

[18 January 1962.  Complaint is filed in US District Court, Southern District of Georgia, in Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education.]

[19 January 1962. US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.  Arguments in APFC v. Wagner and APFC v. Simon.]

[6 February 1962.  Motion in APFC v. Kirstein and APFC v. Nation Associates, Inc.]

[6 February 1962.  US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, dismisses appeals in APFC v. Wagner (see 298 F2d 522) and APFC v. Simon (see 299 F2d 212).]

Swan, Donald A.  "Juan Comas on ''Scientific' Racism Again?':  A Scientific Analysis."  Mankind Quarterly 2 (April-June 1962):  231-45.
   [This was Swan's first article in Mankind Quarterly. He had just turned 27.]

Reuning, Helmut.   "Psychological Tests of the Kalahari Bushmen." Mankind Quarterly 2 (April-June 1962):  265-73.
   [Translated from the German by Swan.  Reuning (b. 1914 in SW Africa), was educated in Germany and fought in Wehrmaht on the Eastern Front during World War II.  Beginning in 1952 he worked at the National Institute for Personnel Research in South Africa, where he was coeditor of its journal, Psychologia Africana.   He was associated with the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics.]

Lundman, Bertil.   "Race, Language, and the History of Peoples." Mankind Quarterly 2 (April-June 1962): 274-79.
   [Translated from German by Swan.]

[3 May 1962.  Supreme Court, Special Term, New York County, Part 1.  APFC and Swan v. NY Post Corporation.  See 228 N.Y.S.2d 767 and 35 Misc. 2d 65.]

[3 May 62.  Supreme Court, Special Term, New York County, Part 1.  APFC and Swan and Avins v. Nation Co.  See 228 N.Y.S.2d 628 and 35 Misc. 2d 42.]

[22 June 1962.  Plaintiff's motion number 15 in APFC and Swan v. Kirstein and the Nation.]

[25 June 1962.  Supreme Court, Special Term, New York County, denies a motion for renewal in APFC v. New York Post.]

[July-Sept 62.  Mankind Qtrly, vol. 3, no. 1.  This was the first issue to list Swan as an Assistant Editor (with Robert E. Kuttner and A. James Gregor).]

[3 July 1962.  Supreme Court, Special Term, New York County, Part 1.  In APFC and Swan v. Kirstein and the Nation Co, the court denies Avins' motion for summary judgment and grants defendants' motion to dismiss the cause of action on behalf of the corporate plaintiff.   See 231 N.Y.S.2d 937.]

[19 July 1962.  Donald Swan commences an action against the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, in New York Supreme Court, County of New York.  The action is based on the treatmetn Swan received while at Queens College.  The court eventually grants a motion to dismiss the action.]

[20 July 1962. Donald Swan commences a second action against the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, this one in US District Court for the Southern District of New York.]

[14 August 1962.  In the action Swan commenced in US District Court (S.D.N.Y.) on 20 July, the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York moves to have Swan's complaint dismissed.]

[22 August 1962.  New York Law Journal, p 7.  Opinion of Justice Amsterdam (New York State Supreme Court, County of New York) dismissing APFC Legal Education Fund and Swan v. Gustave G Rosenberg, as Chairman of the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York (Index no. 12274/1962).]

[23 August 1962.  Swan v. Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, et. al. (Index no. 14473/1962) is filed in New York State Supreme Court, New York County.  It is eventually dismissed.]

[10 September 1962.  In US District Court, Southern District of New York (Metzner, District Judge), in Swan v. Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, the Federal action Swan commenced on July 20th, the court dismisses the complaint as barred by the statute of limitations.]

[~13 September 1962.  An amended complaint filed in Swan v. Board of Higher Education, without having obtained the leave of the court to do so.  (This is a procedural error.)]

[14 September 1962.  An amended complaint is served in APFC v. Emergency Civil Liberties Committee.]

[17 September 1962.  In Swan v. Board of Higher Education, an attorney for Board of Higher Education returns the amended complaint he has been served.  He indicates that since no leave of the court had been obtained, he would treat the complaint as a nullity.]

[19 October 1962.  In the Federal action, Swan v. Board of Higher Education, that Swan had commenced in US District Court (Southern District of New York) on July 20th, the Court (Metzner, D.J.) grants a motion for reargument of the September 10th order dismissing the complaint.]

[9 November 1962.  In the action that Swan had commenced in US District Court (S.D.N.Y.) on July 20th, he serves notice of a motion returnable on November 20th seeking a default judgment against the Board of Higher Education for failing to respond to the amended complaint served on September 17th.]

[26 November 1962.  In the action Swan commenced in US District Court (S.D.N.Y.) on July 20th, the Court denies Swan's November 9th motion for a default judgment against Board of HigherEducation for failing to respond to the amended complaint that was served on September 17th.]

[6 December 1962.  In US District Court for the Southern District of New York (Metzner, District Judge), in Swan v. Board of Higher Education, after reargument the court announces that it will continue to adhere to its September 10th decision.]

[11 December 1962.  Supreme Courtt, Special Term, County of New York.  APFC, et al v. Emergency Civil Liberties Committee.  See 236 NYS 2d 216 and 37 Misc. 2d 599.]

[28 December 1962.  Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Div, 3rd Department, affirms the lower court's order in APFC v. State of New York.  See 18 AD 2d 747.]

[~1962.  Symposium on Anti-Discrimination Legislation, Freedom of Choice, and Property Rights in Housing, organized by Alfred Avins, who intended to publish its proceedings in the  April 1963 issue of the Chicago-Kent Law Review, of which he was faculty editor.   Ultimately the university administration objected to his use of the journal as a platform for his racial views and the symposium papers had to be published elsewhere.]

 

1963

[22 January 1963.  Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 1st Department, renders a decision in APFC v. The Nation, APFC v. Kirstein, and APFC v. Pickering.   It grants a motion to dismiss the appeal in each action.  See 18 AD2d 791.]

[31 January 1963.  Motion to intervene in Stell v. Savannah.]

[11 March 1963.  The first instance of mail fraud for which Swan eventually serves time in prison.]

[18 March 1963.  US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, gets a Brief of Defendants-Appelles in Swan v. Board of Higher Education.]

[26 March 1963.  The second instance of mail fraud of which Swan is convicted in 1967.]

[6 May 1963.  US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, hears arguments in Swan v. Board of Higher Education.]

[28 May 1963.  Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 1st Department, affirms the lower court's decision dismissing APFC v. New York Post.  See 19 AD2d 528.]

[29 May 63.  Supplemental Brief and Argument in Support of Motion to Intervene, in Stell v. Savannah.]

[May 1963. Hearing in Stell.]

[4 June 1963.  US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, renders a decision in Swan v. Board of Higher Education of the City of NY.]

[28 June 1963. Stell v. Savannah.   In US District Court for the Southern District of Georgia, District Judge Frank M Scarlett enters a final opinion and judgment.]

Lundman, Bertil.  Review of The Island Civilization of Polynesia by Robert G. Suggs.  In Mankind Quarterly 4 (July-September 1963):  57.
   [Translated by Swan.]

Lundman, Bertil.  Review of Le Razze e l'Popoli della Terra by Renato Biasutti.  In Mankind Quarterly 4 (July-September 1963):  60.
   [Translated by Swan.]

 

1964

Lundman, Bertil.   "Professor Egon von Eickstedt:  World-Renowned Anthropologist."   Mankind Quarterly 4 (January-March 1964):  161-64.
   [Translated by Swan.]

[20 January 1964.  Arguments before 5th Circuit Court of Appeals in Brown v. Charleston.]

[27 January 1964.  The 5th Circuit Court of Appeals hands down its decision in Brown v. Charleston.]

[Feb 1964. The Anatomy of a Controversy, Part III. Mankind Monographs VI. Edinburgh: Mankind Quarterly.   Includes reprint of Swan, "Juan Comas on ''Scientific' Racism Again?': A Scientific Analysis."]

Swan, Donald A.  "Human Genetics and Psychological Differences." Mankind Quarterly 4 (April- June 1964): 197-201.

Miszkiewicz, Brunon.   "The Anthropological Structure of the Population of Schwalm." Mankind Quarterly 4 (April-June 1964):  211-213.
   [Translated by Swan from the German. The original appeared as "Die anthropologische Struktur der Bevölkerung aus der Schwalm" in Homo 12 (1961): 129-31.  Swan established a relationship with Miszkiewicz that continues until his death.  He translated a number of Miszkiewicz's papers (originally published in Homo) for Mankind Quarterly and in the mid-1970s Miszkiewicz cames to Hattiesburg to collaborate with Swan on a research project.]

[18-21 May 1964.  US District court hears Evers v. Jackson and related cases.  R. Travis Osborne, Henry Garrett, Frank McGurk, Ernest van den Haag, and Robert Kuttner testified. Wesley Critz George had been scheduled to testify, but was unable to be present due to his wife's illness.  William E Hoy was also present.]

Swan, Donald A.   "Genetics and Psychology."  Genus 20 (1964):  23-35.

[18 June 1964.  The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals hands down a decision overturning District Judge Scarlett in Stell v. Savannah.]

Males, Branimiro.   "Racial Biodynamics and Biogenesis in the Study of Population."  Mankind Quarterly 5 (July-September 1964):  3-20.
   [Translated from Spanish by Swan.]

Wintringer, Gerard. "The Intelligence of the African Negro." Mankind Quarterly 4 (July-September 1964): 35-44.
   [Translated by Swan from "Considérations sur l'intelligence du Noir africain," Revue de Psychologie des Peuples 10 (1955): 37-55.]

[6 or 7 July 1964.  The US District Court hands down its decision in Evers v Jackson.]

[23 July 1964.  The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals denies a rehearing in Stell v Savannah.]

Swan, Donald A.   "Biological Processes of Race Formation."  Mankind Quarterly 5 (October- December 1964):  110-116.

[2 October 1964.  Swan mails a postcard fraudulently ordering merchandise from Lee and Febiger Publishers, Philadelphia.  This is the basis of the fourth count in the fraud charge against him.]

[12 October 1964.  The US Supreme Court rejects appeal in Brown v. Charleston without comment.  This is the first time any of this group of cases has gotten to Supreme Court; it marks the end of the process.]

[5 November 1964.  Date on a letter from Swan ordering books from Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago.  This is the basis of the fifth count in the fraud charge against him.]

[10 November 1964.  Date of a letter from Swan ordering books from Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago.  This is the basis of the sixth count in fraud charge against him.]

 

1965

Swan, Donald A.   "Racial Differences and Physical Anthropology."  Mankind Quarterly 5 (January-February 1965):  149-160.

[1 February 1965.  Swan's friend and co-conspirator in mail fraud, Andrew Portoghese, tells a business associate, Max Meyer, that a Dr. David Levy is going away and needs someone to accept his mail until he returns.   Meyer agrees to accept mail addressed to Levy at his business.]

[10 February 1965.    Using a newspaper clipping, Swan orders merchandise from The Classics Club, Roslyn, Long Island.  This leads to the 7th count of mail fraud.]

[11 February 1965.  Basis of the 8th mail fraud count against Swan.]

[17 February 1965.  Swan mails a magazine mail order form to Classics Record Library, NY, using name "Dr David Levy" and the address of Max Meyer, Inc.  This is the basis of the 9th mail fraud count against Swan and Portoghese.]

[28 March 1965.   Basis for the 10th mail fraud count against Swan.  This was also his 30th birthday.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "A Rorschach Study of the Development of Personality Structure in White and Negro Children in a Southeastern Community" by A.C. Price.  In Homo 16 (1965):   50-52.
   [This reviews an article published in Genetic Psychology Monographs 65 (1962): 3-52.]

Swan, Donald A.  "Race and Mental Differences."  Mankind Quarterly 5 (April-June 1965):   196-203.

Swan, Donald A.  "Race, Selection, and Psychical Traits."  Mankind Quarterly 5 (April-June 1965):   206-211.

[5 April 1965.  Basis for 11th mail fraud count against Swan.]

Swan, Donald A., and H.M. Roland.   "Race, Psychology and Education:  Wilmington, North Carolina."   Mankind Quarterly 6 (July-September 1965):  19-36.
    [This was Swan's last item in Mankind Qtrly before his arrest.  He didn't publish there again for more than six years, until 1971.]

[15 December 1965.  Basis for the 12th and last mail fraud count against Swan.]

 

1966

Leonard, George Stephen.   "Ethnic Differentiation in the United States School Desegregation Cases." Mankind Quarterly 6 (January-March 1966):  139-148.
    [See notes on Leonard.  At 144 he writes:  "In this same period [after Brown] outside the courts a considerable body of evidence was being assembled that announced conclusions of our Supreme Court were scientifically incorrect and that a demonstration could be made to show not only that the races differ basically in their learning patterns and average intelligence but that this conclusion was supported by the published studies on comparative brain weight and structure and by data from the fields of differential psychology and the newer discipline of social dynamics.   Directly concerned with ... bringing together the available scientific materials which contradicted the assertions of Drs Redfield & Clark were a number of scientists and others well known to the readers of The Mankind Quarterly, including Drs Garrett, George, Armstrong, Osborne, van den Haag, Kuttner, Gregor;  and much of the credit for collating & organizing the available data belongs to an Assistant Editor, Donald A. Swan."]

[January-March 1966.  Mankind Qtrly, vol. 6, no. 3.  This is the last issue to list Swan as an assistant editor.   His name was removed from the masthead after his April 1966 arrest.]

[26 January 1966.  The US Court of Appeals (5th Circuit) decision in Evers v Jackson.]

[28 March 1966.  Swan's 31st birthday.]

[5 April 1966.  Swan is arrested.]

Walsh, Robert.  "Probe PO Fraud, Find Arms Cache."  New York Daily News (April 6, 1966), 5.

"Anti-Semitic Tracts Found at Home of New Yorker Arrested for Fraud."  Jewish Telegraphic Agency Daily News Bulletin (April 7, 1966), 4.

[14 May 1966.  The US Court of Appeals (5th Circuit) denies certiorari in Evers v Jackson.]

[9 August 1966.  The US House passes the proposed Civil Rights Act of 1966.]

[6-19 September 1966.  The US Senate debates the Civil Rights Act of 1966.  The bill dies after filibuster.]

[14 September 1966.  Cloture is voted down in the Senate.  Five days later supporters of the bill again fail to obtain cloture and the bill dies.]

 

1967

Kuttner, Robert E., editor. Race and Modern Science.  New York:  Social Science Press, 1967.
    [At various periods during in the preparation of the book, both Swan and A. James Gregor were considered as editors.  Swan was ruled out after his arrest late during the preparation process.]

Swan, Donald A.   "Selected Pupil and School Characteristics."  Tydskrif vir Rasse- Aangeleenthede / Journal of Racial Affairs 18 (January 1967):   28-36.
   [This is the first of three papers by Swan published here in interim between his arrest and sentencing. The journal is published by the Suid-Afrikaanse Buro Vir Rasse-Aangeleenthede, in Stellenbosch, near Cape Town.]

[24 January 1967.  Psychological Reports accepts Kuttner, Lorincz and Swan, "The Schizophrenia Gene and Social Evolution."]

Kuttner, Robert E., Albert B. Lorincz, and Donald A. Swan.  "The Schizophrenia Gene and Social Evolution."  Psychological Reports 20 (April 1967):  407-412.
    [Lorincz is a colleague of Kuttner [q.v.].]

Swan, Donald A.   "Comparison of the Relation Between Mental Maturity and Academic Achievement Among White and Negro School Children in a South Louisiana Parish."  Tydskrif vir Rasse-Aangeleenthede / Journal of Racial Affairs 18 (April 1967):  89-107.
   [The data were collected in Fall 1963.]

[16-21 August 1967.   Swan's mail fraud trial is held in US District Court in New York.]

[17 August 1967.  On the second day of the trial, Swan's co-defendant, Andrew Portoghese, pleads guilty to one count (count 7) of the indictment and agrees to testify against Swan.]

[22 September 1967.  US District Court Judge Jacob Mishler sentences Swan for "study and report."]

 

1968

Swan, Donald A.  "Race, Psychology and Socio-Economic Achievement."  Tydskrif vir Rasse-Aangeleenthede / Journal of Racial Affairs 18 (January 1968):  3-10.

[5 January 1968.  US District Court Judge Jacob Mishler resentences Swan to three years.  Swan appeals to the US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.]

[1 March 1968.  Swan's lawyer files a Brief and Appendix for the Appellant with the US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.]

[21 March 1968.  The US Attorney for the Eastern District of New York files an Appellee's Brief with the US Court of Appeals, 2nd District, in Swan's appeal of his mail fraud conviction.]

[10 April 1968.  Arguments before US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, in Swan's appeal of his mail fraud conviction.]

[3 June 1968.  The US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, affirms Swan's mail fraud conviction.]

[13 June 1968.  Date on Swan's petition to the US Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit, for a rehearing and rehearing before the Court in banc.  The Court Clerk marks it "filed" 5 days later.]

Swan, Donald A.  "Le processes biologique de la formation raciale."  Nouvelle Ecole, no. 3 (June-July 1968):  11-17.
   [The theme for this issue is "Anthropology." Four articles by Swan are its centerpiece. (They first appeared in Mankind Quarterly, vol. 5, October-December 1964 to April-June 1965, and are theoretical papers summarizing the racial theory he had worked out at the time of his arrest.)
    It is noteworthy that these papers appeared so prominently at this moment, in the issue of Nouvelle école that was produced during the May events of 1968.
    In its obituary of him, Nouvelle école says that Swan "suivant les activités de Nouvelle école depuis le premier numéro," i.e., since February-March 1968.]

Swan, Donald A.   "Différenciation raciale et anthropologie physique."  Nouvelle Ecole, no. 3 (June-July 1968):  18-30.

Swan, Donald A.  "Race, sélection et caractères psychiques."  Nouvelle Ecole, no. 3 (June-July 1968):  31-36.

Swan, Donald A.  "Race et psychologie."  Nouvelle Ecole, no. 3 (June-July 1968):  37-45.

 

1971

[1971.   Swan receives an M.A. degree in mathematics from Hunter College.]

Swan, Donald A.  "C-14 und die Vorgeschichte Europas."  Mannus:  Zeitschrift für Deutsche Vorgeschichte 37 (1971):  48-53.
   [An English version appears as "Carbon-14 and the Prehistory of Europe:  A Review of the Revised Data" in Mankind Quarterly 12 (January-March 1972)
    This was Swan's first publication in Mannus;  he continued to be associated with it until his death.  It is published in Bonn in association with the Gesellschaft für Vor- und Frügeschichte by Dieter Korell (Hückeswagen).  It was a marginal journal that defended the ideas of the German prehistorians of the Nazi era.  For general background see:
    WJ McCann (Department of German, University of Southampton), "'Volk und Germanentum': The Presentation of the Past in Nazi Germany," in The Politics of the Past, edited by Peter Gathercole and David Lowenthal, 74-88. One World Archaeology Series vol. 12, London: Unwin Hyman, 1990
    Bettina Arnold (Department of Anthropology, Harvard), "The Past as Propaganda: Totalitarian Archaeology in Nazi Germany," Antiquity 64 (September 1990): 464-78
    Ulrich Veit (University of Münster), "Ethnic Concepts in German Prehistory: A Case Study on the Relationship Between Cultural Identity and Archaeological Objectivity," in Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, edited by SJ Shennan, 35-56, One World Archaeology Series, London: Unwin Hyman 1990
    Jes Martens (Denmark), "The Vandals: Myths and Facts About the Germanic Tribe of the 1st Half of the 1st Millennium AD, in Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, edited by SJ Shennan, 57-65, One World Archaeology Series, London: Unwin Hyman 1990
    Bettina Arnold, "The Past as Propaganda: How Hitler's Archaeologists Distorted European Prehistory to Justify Racist and Territorial Goals," Archaeology 45 (July-August 1992): 30-37]

[Fall 1971.  Roger Pearson returns to the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg.  He hires Swan and Robert Kuttner as members of the faculty.]

Swan, Donald A.  "The American School of Ethnology."  Mankind Quarterly 12 (October- December 1971):  78-98.
    [This and the following are Swan's first contributions to Mankind Quarterly in more than six years, since before his 1966 arrest.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of Multivariate Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences by W.W. Cooley and P.R. Lohnes.  In Mankind Quarterly 12 (October-December 1971):  121.

Swan, Donald A.  Letter. Atlantic Monthly 228 (December 1971):  106.
   [An endorsement of R.J. Herrnstein's "I.Q." (September 1971).  Swan gives the IAAEE as his affiliation.]

 

1972

Swan, Donald A.   "Carbon-14 and the Prehistory of Europe: A Review of the Revised Data."   Mankind Quarterly 12 (January-March 1972):  138-43.
   [The German version was in Mannus 1971.]

Richthofen, Bolko, Freiherr von.   Review of Geistesgeschichte der Frühzeit by Friedrich Cornelius.  In Mannus 38 (1972):  49-52.
   [Richthofen [q.v.] was a leading Nazi prehistorian.]

Lundman, Bertil.   "Anthropological, Sociological and Psychological Investigations of Swedish School Children."  Mankind Quarterly 12 (April-June 1972):  189-212.
   [Translated from the German by Swan.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Blood Type Gene Frequency and Mental Ability" by R. Travis Osborne and D.E. Suddick.  In Mankind Quarterly 12 (April-June 1972):  244.
   [A German translation appears in Mannus 1973.]

[1972.  Swan receives an M.A. degree from New York University.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of Geographische Anthropologie by Bertil Lundman.  In Nouvelle Ecole, no. 18 (May-June 1972):  74.

[29 July 1972.  Annual meeting of the Gesellschaft für Vor- und Frügeschichte, in Krems an der Donau, Lower Austria.  In a report on the meeting in Mannus, vol. 39, no. 1 (1973), page 69, Dieter Korell writes:  "Von den überseeischen Ländern sind unsere Beziehungen besonders gut in die USA.  Wie Sie wissen, ist Prof. Swan der City-University New York Korrespondierendes Mitglied unserer Gesellschaft.  In nächster Zeit wird er noch intensiver am Mannus mitarbeiten, wahrscheinlich sogar redaktionell tätig sein.  Die führenden Universitäten der USA beziehen den Mannus, übrigens auch die Kongreß-Bibliothek in Washington.  Diese Verbindungen werden ständig intensiviert und zeitigen schon jetzt gute Früchte."]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "The Origin of Man" by Grover S. Krantz.  In Mannus 38 (1972):   241-242.

Swan, Donald A.  "Zur Entwicklung der Menschlichen Gehirnkapazität."  Mannus 38 (1972):   257-64.

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Social Class, Race, Seriating and Reading Readiness: A Study of Their Relationship at the Kindergarten Level" by Ralph Scott.  In Nouvelle Ecole, no. 21-22 (Winter 1972-73):  131-33.
   [See the references to Scott below.]

[1972-81.  Mannus:   Swan is Mitglieder der Schriftleitung from v 38 n 4 (last issue for 1972) until his death.]

 

1973

Swan, Donald A.  "The Measurement of Cultural Development in the Ancient Near East and in Anglo-Saxon England."  Mankind Quarterly 13 (January-March 1973):  166-170.

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "IQs of Identical Twins Raised Apart" by Arthur R. Jensen.  In Mankind Quarterly 13 (January-March 1973):  187-88.

Swan, Donald A.   "Differences in Races Are Not Just Skin Deep."  Pulse (January 20, 1973):  20-21.
    [Pulse was a popular British medical paper.  It also published material by Dr. Robert John.  This article was reprinted in Swan, "Racial Differences Are Not Just Skin Deep," American Mercury, no. 528 (Spring 1978): 30-34.  It and the following were distributed by the IAAEE and more recently by Robert John's International Council for Human Ecology and Ethnology.] 

Swan, Donald A.  "Race Shows in IQ Tests."  Pulse (January 27, 1973):  18.
   [Cited in Barry Mehler, "The New Eugenics: Academic Racism in the U.S. Today," Science for the People 15 (May-June 1983): 18-23.]

Swan, Donald A.  "The Anthropology of the Brain:  3.  Homo Erectus, the Origin of Races, and the Evolution of the Brain."  Mankind Quarterly 14 (July-September 1973):   3-40.

Swan, Donald A., and Dieter Korell.  "Bemerkungen zu Homo Erectus, dem Ursprung der Rassen, und der Entwicklung des menschlichen Gehirns."  Mannus 39 (1973):  135-178.
   [Korell is the editor of Mannus.]

Swan, Donald A., and Frank Miele, with the assistance of R. Travis Osborne.  "A Factor Analysis of Oetteking's Ancient Egyptian Cranial Data."  Homo 24 (1973):  188-204.

Swan, Donald A.   "Professor Henry E. Garrett:  1894-1973."  Mankind Quarterly 14 (October-December 1973):  83-84.

Swan, Donald A.  "Brain Weight of Danes:  A Review."  Mankind Quarterly 14 (October- December 1973):  85-92.

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Blood Type Gene Frequency and Mental Ability" by R. Travis Osborne and D.E. Suddick.  In Mannus 39 (1973):  349-50.
   [In German.  The English original appeared in Mankind Quarterly (April-June 1972).  Swan thanked Leo Büchler (Hückeswagen) for help with the translation.  Swan is listed at page 350 among Mitarbeiter for volume 39 (1973).]

 

1974

Swan, Donald A.  "The Anthropology of the Brain:  4.  The Evolution of the Neanderthal Brain.- Part I."  Mankind Quarterly 14 (January-March 1974):  123-55.

Swan, Donald A.  "The Anthropology of the Brain:  4.  The Evolution of the Neanderthal Brain.- Part II."  Mankind Quarterly 14 (April-May 1974):  185-208.

[Spring 1974.  Roger Pearson's last semester in Hattiesburg.  He went to Butte, Montana for a year and then to Washington DC.  Swan stayed behind in Hattiesburg.]

Kuttner, Robert E., and Donald A. Swan.  "Biological Aspects of Human Cultural Evolution."  Southern Quarterly 12 (July 1974):  323-333.
   [Kuttner is listed as associate professor of anthropology.  This journal is published by the University of Southern Mississippi.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Neue Endokraniale Werte für Australopithrcinen" by Ralph L. Holloway.  In Mannus 40 (1974):  85-86.

Lundman, Bertil. "The Races and Peoples of North and Central Asia."  Mankind Quarterly 15 (October-December 1974):  92-99.
   [Translated by Swan.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Brain Evolution: New Light on Old Principles" by Harry J. Jerison.  In Mankind Quarterly 15 (October-December 1974):  149-50.

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Social Class, Race, Seriating and Reading Readiness" by Ralph Scott.  In Mankind Quarterly 15 (October-December 1974):  153-54.

Swan, Donald A.   "Rassenzugehörigkeit und Intelligenz."  Nation Europa 24 (November 1974):  37-40.

 

1975

Miszkiewicz, Brunon.   "The Anthropology of the Aunjetitz Population of Tomice, Poland."  Mankind Quarterly 15 (April-June 1975):  281-92.
   [Translated by Swan from "Die Aunjetitzer Bevölkerung aus Tomice, Kr. Dzieróoniòw" Homo 23 (1972): 145-54]

Boev, Peter.   "Anthropological Data on the Ethnogenesis of the Ancient Thracians."   Mankind Quarterly 16 (July-September 1975):  68-73.
   [Translated by Swan from "Anthropologische Angaben über die Ethnogenese der Thraker" Homo 21 (1970): 94-97.  Swan translated a second article by Boev in Mankind Quarterly, 1980.  Boev, Bulgarian physical anthropologist, was on Mankind Quarterly's Editorial Advisory Board for a long time;  since vol. 34, no. 3 (Spring 1994), he has been a member of its Editorial Committee.]

Miszkiewicz, Brunon.   "The Anthropological Structure of the North Frisian Population."    Mankind Quarterly 16 (October-December 75):  104-
   [Translated by Swan from "Die anthropologische Struktur der Nordfriesen," Homo 14 (1963): 48-52.]

Swan, Donald A.  "On the Question of Mongoloid Admixture Among the Ancient Slavs."  Review of "Zur Frage Mongolider Beimischung bei den Altslawen" by Ilse Schwidetzky.   In Mankind Quarterly 16 (October-December 1975):  143-47.
   [Schwidetzky's article appeared in Anthropologische Anzeiger 29 (1965): 226-33.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "Social Class, Race, Seriating and Reading Readiness" by Ralph Scott.  In Mankind Quarterly 16 (October-December 1975):  148-50.

[Fall 1975.  Swan initiates an anthropological & psychometric study of Anglo-Saxon children in South Mississippi.  The psychometric work is directed by Ralph Scott [q.v.].  This is around the time of some of Scott's most controversial political activities.  Scott is also getting separate grants from Pioneer Fund for other projects.)   "Anthropometric data (head and body measurements), pigmentation measures, dermatoglyphic data, serological data, and measures of intelligence and personality were obtained from more than 1,000 students at three private academies in the South Mississippi area ... "  The schools are segregationist academies in three towns near Hattiesburg:  Columbia Academy, Sanford Academy, and Brookhaven Academy.]

[November-December 1975.  As part of Swan's study of South Mississippi Anglo-Saxon school children, anthropometric measurements are made of students at Columbia Academy. Data on family size and ordinal position are also gathered.]

Swan, Donald A.  Review of "On the Evolution of Tool-Using Behaviour" by Jane B Lancaster.  In Nouvelle Ecole, no. 27-28 (Autumn-Winter 1975):  151-53.

 

1976

Swan, Donald A.   "Psychological Studies on the Sudanese and Guinean Negroes."  Mankind Quarterly 16 (January-March 1976):  163-98.

Lipták, Pal.  "The Anthropological Find from the Szabadszallas-Boczka Estate in Hungary."  Mankind Quarterly 16 (January-March 1976):  214-18.
   [Translated from German by Swan. Lipták is in Szeged, Hungary.]

[January 1976.  As part of Swan's study of south Mississippi Anglo-Saxon schoolchildren, David Stephen Engelstad, one of Ralph Scott's graduate students, administers IQ tests to 498 children (grades K through 12) at Columbia Academy.]

Lundman, Bertil.  "The Distribution of Anthropological Traits in Europe."  Mankind Quarterly 16 (April-June 1976):  257-78.
   [Translated from German by Swan.]

[April 1976.  Ralph Scott's graduate students administer personality questionnaires:  David Engelstad at Columbia Academy and Bryce Kim at Sanford Academy.]

[1 October 1976.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $2,000 grant to the IAAEE "for the study of American Anglo-Saxon school children." (Pioneer Fund's 1976 Form 990.  IAAEE's address is PO Box 1588, Southern Station, Hattiesburg.)]

[October 1976.  Patrick Mooney, a graduate student of Ralph Scott, administers personality questionnaires at Brookhaven Academy.]

Lundman, Bertil.  "The Racial History of Europe: An Outline." Mankind Quarterly 17 (October- December 1976): 115-29.
   [Translated from German by Swan.]

 

1977

Hébert, Jean-Pierre. Race et Intelligence.  Paris:  Editions Copernic, 1977.
   [This is the first volume of Factuelles, a series produced under the direction of Alain de Benoist. It has well-informed, extensive references to Swan's work.]

Swan, Donald A.  "Ales Hrdlicka on Race Deterioration and Race Destruction."  Mankind Quarterly 17 (January-March 1977):  201-207.

[31 January 1977.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $5,000 grant to the IAAEE "for the study of American Anglo-Saxon school children."  The same day, it approves a $4,000 grant to the IAAEE "for the reprint of a monograph on Heredity & Eugenics. $4,000 expended per report dated 9/28/77/." (Pioneer Fund's 1977 Form 990.  IAAEE's address remains PO Box 1588, Southern Station, Hattiesburg.)]

Swan, Donald A.  "Sir Grafton Elliot Smith on 'The Negro Race'."  Mankind Quarterly 17 (April-June 1977):  283-310.

Swan, Donald A.  "The Distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups Among South Mississippi Anglo-Saxon School Children."  Mankind Quarterly 18 (July-September 1977):  3-58.
    [This is described as "a preliminary report" of Swan's study of the structure of the Anglo-Saxon population of southern Mississippi.  It states that it was undertaken by Roger Pearson's Institute for the Study of Man.]

[5 October 1977.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $4,000 grant to the IAAEE "for the reprint of a monograph on Heredity & Eugenics." (Pioneer Fund's 1977 Form 990).]

Swan, Donald.  "Neue Befunde zur Rassenpsychologie der Europiden."  Neue Anthropologie (1977).

 

1978

Swan, Donald A., and Garnett Hawkins.  "The Dermatoglyphics of South Mississippi Anglo-Saxon School Children:   Part I."  Mankind Quarterly 18 (January-March 1978):   163-185.

Swan, Donald A., and Garnett Hawkins.  "The Dermatoglyphics of South Mississippi Anglo-Saxon School Children:   Part II."  Mankind Quarterly 18 (April-May 1978):  243-282.

Swan, Donald A.   "Racial Differences Are Not Just Skin Deep."  American Mercury, no. 528 (Spring 1978):  30-34.
    [Largely reprinted from Swan, "Differences in Races Are Not Just Skin Deep," Pulse (January 20, 1973): 20-21.]

[25 April 1978.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $3,500 grant to the IAAEE "for reprint of Prof. Osborne's article 'Fertility, I.Q., & School Achievement'."  (Pioneer Fund's 1978 Form 990. IAAEE's address remains PO Box 1588, Southern Station, Hattiesburg.)]

Irsigler, F.J.  "Die Stellung des Homo Rhodesiensis in der Stammesgeschichte."  Mannus 44 (1978):  103-118.
   [This includes a reference to Swan. See the notes on Irsigler.]

Miszkiewicz, Brunon.  "Anthropologische Untersuchungen einiger angelsächsischer Schulkindergruppen in den Vereinigten Staaten Amerikas (Mississippi) 1975-1976." Studies in Physical Anthropology 1 (1978):  69-85.

[14 September 1978.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $5,000 grant to the IAAEE "for reprint of a monograph on 'The Distribution of the ABO- & Rh- Blood Groups among South Mississippi Anglo-Saxon School Children'."  (Pioneer Fund's 1978 Form 990).]

[9 December 1978.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $5,000 grant to the IAAEE "for research participation in the project 'The Anthropological & Psychological Study of American Anglo-Saxon School Children'."  (Pioneer Fund's 1978 Form 990.)]

 

1979

[17 January 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $2,500 to the IAAEE for "studies of kinship correlations using anthropometric, dermatoglyphic & behavioral data."   (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)]

[22 January 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $4,000 to the IAAEE for "dermatoglyphic studies of kinship correlations."  (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)]

[3 March 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $5,000 to IAAEE for "the administration of intelligence & personality tests to schoolchildren of the British Isles." (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)]

[6 April 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $5,000 to IAAEE for "publication of monograph 'Twin Studies of Ability, Personality, & Interest' by Dr. Robert C. Nichols." (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)]

[Spring 1979. Nouvelle Ecole, no. 31-32, p. 226.  Half-page ad for Mannus lists Swan.]

Engelstad, David Stephen.   "The Relation Between Family Size, Ordinal Position and IQ in a Sample of South Mississippi School Children."  Mankind Quarterly 19 (March 1979):   193-213.
   [This issue actually appears around July 1979.  Engelstad is graduate student of Ralph Scott.  This paper reports analysis of data collected as part of Swan's study.]

[7 August 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $4,500 to the IAAEE for "the scaling of socio-economic data obtained in the Anglo-Saxon study."  (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)]

Miszkiewicz, Brunon.   "The Anthropological Analysis of Germanic Cranial Series from the Merovingian Period According to the Approximation Method of Adam Wanke." Mankind Quarterly 20 (September-December 1979):  36-77.
    [Translated from German by Swan.]

[16 October 1979.  The Pioneer Fund approves a grant of $4,500 to IAAEE for "an analysis of the relation between hair & eye color & mental & behavioral traits." (Pioneer Fund's 1979 Form 990.)  This brings the total amount of the Pioneer Fund's 1979 grants to the IAAEE to $25,500.]

Billig, Michael. Psychology, Racism and Fascism.  Birmingham, 1979.
   [See references to Swan.]

 

1980

[29 January 1980.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $10,000 grant to the IAAEE for "studies of the head, body, and pigmentation measures of British schoolchildren in connection with a comparative study of British & southern Mississippi schoolchildren." (1980 Form 990, which gives Swan's home address as address for IAAEE.)]

[9 June 1980.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $3,500 grant to the IAAEE for "funding the analysis of data on test performance and scholastic achievement as compared with data on family background and socio-economic status obtained in the Anglo-Saxon study."]

Swan, Donald A., Garnett Hawkins, and Betty Douglas.  "The Relationship Between ABO Blood Type and Factor of Personality Among South Mississippi 'Anglo-Saxon' School Children."  Mankind Quarterly 20 (Spring-Summer 1980):  205-258.
   [This issue actually appeared in  August 1980.]

Boev, Peter.  "The Anthropological Origins of the Thracians." Mankind Quarterly 20 (Spring-Summer 1980): 321-330.
   [Translated from German by Swan. This is the last item of Swan's to appear before his death.]

Schnapp, Alain, and Jesper Svenbro.  "Du Nazisme à 'Nouvelle Ecole':  Repères sur la prétendue Nouvelle droite." Quaderni di Storia 6 (1980):
   [A very good essay that is under-cited in the English-language literature.  Swan is named at p 113:  "Mais cette opération d'ouverture se conjugue avec la reprise des vieux thèmes de la droite raciste. Le numéro 3 de 'Nouvelle école,' par exemple, reprend un article de D.A. Swan, directeur adjoint de 'Mankind Quarterly' sur 'le processus biologique de la formation raciale'."]

Barnes, Ian R.  "The Pedigree of GRECE - II." Patterns of Prejudice 14 (October 1980):   29-39.
   [At page 36:  " ... Nouvelle Ecole puts forward similar notions of Nazi-style race-science." A footnote here states:  "See the article by D. Swan introducing the work of Bertill Lundman, 'La 'Geographische Anthropologie' de Bertil Lundman,' and 'A.R. Jensen repond aux questions de 'Nouvelle Ecole'',Nouvelle Ecole, vol. 18, 1972, 75-81, all cited in M. Billig, Psychology, Racism, and Fascism (Birmingham 1979), 24-25. The US representative of Nouvelle Ecole is Donald Swan of Neue Anthropologie."]

[14 October 1980.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $4,000 grant to the IAAEE for "printing 4,000 copies of Prof Carleton Coon's monograph entitled 'New Findings on the Origin of Races'."]

 

1981

[27 February 1981.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $4,500 grant to the IAAEE for "funding an analysis of the relation among scholastic achievement, mental ability and personality factor in context of data obtained in an Anglo-Saxon study, and preparing a paper thereon to be submitted to the journal, Personality and Individual Differences."  (Pioneer Fund's 1981 Form 990.  The address given for the IAAEE here is George S Leonard's law office, 1629 K St NW, Suite 520, Washington DC.)]

[27 February 1981.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $70,000 grant to Arthur Jensen's Institute for the Study of Educational Differences for, among other things, "analyses of data assembled by Donald Swan, ... as more fully described in the Institute's research proposal and budget for Oct 1, 1981 through Sept 30, 1982."  (Pioneer Fund's 1981 Form 990.)]

Taguieff, Pierre-André.   "L'Héritage Nazi: Des Nouvelles Droites européennes à la littérature niant le génocide."  Les Nouveaux Cahiers, no. 64 (Spring 1981): 3-22.
   [At page 14, Taguieff indicates that the bibliography in Jacques de Mahieu's Précis de biopolitique (1969) includes "références très 'Nouvelle Droite'," among which he includes Swan.
    At pages 14-15:  "Un ensemble de récents travaux ... dessine les connexions supra-nationales des nouvelles droites intellectuelles.  En compagnie de revues sœurs comme Neue Anthropologie et The Mankind Quarterly, Nouvelle Ecole, à laquelle il conviendrait d'adjoindre par exemple Mannus (fondée en 1909 por l'archéologue nordiciste G. Kossina, et où l'on retrouve D.A. Swan, de The M.Q.), Genus ... ou Homo ..., n'offre au regard non préparé que la face volontairement visible, le séduisant décor et la pointe intellectuelle relativement souriante, dirigés par la stratégie de la mise en acceptabilité, d'un appareil multidimensionnel qu'on appellera conventionnellement, et faute de mieux, néo-nazi."]

[23 June 1981.  Donald Swan dies at the age of 46 after surgery in Forrest General Hospital in Hattiesburg.]

[July 1981. Nouvelle Ecole, no 36.  This is the last issue to list Swan as US correspondent.  No 37 (Spring 82) lists Dr. Robert John, an expatriate British anti-Semite and associate of Roger Pearson.  Eventually Paul Gottfried assumes the position.]

"Donald Swan (1935-1981)." Instauration 6 (November 1981):  20.

 

1982

Barnes, Ian R.   "Intellectual Processes on the French Far Right." Patterns of Prejudice 16 (January 1982):  3-12.
   [At page 6, on GRECE:  "Other dubious links exist:   the GRECE contact in the USA, Donald Swan, was co-author of a pamphlet entitled Race, Psychology and Education, sent from a group called the 'International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics of New York.'  The pamphlet concluded that Negroes are inferior in intelligence."]

"'New' Anthropology."   Patterns of Prejudice 16 (January 1982):  43-45.
   [Swan is listed as a member of the Advisory Board of Neue Anthropologie.]

"Nécrologie."  Nouvelle Ecole, no. 37 (Spring 1982):  158.
   [Obituary of Swan.]

Moreau, Patrick.   "Revolution Conservatrice et Nouvelles Droites Allemandes." Les Temps Modernes 39 (November 1982):  893-959.
   [Refers to Swan.]

 

1983

Mehler, Barry A.  "The New Eugenics:  Academic Racism in the U.S. Today."  Science for the People 15 (May-June 1983):  18-23.
   [On page 20:  "Among more recent [Pioneer Fund grant] recipients have been ... the Institute for the Study of Man, the recipient of ... $59,000 for two projects under the direction of Donald Swann [sic] (see below) ...
    "If you write to the IAAEE requesting further information, they will send you a number of handsome reprints which will help you understand the 'science' of raciology. Among them are 'Race Shows in I.Q. Tests - Differences in Races are not Just Skin Deep,' by Donald A. Swann [sic], secretary of the IAAEE ... " An endnote here (p 23n16) cites "Donald Swann, Race Shows in IQ Tests,' Pulse (January 27, 1973) p. 18-19."
    On p 20: "Several members of the IAAEE Executive Committee (John R. Baker, C.D. Darlington and Donald A. Swann [sic]) are also members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the German eugenics journal, Neue Anthropologie."]

 

1987

[6 October 1987. Telephone interview with Ralph Scott.
    Q: Can you describe the Mississippi research briefly?
    A: Well, there was a fellow by the name of Donald Swan who had received a grant, as I recall.  You know, you're going back a long time.  But to the best of my knowledge he received a grant to study achievement profiles and he needed someone to assist him and he wanted somebody who had some knowledge of psychology and he asked me to make an inquiry, to put up, you know, like people normally do, to put a sign up on the board, and one of the students was interested in the position and, and took it.
    Q: Had you not previously known Professor Swan?
    A: Ah, well, I'd known him, yeah, sure.
    Q: I mean, had you known this previously to the time he contacted you about this research project?
    A: Uh, yes, Professor Swan stopped up in Iowa with a, uh, a fellow from Poland who was visiting here under the auspices of some government.  But I tell you, I think I'm going to close off now because I, I just feel that I, I don't have a very good feeling about the way the media has handled some of these issues ...
    Q: Let me describe the basic areas that I have not had a chance to go through, and then if you want to say good-bye, that's fine. The reason I mention the Mississippi matter is because Dr. Pearson had taught at Hattiesburg, at the University of Southern Mississippi ...
    A: Oh.
    Q: ... and had been an associate of Dr. Swan ...
    A: Uh-huh.
    Q: ... and I wanted to determine whether you had known him through that, or ...
    A: No, no.  I can honestly say that I had not known that - I'm not even sure I knew Dr. Pearson then - and I had not known that Dr. Pearson had been at Mississippi, and I ...]

 

1988

Santiago, Frank.   "Rights Official Has Racial 'Purity' Links."  Des Moines Register (February 28, 1988), 1A, 9A.
   [On page 9A, the story mentions the research project on which Swan and Ralph Scott collaborated without mentioning Swan by name:  "The Pioneer grants to Scott, according to The New York Times, included $6,000 to send a [University of Northern Iowa] student to Hattiesburg, Miss., 'to administer, score and assess physiological and psychological traits, as part of 'The Anthropological and Psychological Study of American Anglo-Saxon School Children'."]

[7 April 1988.  Interview with John C. Eastman, director, Congressional and Public Affairs, US Commission on Civil Rights, on the controversy then surrounding Ralph Scott.  Scott's work with Swan is mentioned:
    Q:  ... the funding [that Scott received from the Pioneer Fund] was for research in southern Mississippi -- was for two things, one was for antibusing seminars ... the other matter concerns funding for a research project that Scott entered into in Mississippi with a man named Donald Swan, who was at the time at the University of Southern Mississippi ...
    A:  It's my understanding that the grant from the Pioneer Fund through the university was for the purposes of busing seminars simply and there were a number of those seminars held around the country.  The seminars included scholars of all racial and ethnic backgrounds and in fact Scott and the others received commendation from the State of Massachusetts for their efforts on that.  And I don't know, I am unaware that any of the money from that grant, or any other that Ralph received ...
    Q:  That would have been another grant, I'm sure ...
    A:  The only grant that I know of that Ralph received from the Pioneer Fund was for the busing seminars.  I don't know of the other one.
    Q:  And so did Donald Swan not even arise?
    A:  Other than the fact that it was in the Des Moines article.   It was not discussed at our meeting in Des Moines, and Ralph and I have not discussed it at all and he, when I asked him about the grant from the Pioneer Fund, the only thing he ...
    Q:  He addressed the one that involved the seminars?
    A:  Right.  And it's my understanding that's all that's involved.]

Mehler, Barry A.   "Ralph Scott's Curious Career: Rightist on the Rights Panel."  Nation (May 7, 1988):  640-642.
   [On pages 640-41:  "Scott received more than $40,000 in some half-dozen separate grants from the Pioneer Fund in the mid-1970s.  These included a $6,000 grant to send a University of Northern Iowa student to Hattiesburg, Mississippi, to test the intelligence of 'Anglo-Saxon' schoolchildren.  The study was directed by the late Donald Swan, then assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Southern Mississippi at Hattiesburg.  (When Swan, a longtime activist in the eugenics movement, was arrested for mail fraud in April 1966, authorities found Nazi paraphernalia, weapons, pictures of him with members of George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party, and hundreds of anti-Semitic, antiblack and anti-Catholic pamphlets in his home.)"]

 

1989

[31 October 1989.  Nine-page memo from William Frawley (professor of linguistics, University of Delaware) to E.A. Trebant (president of the university) on the Pioneer Fund.  In a discussion of Ralph Scott on page 4, Frawley refers to Swan:  "$6,000 of Scott's original Pioneer Fund Money in the 1970's was to conduct joint research with Donald Swan, then of the University of Southern Mississippi, to test the intelligence of Anglo-Saxon school children. Swan, it should be noted, supported by some $60,000 from the Pioneer Fund (Mehler 1983), has written 'Racial Differences Are Not Just Skin Deep' originally in the American Mercury 1978;  also distributed by the IAAEE: see more below;  the title of Swan's paper speaks for itself).  In 1966, when Swan was arrested for mail fraud in New York City, authorities found in his house '... a loaded carbine, a high-powered range-finder, clips for the carbine and 50 rounds of 45 caliber ammunition... swords, Nazi flags... a German helmet [and] several photographs of Swan with members of George Lincoln Rockwell's neo-Nazi organization' (Walsh 1966, p. 5).  These activities apparently recommended Swan to receive subsequently over $50,000 in research money from the Pioneer Fund (Mehler 1983)."
    On page 5:  "One of the main functions of the IAAEE, through money from the Pioneer Fund, is to reprint and distribute racist documents, e.g.,... Donald Swan's 'Racial Differences Are Not Just Skin Deep'."]

 

"Pioneer Fund Letter of William Frawley of 10/31/89." Unpublished memorandum, November 15, 1989.
   [On pp 12-13, there is a section on "Assistant Professor Donald Swan":
    "(Page 4) Donald Swan (deceased several years ago, then on the faculty of the University of Southern Mississippi, supervised in part a research comparison of white Mississippi school children with white children of the same age at a location in England where their ancestors had originated.  Swan was introduced to the Fund earlier by Dr. A. James Gregor, now a Professor of Philosophy [sic] at the University of California.  A professor from a Polish university was also involved in the research to do anthropometric measurements on both sets of children, and other professors in the U.S. and U.K. participated.  The research question was to determine the differences which developed in the two populations over the 250 years of separation, so as to measure genetic drift.
    "(Page 4) A trustee of the fund was informed that Donald Swan's father, while in military service during World War II, 'liberated' the collection of German military artifacts which were found in Donald Swan's mother's home.  Pioneer knew of his conviction for mail fraud (ordering books with the intention of avoiding payment).  Pioneer knows nothing of the photographs of Swan or the identity of other people in the photographs."]

[22 November 1989.   Three-page memo from Linda Gottfredson, "More Information on the Pioneer Fund," to Ron Whittington (assistant to the president, University of Delaware).   On page one:
    "1. Donald Swan.  On page 4 of his letter, Frawley states that authorities found in Donald Swan's house various weapons along with 'Nazi flags...a German helmet [and] several photographs of Swan with members of George Lincoln Rockwell's neo-Nazi organization.'  I have no knowledge of the photograph.  No one I have been able to contact knows anything about it, let alone the identity of the people in it or Swan's relation to them. I do know, however, that Frawley's suggestion concerning the Nazi flags and helmet is utterly wrong. The flags and helmet were souvenirs that his father had collected while fighting against the Nazis in World War II, not anything that Swan collected because of an alleged sympathy with neo-Nazis.  As with so many of his charges, Frawley here has turned the truth inside-out.  (See Addendum 1 on the Pioneer Fund, item 1.)"]

Mehler, Barry.   "Foundation for Fascism: the New Eugenics Movement in the United States."   Patterns of Prejudice 23 (Winter 1989-1990):  17-25.
   [At page 21:  "Ralph Scott ... received over $40,000 from the Pioneer Fund in the mid-1970s.  This included a $6,000 grant to test 'Anglo-Saxon' schoolchildren in a study directed by Donald Swan, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of [Southern Mississippi in] Hattiesburg, Mississippi.   When Swan was arrested in 1966 for mail fraud, authorities found Nazi paraphernalia, swastika flags, weapons, pictures of Swan with members of George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party and hundreds of anti-Semitic, anti-black and anti-Catholic pamphlets in his home."]

 

1994

Tucker, William H. The Science and Politics of Racial Research.  Urbana and Chicago:  University of Illinois Press, 1994.
   [On page 263, Tucker writes:  "Several members of [Neue Anthropologie's] 'board of scientific advisors' were also active in the German neo-Nazi party ... Another board member was Donald Swan, also an editor and frequent contributor to the Mankind Quarterly as well as a recipient of Pioneer grants.   According to the Nation, when Swan was arrested for mail fraud in 1966, Nazi 'paraphernalia,' weapons, and stacks of anti-Semitic, anti-black, and anti-Catholic pamphlets were found in his home."  Tucker cites Barry Mehler, "Rightist on the Rights Panel," Nation (1988), p 644.]

 

1997

[17 June 1997.   Robert A Gordon, "How Smart We Are About What We Broadcast:  An Open Letter to ABC News," addressed to seven people from ABC News, including Roone Arledge, Peter Jennings, Bill Blakemore and Beth Nissan.  This is posted on the Pioneer Fund's web site at www.pioneerfund.org/ABCletter.html .  It is a very long (34,000 word) belated critique the report on The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund on ABC's "World News Tonight with Peter Jennings" of November 22, 1994.  Gordon refers to Donald Swan:
    "One of the queries to which you demanded response in a fax-letter of November 15th, 1994, signed by three of you to Pioneer president Weyher, referred to a distasteful 1954 letter from perhaps the most obscure of the many persons ever funded by Pioneer, one Donald Swan.  A trail from the letter leads through a reference to it from a newspaper in an article published in 'The Nation in 1960, to an anti-Pioneer article by Professor Mehler in 1989, titled 'Foundations from Fascism,' which cited 'The Nation. Professor Mehler ... was thus a likely resource concerning the existence of the Swan letter ...
    "Long-deceased, Mr. Swan was an avid book collector, if not, in one person's words, a 'bibliomaniac.'  He now of interest only because of his personal eccentricities, such as his 1966 conviction for mail fraud for ordering three books, oranges, grapefruits, and a fruit cake by mail without intending to pay for same.   These are used by Professor Mehler and others to try to embarrass Pioneer, which, after Mr. Swan's graduate training, funded him for entirely defensible scholarly purposes.   A balanced presentation would have to acknowledge that Mr. Swan's professional credentials at the time showed him sufficiently qualified to merit such funding and his professional publications, as well as at least some of his personal ones, display considerable knowledge for their time.  Laypersons who met Mr. Swan during his lifetime recall him as impressively learned in scientific and scientific matters, and he is known to have corresponded widely with scholars around the world.  He had been introduced to Pioneer by someone who went on to a career as a respected professor at a major university.
    "Mr. Swan's 1954 letter, until November 1994 unknown to all except those who maintain dossiers on such matters, expressed an intellectual infatuation with Fascism.  The letter was also flashed before me ambush-style during my interview on camera (this portion was not broadcast), where I was given no opportunity to examine it adequately or learn more of its context.  Like me, Mr. Weyher was challenged, in your fax-letter on November 15th, 1994, to respond to their brief quotations from the Swan letter, which you conveniently purported to him had been published in 'the white-supremacist newspaper, 'Expose [sic]' (November 15, 1994, letter from Mr.Blakemore, Ms. Mendez, and Mr. Oetgen to Mr. Weyher).
    "On November 16th, Mr. Weyher replied to ABC News that he was responding to various charges detailed in that letter, but some, such as Mr. Swan's letter, were new to him and so he requested documentation.  On November 18th, 1994, Mr. Blakemore, Ms. Mendez, and Mr. Oetgen, after being prodded twice by fax and telephone, informed Mr. Weyher by fax, 'It is not our practice to pass along documentation we have collected in the course of preparing a news report.  If you have information that disproves or casts doubt upon any of our assertions, please provide that information to us.'  Clearly, ABC News was engaging in a one-way flow of information distinctly different from the manner in which scientific issues are customarily resolved, while purporting to deal with matters of scientific importance and the work of scientists.   Without knowledge of the sources of the allegations, many of which were vaguely or tendentiously worded, one would be helpless to respond adequately.  The ambushers seemed interested only in ascertaining what Mr. Weyher might be able to respond to effectively on extremely short notice, in order to avoid being ambushed themselves by correct information.  Under the guise of granting a target an opportunity to respond, the media reconnoiter the target without permitting themselves to be felt out in return...
    "One can anticipate that ABC News would justify such questions as the one about Mr. Swan, which in relation to scientific issues is a mere side show, for a program on The Bell Curve by maintaining that the public had a legitimate interest in the answers, but if that is so, why must the questions be raised in such a peculiarly unfair manner? ...
    "Subsequent cross-checking by Pioneer and me revealed that Mr. Swan's sophomoric letter had been written by him at age 19, precisely the usual age of a college sophomore. Continued checking since the broadcast corrects your allegation ... that Expose, a small-circulation monthly initially unfamiliar to any of us, was a 'white supremacist' publication.  Quite the contrary, 'Expose was an active and courageous defender of racial justice in its time, published and edited by the well-known Lyle Stuart, a member at the time of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
    "The February, 1952, issue of 'Expose' carried an article by the ACLU's Arthur Garfield Hays, 'Guilt By Association,' which I heartily commend to your attention.  Who knows, perhaps a 'Donald Swan' or two will turn up in the history of your organization ... Had you read even as far beyond Mr. Swan's letter as the letter adjoining it on the same page, you might have noticed that the second letter took 'Exposé to task for being 'pro-Negro.'
    "Mr. Swan's incunabular letter had been promted by a four-part series of articles in 'Exposé' entitled, 'I Am An American Fascist,' which this free-thinking, anti-censorship newspaper ran to allow its readers to see for themselves the mentality of a self-professed American Fascist, one H. Keith Thompson.  Your carelessness in assuming an ideological connection between Mr. Swan's letter and the publication in which it appeared is not dissimilar to your disposition to associate Mr. Swan's quirky and quite unpleasant personal views with Pioneer and those who have recieved Pioneer grants.  Carried to its logical conclusion, such reasoning would have us all suspected, in view of Mr. Swan's later conviction, of mail fraud too.
    "One purpose behind ambush questions is to convey the impression that the journalist knows more about a person being interviewed than the person thinks the journalist knows. Understandable surprise at a totally unexpected question can register on camera as guilty knowledge.  But Donald Swan's letter in Expose was as obscure to us as Paul de Man's early anti-Semitic writings were to his friends and literary critics ... Unlike Mr. Swan, Professor de Man was a major figure.  Nevertheless, no one has accused Professor de Man's followers of anything worse than practicing and promoting a foolish form of scholarship.  Instead of confronting us with vile ambush insinuations that we are ill-prepared to answer on the spot, you ought to state openly exactly what lessons you believe that Mr. Swan's personal beliefs hold for Pioneer and the hundred or so researchers it has funded, so that, once explicit, the absurdity of those lessons, and your complicity in politically correct slander, will be plain for all to see.
    "The unspoken assumption that a funding source should be held accountable for the personal politics of its recipients has embedded within it the thought that prospective grantees should be scrutinized as to their political beliefs, and funding decisions made accordingly ... "]

 

Revised June 25, 1998

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