Robert Arthur Gordon

[10 August 1932.  Robert Arthur Gordon is born in New York.]

[Gordon was a Korean War-era veteran.]

[1957.  Gordon receives a B.A. degree from the City University of New York.  After graduation, he begins graduate studies in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago.]

[1957-58, 1958-59.  Gordon is Charles R Henderson Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago.   He spent the 6 years from 1957 to 1963 as a graduate student there.]

[1959-60.  Gordon is Louis Ascher Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago.]

 

1960

[1960-61, 1961-62.  James D Short, Jr., an associate professor of sociology at the State College of Washington, is visiting associate professor to the University of Chicago.  He becomes the chairman of Gordon's dissertation committee.  In the winter of 1961-62 he teaches a course on juvenile delinquency and the following summer he conducts a seminar on street-corner society.]

[1960-61.  Gordon is a research assistant on gang delinquency in the Youth Studies Program, University of Chicago.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Slavery and the Comparative Study of Social Structure."  Review of Slavery:  A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life by Stanley Elkins.  In American Journal of Sociology 66 (September 1960):  184-186.

 

1962

[1962.  Gordon receives an M.A. degree in sociology from the University of Chicago.]

Gordon, Robert A.  The Generality of Semantic Differential Factors and Scales in Six American Subcultures.   Unpublished masters thesis, University of Chicago, 1962.

[1962-63.  Gordon is associate director for gang delinquency in the Youth Studies Program, University of Chicago.]

 

1963

[5 January 1963.  Psychological Reports accepts Howard and Gordon, "Empirical Note on the 'Number of Factors' Problem in Factor Analysis."]

Howard, Kenneth I., and Robert A. Gordon.  "Empirical Note on the 'Number of Factors' Problem in Factor Analysis."  Psychological Reports 12 (February 1963):  247-250.

[1963.  Gordon receives a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago.]

Gordon, Robert A.  Youth and Gang Delinquency.  Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1963.
   [His committee included James F Short Jr. (chairman), Duncan MacRae, Jr., and Morris Janowitz.]

Gordon, Robert A., James F. Short, Jr., Desmond S. Cartwright and Fred L. Strodtbeck.  "Values and Gang Delinquency:  A Study of Street-Corner Groups."  American Journal of Sociology 69 (July 1963):  109-128.
   [Strodtbeck taught social psychology and small groups in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago.]

[1963-69.  Gordon was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins University.   The department was established in 1959 with a grant from the Ford Foundation to encourage the use of computers in sociology.  By 1963 the faculty was still very small:  It included at first only one full professor, department chairman James S. Coleman, who had been an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Chicago during Gordon's first several years there;  at Chicago, Coleman had taught courses on "Sociology of Conflict," "Sociology and Conflict," "Relational Analysis," "Methodology of Relational Analysis," "Small-Group Analysis," "Research on Adolescent Cultures," "Analysis of Behavioral Systems," "Concept Formation in Social Science," and "Social Bases of Political Diversity."  Some of these were related to Gordon's emerging research interests.  When Gordon arrived in Baltimore, the department had only three assistant professors, including Gordon, and three lecturers.  Through the 1960s Gordon's courses included:  Small Groups; Recent Developments in Juvenile Delinquency; Socialization and Family Dynamics; and, after a few years, Advanced Topics in Small Groups.]

 

1964

[1964-65.  Gordon was Acting Chairman of the Department of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins.]

[1964-65.  Gordon is a Social Science Research Council faculty fellow.]

[FY1965.  Gordon received a National Institute of Mental Health grant (no. R01-10698 01) of $10,321 for a project titled "Values of Gang Delinquents."]

 

1965

[1965-66.  Gordon received a National Institutes of Health grant.]

Short, James F., Jr., and Fred L. Strodtbeck.  Group Process and Gang Delinquency.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
   [Chapter 3 (pp. 47-76) reprints Gordon, Short, Cartwright and Strodtbeck, "Values and Gang Delinquency" (American Journal of Sociology ,1963).]

 

1966

Gordon, Robert A.   "Issues in Multiple Regression Analysis and the Ecological Study of Delinquency."  Unpublished manuscript, Department of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins University, 1966.
   [Two published papers grew out of this manuscript:   "Issues in the Ecological Study of Delinquency," which appeared in the American Sociological Review in 1967, and "Issues in Multiple Regression," which was published in the American Journal of Sociology in 1968.]

[24 October 1966.   The final revision of "Social Level, Social Disability and Gang Interaction" (American Journal of Sociology).  An earlier draft had listed James Short as a co-author.]

 

1967

Gordon, Robert A.   "Personality Differences Between Criminals and Noncriminals:  A Reconsideration."  Mimeographed, Department of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins University, 1967.

Gordon, Robert A.  Review of Youth and Social Order by Frank Musgrove and Society and Adolescent Self-Image by Morris Rosenberg.  In American Journal of Sociology 72 (March 1967):   560-562.

Gordon, Robert A.   "Social Level, Social Disability, and Gang Interaction."  American Journal of Sociology 73 (July 1967):  42-62.
   [This paper developed what Gordon called "a minor theory" from his dissertation, that "social disability" (meaning "individual intellectual and interpersonal handicaps") is inversely related to social class and directly causally related to delinquency.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Issues in the Ecological Study of Delinquency."  American Sociological Review 52 (December 1967):  927-944.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

 

1968

[1968- .  Gordon is a member of the board of the Patuxent Institution]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Issues in Multiple Regression."  American Journal of Sociology 73 (March 1968): (231)-591-(231)-
   [This was one of Gordon's most heavily cited papers.]

Borgatta, Edgar F.  "On the Existence of Thurstone's Oblique Reference Solution."  American Sociological Review 33 (August 1968):  598-600.

Chilton, Ronald.   "Another Response to Gordon."  American Sociological Review 33 (August 1968):  600-601.

Gordon, Robert A.  "On the Interpretation of Oblique Factors."  American Sociological Review 33 (August 1968):  601-620.

[Late 1968.  After reading a preprint of Jensen (1969), Gordon was told by Julian C. Stanley (who was also at Johns Hopkins) that IQ scores are "pragmatically equivalent [i.e., unbiased] for blacks and whites."]

Gordon, Robert A.  Review of Controlling Delinquents edited by Stanton Wheeler and Helen MacGill Hughes.  In American Sociological Review 33 (December 1968):  993-994.

 

1969

[1969- .  Gordon was an Associate Professor of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Amongst Competent Sociologists?"  Letter.  American Sociologist 4 (August 1969):  249-250.

 

1970

[November 1970 - June 1972.  Gordon and collaborators recruited 64 Baltimore heroin addicts for study.  They provided the database for McAuliffe and Gordon (1974).]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Concerning Hebb's Criticism of Jensen and the Heredity-Environment Argument."  Letter.  American Psychologist 25 (December 1970):  1172-1173.
    [A defense of Arthur Jensen.]

 

1971

Gordon, Robert A.  Review of Heredity and Achievement edited by Daniel N Robinson.  In Educational and Psychological Measurement 31 (Autumn 1971):  793-799.

[October 1971.  Journal of the American Statistical Association receives the manuscript of Gordon's "An Explicit Estimation of the Prevalence of Commitment to a Training School, to Age 18, by Race and by Sex."  He later wrote that he submitted the paper to JASA "in desperation" after it and a companion paper (eventually published in the   Journal of Mathematical Sociology in 1974) had been rejected by the main sociological and criminological journals.  He attributed the rejections to political censorship of evidence of race differences in delinquency rates.]

Gordon, Robert A.  Letter.  In Atlantic Monthly 228 (December 1971):  106.
   [The letter stated:  "This is to lend my wholehearted support to your willingness to bring the important issues raised by Richard Herrnstein's article before the public."  This appeared together on the same page with another letter in support of Herrnstein written by Donald A Swan, who Gordon and Gottfredson subsequently had occasion to discuss in their defenses of the Pioneer Fund during the 1990s.]

 

1973

[February 1973.  Journal of the American Statistical Association receives a revision of Gordon, "An Explicit Estimation of the Prevalence of Commitment to a Training School, to Age 18, by Race and by Sex."]

McAuliffe, William Edward.  A Test of Lindesmith's Theory of Opiate Addiction.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Social Relations (Criminology and Penology), Johns Hopkins University, 1973.

McAuliffe, William E., Robert A. Gordon and Susan G. Doering.  "A Test of Lindesmith's Theory of Opiate Addiction. II. The Role of Euphoria in Long-Term Addictions."  Mimeographed, Department of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins University, 1973.

Gordon, Robert A.  "An Explicit Estimation of the Prevalence of Commitment to a Training School, to Age 18, by Race and by Sex."  Journal of the American Statistical Association 68 (September 1973):  547-553.
   Cited in:
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

 

1974

McAuliffe, William E, and Robert A Gordon.  "A Test of Lindesmith's Theory of Addiction: The Frequency of Euphoria Among Long- Term Addicts."  American Journal of Sociology 79 (January 1974):  795-840.
   [Funded by NIMH grant MH-13951 and NSF grant GS-29873.]

Gordon, Robert A., and Leon Jay Gleser.  "The Estimation of the Prevalence of Delinquency:  Two Approaches and a Correction of the Literature."  Journal of Mathematical Sociology 3 (1974):  275-291.
   [This was a companion piece to the 1973 Journal of the American Statistical Association article.  Gleser was on the Johns Hopkins statistics faculty.]

[1974.  Gordon and McAuliffe receive the AAAS Socio-Psychological Prize for their paper on opiate addiction.   Gordon later wrote:  "I tried to cash in on my momentary celebrity by requesting federal support ... I realized at the time that it was my last opportunity to obtain funds before the more controversial aspects of my work became known.  But my proposal was turned down..."]

[28-29 October 1974.  Gordon presents "Examining Labeling Theory:  The Case of Mental Retardation" at the Third Vanderbilt University Sociology Conference in Nashville.  A later version appeared in The Labeling of Deviance (1975), edited by Walter Gove.]

 

1975

Gordon, Robert A.   "Examining Labeling Theory:  The Case of Mental Retardation."  In The Labeling of Deviance:  Evaluating a Perspective, edited by Walter R. Gove, 83-146.  Beverly Hills: Sage, 1975.
   [This paper dealt with the "problem of culture-fairness of IQ tests themselves, which [Gordon] regarded as intellectually prior to [his] thesis concerning IQ and delinquency."]
    Cited in:
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994

Gordon, Robert A.  "On 'Validity' as a Criterion."  American Journal of Sociology 80 (January 1975):  981-987.

Lindesmith, Alfred R.  "A Reply to McAuliffe and Gordon's 'A Test of Lindesmith's Theory of Addiction'."   American Journal of Sociology 81 (July 1975):  147-153.

McAuliffe, William E., and Robert A. Gordon.  "Issues in Testing Lindesmith's Theory."  American Journal of Sociology 81 (July 1975):  154-163.

McAuliffe, William E., and Robert A. Gordon.  "Issues in Testing Lindesmith's Theory (Full Version)."  Catalog of Selected Documents in Sociology 5 (Winter 1975):  196.

[7 August 1975.  At the Second International Symposium on Criminology at the Oscar Freire Institute in São Paulo, Brazil, Gordon presents "Crime and Cognition:  An Evolutionary View."   Here he developed what he called the thesis of the 'IQ-commensurability' of racially-specific delinquency rates.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Crime and Cognition:  An Evolutionary Perspective."  In Proceedings of the II International Symposium on Criminology, vol. 4, pp. 7-55.  São Paulo:  International Center for Biological and Medico-Forensic Criminology, 1975.
   Cited in:
    John H Laub, "Urbanism, Racism, and Crime," Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency 20 (1983): 183-98
    James Q Wilson and Richard J Herrnstein, Crime and Human Nature, NY: Simon and Schuster 1985
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994

[November 1975.  Editor's preface, The Juvenile Justice System (1976), which included Gordon's paper on "Prevalence."]

 

1976

Gordon, Robert A.  "Prevalence:  The Rare Datum in Delinquency Measurement and Its Implications for the Theory of Delinquency."  In The Juvenile Justice System, edited by Malcolm W. Klein, 201-284.  Sage Criminal Justice System Annuals, vol. 5.  Beverly Hills:  Sage, 1976.
   [Gordon's paper presented his "IQ-commensurability thesis" of race differences in delinquency rates.]
    Cited in:
    Linda S Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 510-512
    Lee Ellis, Personality and Individual Differences 9 (1988): 525
    Timothy F Hartnagel and GW Lee, "Urban Crime in Canada," Canadian Journal of Criminology 32 (1990):(231)-591-606
    RJ Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, New York: Free Press 1994
    Stephen J Ceci, On Intelligence: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development, expanded edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1996
    Gordon, "Parental Licensure and Its Sanction," Society, November-December 1996
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

Gottfredson, Linda Susanne.  The Relation of Situs of Work to Occupational Achievement.  Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins University, 1976.

 

1977

[12 April 1977.  Jensen personal communication with Gordon.]

Gordon, Robert A.   "Deposition."  Reporters' Daily Transcript. Larry P., et. al. v. Wilson Riles, et.al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, 1977.
    [A pretrial deposition. Gordon was a defense witness. The trial began in the Fall of 1977.]
    Cited in:
    Gordon, "Labeling Theory, Mental Retardation and Public Policy," The Labeling of Deviance, 1980

Gordon, Robert A.  "A Critique of the Evaluation of Patuxent Institution with Particular Attention to the Issues of Dangerousness and Recidivism."  Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 5 (1977):  210-255.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

Gordon, Robert A.  "Comment on 'Delinquency, Sex, and Family Variables' by Andrew."  Social Biology 24 (Winter 1977):  337.
   Cited in:
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994

Andrew, June M.  "Response to Gordon's Comment."  Social Biology 24 (Winter 1977):   337-338.

 

1978

[1978.  The American Men and Women of Science entry for Gordon describes him as the divorced father of one son.]

Bayer, Ronald.   "Patuxent Revisited."  Review of Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Symposium Issue: Patuxent Institution (1977).  In Hastings Center Report 8 (February 1978):  39-40.

Gordon, Robert A.   "Expert Witness Testimony."  Reporters' Daily Transcript.  Larry P., et. al. v. Wilson Riles, et.al.  U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, 1978.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Labeling Theory, Mental Retardation and Public Policy," The Labeling of Deviance, 1980

[8-12 November 1978.  Annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology in Dallas. The Society's president, Prof. C Ray Jeffrey of Florida State University, had invited Gordon to speak on IQ and crime, but the conference volume, Biology and Crime (1979), edited by Jeffrey, includes nothing by Gordon.]

 

1979

Gordon, Robert A.  "An Interpretation of the High Vietnam Remission Rates in Light of a Comprehensive Theory of Opiate Addiction."  Paper submitted for publication, 1979.

McAuliffe, William E, and Robert A Gordon.  "Conditioning and the Combination-of-Effects:  A Comprehensive Reinforcement Theory of Opiate Addiction."  Paper submitted for publication, 1979.

[1979.  At the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Gordon speaks at the invitation of Edward Sagarin.]

Gordon, Robert A., and Eileen E. Rudert.  "Bad News Concerning IQ Tests."  Sociology of Education 52 (July 1979):  174-190.
   [Rudert was a 1984 Johns Hopkins sociology Ph.D.  As of 1989 she was on the staff of the US Commission on Civil Rights, involved in its work on cognitive testing.  (Linda Gottfredson's work on this issue was also used by the Commission.)]
    Cited in:
    Gordon, "Labeling Theory, Mental Retardation and Public Policy," The Labeling of Deviance, 1980
    Arthur Jensen, Bias in Mental Testing, 1980
    L Bond, Applied Psychological Measurement 4 (1980): 406
    M Simpson, Annual Review of Sociology 6 (1980): 287
    Richard A Berk, William P Bridges and Anthony Shih, "Does IQ Really Matter?: A Study of the Use of IQ Scores for the Tracking of the Mentally Retarded," American Sociological Review 46 (February 1981): 58-71
    ME Frederick, Catholic University Law Review 30 (1981): 335
    Nadine M Lambert, "Psychological Evidence in Larry P.," American Psychologist 36 (September 1981): 937-52
    C Simpson, Sociology of Education 54 (1981): 120
    JP Braden, Personality and Individual Differences 5 (1984): 403
    Gregory Camilli and Lorrie Shepard, "The Inadequacy of ANOVA for Detecting Test Bias," Journal of Educational Statistics 12 (Spring 1987): 87-99
    Micha Razel, "The Intelligence Test as a Measure of Knowledge and the Nonconstancy of the Intelligence Score," Perceptual and Motor Skills 68 (April 1989): 655-674
    Daniel Seligman, A Question of Intelligence: The IQ Debate in America, New York: Birch Lane Press 1992
    Francois Nielsen, Review of The Bell Curve by RJ Herrnstein and Charles Murray, in Social Forces 74 (September 1995): 337

[16 October 1979.  US District Judge Robert F Peckham issues a decision in Larry P. v. Wilson Riles.]

 

1980

[1980.  Gordon is invited to present a paper at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.]

Gordon, Robert A.   "Research on IQ, Race, and Delinquency:  Taboo or Not Taboo?"   In Taboos in Criminology, edited by Edward Sagarin, 37-66.  Beverly Hills:  Sage, 1980.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Implications of Valid (and Stubborn) IQ Differences," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1980
    D Kalmuss, Social Problems 30 (1982): 168
    Arthur Jensen, "Taboo, Constraint and Responsibility in Educational Research," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 8 (Fall 1983): 301-311  (Cites the book but not Gordon's article)
    Frederick R Lynch, "Totem and Taboo in Sociology: The Politics of Affirmative Action Research," Sociological Inquiry 54 (Spring 1984): 124-141
    Gary Kleck, "Life Support for Ailing Hypotheses: Modes of Summarizing the Evidence for Racial Discrimination in Sentencing," Law and Human Behavior 9 (September 1985): 271-285
    Anthony Walsh, "Cognitive Functioning and Delinquency," International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 31 (1987): 285-289
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence Jan-Feb 1997

Gordon, Robert A.   "Reply."  In Taboos in Criminology, edited by Edward Sagarin, 136-148.  Beverly Hills:  Sage, 1980.

Gordon, Robert A.   "Examining Labeling Theory:  The Case of Mental Retardation."   In The Labeling of Deviance:  Evaluating a Perspective, edited by Walter R. Gove, 111-174.  2nd edition.  Beverly Hills:  Sage, 1980.
   Cited in:
    Tonya L Schuster and Edgar W Butler, "Labeling, Mild Mental Retardation, and Long-Range Social Adjustment," Sociological Perspectives 29 (October 1986): 461-483
    Linda Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    RA Gordon, et. al., "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?," Journal of Vocational Behavior, December 1988
    RA Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

Gordon, Robert A.  "Labeling Theory, Mental Retardation, and Public Policy:  Larry P. and Other Developments Since 1974."  In The Labeling of Deviance:  Evaluating a Perspective, edited by Walter R. Gove, 175-225.  2nd edition.  Beverly Hills:  Sage, 1980.
    Cited in:
    Gordon, "Implications of Valid (and Stubborn) IQ Differences," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (September 1980): 343-344
    Barbara Lerner, "The Minimum Competence Testing Movement," American Psychologist 36 (October 1981): 1057-66
    Walter R Gove, Deviance and Mental Illness (1982): 273
    Linda Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    CL Marlaine, Sociology of Education 63 (1990): 83
    Stephen J Ceci, On Intelligence: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development, expanded edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1996
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

McAuliffe, William E, and Robert A Gordon.  "Reinforcement and the Combination of Effects:  Summary of a Theory of Opiate Addiction."  In Theories of Drug Abuse:  Selected Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Dan J Lettieri, Mollie Sayers and Helen Wallenstein Pearson, 137-141.  National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph 30.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1980.

[April 1980.  Arthur Jensen personal communication.]

Jensen, Arthur R.   "Précis of Bias in Mental Testing (with commentaries)."  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (September 1980):  325-371.

Gordon, Robert A.  "Implications of Valid (and Stubborn) IQ Differences:  An Unstatesmanlike View."  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (September 1980):  343-344.
   Cited in:
    LS Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 379-420
    LS Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 510-512
    LS Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    William J Andrews, "Eugenics Revisited," Mankind Quarterly 30 (Spring 1990): 235-302
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

Jensen, Arthur R.   "Chronometric Analysis of Intelligence." Journal of Social and Biological Structures 3 (1980):  103-122.

Gordon, Robert A.  "Chronometric Analysis of Intelligence:  Comment."  Journal of Social and Biological Structures 3 (1980):  123-124.

[1980.  Gordon and Linda Gottfredson married.  They had twin girls around 1982 and separated around 1989.]

 

1981

[September 1981.  Gordon personal correspondence to CP Benbow or JC Stanley, cited in Benbow and Stanley (1982).]

 

1982

Gordon, Robert A.  "Preventive Sentencing and the Dangerous Offender:  A Commentary on Recent Proposals in England from the Standpoint of Experience with Patuxent Institution." British Journal of Criminology 22 (July 1982):  285-314.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

Benbow, Camilla Persson, and Julian C. Stanley.  "Consequences in High School and College of Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability:  A Longitudinal Perspective."  American Educational Research Journal 19 (Winter 1982):  598-622.
   [The authors thank Gordon for comments on earlier drafts and cite September 1981 personal correspondence with him.]

 

1983

[6 May 1983.  At a criminology symposium in honor of Gwynne Nettler, University of Alberta, Gordon presents a version of "Scientific Justification and the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model."   It and other papers from the symposium were published in Critique and Explanation, edited by Timothy F Hartnagel and Robert S Silverman (New Brunswick: Transaction 1986).]

 

1984

Gordon, Robert A.  "Digits Backward and the Mercer-Kamin Law:  An Empirical Response to Mercer's Treatment of Internal Validity of IQ Tests."  In Perspectives on Bias in Mental Testing, edited by Cecil R. Reynolds and Robert T. Brown, 357-506.  New York:  Plenum, 1984.
   Cited in:
    Arthur Jensen "Jensen Oversimplified," Journal of Social and Biological Structures 7 (April 1984): 125-30
    RJ Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, New York: Free Press 1994
    Stephen J Ceci, On Intelligence: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development, expanded edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1996
    RA Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence January-February 1997

Rudert, Eileen E. Children and the Effects of Conflicts Between Work and Home Roles Upon Wives' Marital Satisfaction.  Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, 1984.

Gottfredson, Linda S. The Role of Intelligence and Education in the Division of Labor.  Report no. 355, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1984.

Gottfredson, Linda S.  "Education as a Valid But Fallible Signal of Worker Quality:  Reorienting an Old Debate About the Functional Basis of the Occupational Hierarchy."  In Research in the Sociology of Education and Socialization, vol. 5, ed. A.C. Kerckhoff, 123-169.  Greenwich, Conn.:  JAI Press, 1985

 

1985

Gordon, Robert A.  "Understanding and Controlling Drug Users."  Review of Trafficking in Drug Users, by James R Beniger, Substance Abuse, Habitual Behavior, and Self-Control, edited by Peter K Levison and Drug, Set, and Setting, by Norman E Zinberg.  In Contemporary Sociology 14 (May 1985):  291-294.

Jensen, Arthur R.  "The Black-White Difference in g:  A Phenomenon in Search of a Theory."  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (July 1985):  246-258.

Gordon, Robert A.  "The Black-White Factor is g."  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (July 1985):  229-231.
   Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 510-512
    Arthur R Jensen, "Further Evidence for Spearman's Hypothesis Concerning Black-White Differences on Psychometric Tests," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 512-19
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994

 

1986

[29 May 1986 and 26 November 1986.  The Pioneer Fund approves grants totaling $51,000 to Johns Hopkins University "to conduct a symposium on crime and employment."  These were the first on several Pioneer Fund grants;  between 1986 and 1989 it granted a total of $214,000 to Johns Hopkins University in support of Gordon's work.  During the period from 1988 to 1996 it also approved grants totaling $519,451 to the University of Delaware in support of the work of his co-thinker, Linda S. Gottfredson.  Gordon and Gottfredson together have received about three-quarters of a million dollars from the Pioneer Fund since 1986.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Scientific Justification and the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model."  In Critique and Explanation:  Essays in Honor of Gwynne Nettler, edited by Timothy F. Hartnagel and Robert A. Silverman.  New Brunswick, N.J.:  Transaction Books, 1986.
   Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson, "The Practical Significance of Black-White Differences in Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (September 1987): 510-512
    Byron M Roth, Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science, New Brunswick NJ: Transaction 1994
    Nathaniel J Pallone and James J Hennessy, Tinder-Box Criminal Aggression: Neuropsychology, Demography, Phenomenology, New Brunswick: Transaction 1996
    RA Gordon, "Parental Licensure and Its Sanction," Society, November-December 1996
    Linda S Gottfredson, "Why g Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence January-February 1997

Gordon, Robert A.  Review of Crime and Human Nature by James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein.  In Business Horizons 29 (July- August 1986):  78-79.

[August 1986.  At the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in  Washington, DC, Gordon presents "IQ Commensurability of Black-White Differences in Crime and Delinquency," which argues that race differences in IQ explain race differences in crime and delinquency.   (Cited in John B Carroll, Human Cognitive Abilities, Cambridge University Press 1993).  Linda Gottfredson presents a paper on IQ and job performance.  There was early notice of these papers in the Wilmot Robertson's racist magazine, Instauration (November 1986).]

"IQ Determines Job Performance:  Two Sociologists Blast Two Sociological Articles of Faith."  Instauration 11 (November 1986):  9-10.

 

1987

Gordon, Robert A.  "Jensen's Contributions Concerning Test Bias:  A Contextual View."  In Arthur Jensen:  Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 77-154.  New York:  Falmer Press, 1987.
   Cited in:
    Linda S Gottfredson and James Crouse, "Validity Versus Utility of Mental Tests," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 363-378   (cited in press)
    Gregory Camilli and Lorrie Shepard, "The Inadequacy of ANOVA for Detecting Test Bias," Journal of Educational Statistics 12 (Spring 1987): 87-99
    J Philippe Rushton, "The Reality of Racial Differences," Personality and Individual Differences 9 (1988): 1035-40
    Linda S Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    J Philippe Rushton, "The Evolution of Racial Differences: A Response to M. Lynn," Journal of Research in Personality 23 (1989): 7-20
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    J Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction 1995
    Robert A Gordon, "How Intelligent Is Our Intelligence Policy?," Contemporary Psychology, June 1996

Gordon, Robert A.  "Gordon Replies to Scheuneman."  In Arthur Jensen:  Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 171-175.  New York:  Falmer Press, 1987.

Gordon, Robert A.  "Citation Classic:  'Issues in Multiple Regression'."  Current Contents:  Social and Behavioral Sciences 36 (1987):  18.

[18 June 1987.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $73,000 grant to Johns Hopkins University "to conduct a symposium on the role of intelligence in employment, and for the purchase of a new computer system."]

[1-2 October 1987.  Fall Conference of Personnel Testing Council (PTC) of Southern California, Newport Beach.  The conference's topic is 'Fairness in Testing.'  Gordon, Mary A Lewis, and Ann M Quigley's "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?" is a commentary on and appears with conference papers in the December 1988 special issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior edited by Linda Gottfredson and James C Sharf.]

Gordon, Robert A.  "SES Versus IQ in the Race-IQ-Delinquency Model."  International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 7 (1987):  30-96.
   Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson, "Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment," Journal of Vocational Behavior 29 (December 1986): 379-420
    Arthur Jensen, Intelligence 11 (1987): 193
    Arthur Jensen, Personality and Individual Differences 9 (1988): 925.
    Richard Lynn, Review of The Causes and Cures of Criminality by Hans J Eysenck and Gisli H Gudjonsson, in Personality and Individual Differences 11 (1990): 319-320
    J Philippe Rushton "Race and Crime: A Reply to Roberts and Gabor," Canadian Journal of Criminology 32 (1990): 315-334
    Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press 1994
    Chris Brand, Vincent Egan, and Ian Deary, "Intelligence, Personality, and Society: Constructivist versus Essentialist Possibilities," in Current Topics in Human Intelligence, vol. 4, Theories of Intelligence, edited by Douglas K Detterman, 29-42, Norwood, N.J.: Ablex 1994
    RJ Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, New York: Free Press 1994
    J Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective, New Brunswick: Transaction 1995
    Kevin Lamb, "The Causal Factors of Crime: Understanding the Sub-Culture of Violence," Review of The Antisocial Personalities by David T Lykken, in Mankind Quarterly 36 (Fall 1995): 105-116
    Stephen J Ceci, On Intelligence: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development, expanded edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1996
    Chris R Brand, "The Importance of Intelligence in Western Societies," Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (October 1996): 387-404
    Robert A Gordon, "Parental Licensure and Its Sanction," Society, November-December 1996
    Kevin Lamb, "'The Problem of Equality' Revisited: A Rejoinder to Stretesky," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 22 (Summer 1997): 205-248
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

 

1988

Gordon, Robert A.  "Thunder From the Left."  Review of Storm Over Biology:   Essays on Science, Sentiment, and Public Policy by Bernard Davis.  In Academic Questions 1 (Summer 1988):  74-92.
   Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    Linda Gottfredson, "Dilemmas in Developing Diversity Programs," in Diversity in the Workplace: Human Resources Initiatives, edited by Susan E Jackson and associates, 279-305, New York: Guilford 1992
    Byron M Roth, Prescription for Failure: Race Relations in the Age of Social Science, New Brunswick NJ: Transaction 1994
    Paul Craig Roberts and Lawrence M Stratton, The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy, Washington: Regnery, 1995
    Gordon, "How Intelligent Is Our Intelligence Policy?," Contemporary Psychology, June 1996
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test," Intelligence, January-February 1997

[1988-89.  The Johns Hopkins Bulletin lists Gordon's courses as:
            Recent Developments in Research in Juvenile Delinquency;
            Genetics and Society;
            Case Studies in Social Deviance and Social Policy;
            and, Intelligence and Society.]

Retherford, Robert D, and William H Sewell.  "Intelligence and Family Size Reconsidered."  Social Biology 35 (Spring-Summer 1988):  1-40.
   [The authors acknowledge comments from Gordon.]

[19 October 1988.  Journal of Vocational Behavior receives the manuscript of Gordon, Lewis and Quigley, "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?"]

Gordon, Robert A., Mary A. Lewis, and Ann M. Quigley.  "Can We Count on Muddling Through the g Crisis in Employment?"  Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 424-451.
   Cited in:
    Eileen E Rudert "Background Paper for Consultation on The Validity of Testing in Education and Employment," staff paper prepared for U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hearing, 16 June 1989
    Louise F Fitzgerald and James B Rounds, "Vocational Behavior, 1988: A Critical Analysis," Journal of Vocational Behavior 35 (October 1989): 105-163
    Michael Levin, "Implications of Race and Sex Differences for Compensatory Affirmative Action and the Concept of Discrimination," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 15 (Summer 1990): 175-212
    Bob Zelnick, Backfire: A Reporter's Look at Affirmative Action, Washington: Regnery 1996
    Linda S Gottfredson, "Why g Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132

Gordon, Robert A.   "IQ-Commensurability of Black-White Differences in Crime and Delinquency." Personality and Individual Differences (1988 or 1989).
   [This article, which was cited before publication in several articles, never appeared.]
    Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson, "Reconsidering Fairness: A Matter of Social and Ethical Priorities." Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 293-319
    John H Bishop, "Employment Testing and Incentives to Learn," Journal of Vocational Behavior 33 (December 1988): 404-423

 

1989

Bailey, J. Michael.  "A Critique and Reinterpretation of Gordon's IQ-Commensurability Property."  International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 7 (1989):  64-74.

Rudert, Eileen E.  "Background Paper for Consultation on The Validity of Testing in Education and Employment."  Prepared for hearing held by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 16 June 1989.
   [Rudert relied heavily on the issues of Journal of Vocational Behavior edited by Linda Gottfredson.]

[1989-90.  The Johns Hopkins bulletin lists Gordon's courses as:
            Sociology of Leadership (freshman seminar);
            Recent Developments in Research in Juvenile Delinquency;
            Genetics and Society;
            Case Studies in Social Deviance and Social Policy;
            and, Intelligence and Society.]

[11 December 1989.  The Pioneer Fund approves a $90,000 grant to Johns Hopkins University "to apply to the budget for the second year and for the project for Study of Intelligence and Society."]

 

1990

[3 May 1990.  Second Thoughts About Race Conference, organized by David Horowitz and Peter Collier in Washington DC.  Attendees include Gordon, Walter A. Williams, William Allen, Glen Loury, Juan Williams, and Richard Cohen.  Michael E. Levin (CCNY) had been invited, but after a public controversy broke out surrounding him in New York the invitation was withdrawn.]

Hallow, Ralph Z.  "Black IQ Issues Seen to Need Airing." Washington Times (May 4, 1990), A3.
   ["Also attending yesterday's conference was Robert A. Gordon, co-director of the Sociology department at Johns Hopkins University, who said he tried to organize a protest against Mr. Levin's exclusion.
    "'By showing Levin was unacceptable to people on the political right and the middle, they [the conference organizers] legitimated the declaration of his unacceptability by people on the left,' Mr. Gordon said.
    "'Levin was found to be a leper with no acceptability anywhere,' he said.  'But he is a well-informed person. His papers are carefully researched.'
    "Noting that there 'has been a IQ difference of 18 points on the average between blacks and whites for 60 years,' Mr. Gordon, who is white, said widespread research shows that the IQ tests predict 'equally well' for blacks and whites.
    "'The implications of these findings have absolutely nothing to do with the denial of individual rights and equal opportunity,' he said."]

[1990-91.  The Johns Hopkins Bulletin lists Gordon's classes as:
            "Social Ecology and Individual Behavior"
            "Genetics and Society"
            "Case Studies in Social Deviance and Social Policy"
            "Intelligence and Society."]

 

1992

Seligman, Daniel.  A Question of Intelligence:  The IQ Debate in America.  New York:  Birch Lane Press, 1992.
   [The author discusses Gordon and Gottfredson.]

"'Dialogues' Premieres This Evening."  UpDate 11 (March 12, 1992):  6.
    [UpDate is a publication of the University of Delaware.   The article states:
    "'Race Differences in Intelligence Testing: What Do They Mean?' will be the focus of the first program in the University's 'Delaware Dialogues' series.
    "The free public forum is scheduled for 7 tonight in 115 Purnell Hall.
    "'Delaware Dialogues' is designed to give the campus community a close look at the ideas surrounding controversial and contemporary issues in America.
    "Presenting opposing viewpoints at the program will be Robert A. Gordon, professor of sociology at Johns Hopkins University, and Howard Taylor, professor of sociology at Princeton University.
    "They will discuss the meaning of racial differences that appear in intelligence testing and how these differences are interpreted and used.
    "Responding to their discussion will be three members of the Delaware faculty:  James Davis, assistant professor of educational studies;   Leslie Goldstein, professor of political science and international relations;   and Raymond Wolters, professor of history.
    "Gordon, who received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, has lectured and published widely on such subjects as the sociology of intelligence, deviant behavior, opiate addiction, and the causes of crime and delinquency.  His research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and the Pioneer Fund Inc.
    "Gordon's honors include the 1974 American Association for the Advancement of Science Socio-Psychological Prize."]

 

1993

Gordon, Robert A. The Battle to Establish a Sociology of Intelligence:  A Case Study in the Sociology of Politicized Disciplines.  Baltimore: Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, 1993.
   
Cited in:
    Linda Gottfredson, "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud," Society 31 (March-April 1994): 53-59

 

1994

Kühl, Stefan.  The Nazi Connection:  Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1994.
    [Published February 10th.  There are references to Gordon on pages 3, 8-10, 106, and 112 and to Gottfredson on pages 8, 10, and 106.]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "Egalitarian Fiction and Collective Fraud."  Society 31 (March-April 1994):  53-59.
   ["As sociologist Robert Gordon argues, social science has become 'one-party science'. ... Gordon reports yet other [forms of censorship], including the National Institutes of Health's new extra layer of review for politically 'sensitive' grant proposals and the University of Delaware's recent policy (reversed by a national arbitrator) of banning a particular funding source because, so the university claimed, it supports research on race which 'conflicts with the university's mission to promote racial and cultural diversity.'  Gordon also outlines in detail - as political scientist Jan Blits has done - the covert application of ideological standards to facilitate expression of some views but burden others ... The double standards can even ricochet back and forth, depending on the particular question being considered.  Gordon recalls how sociologists failed to criticize sociologist James Coleman for omitting student ability from his analyses of school integration (which led to overstating the impact of integrated schools on black achievement - for sociologists a favorable outcome), but how they criticized him roundly for the very same omission in analyses of private versus public schools ... Thus, in a kind of Orwellian inversion, marked by what Gordon calls 'high talk and low blows,' the suppression of science presents itself as science itself."   Gottfredson cites Gordon's 1993 unpublished paper, "The Battle to Establish a Sociology of Intelligence," in the bibliography of her paper.  The paper is available online on the David Duke website at www.duke.org/data/gottfredson_race.html. ]

Roth, Byron M.  Prescription for Failure:  Race Relations in the Age of Social Science.  New Brunswick:   Transaction, 1994.
    [There are statements by Gordon and Gottfredson on the book's dust jacket.  Gordon's states:  "Roth's empirical critique of the dominant paradigm in race relations theory is masterful and justified.  Thoughtful scientists, not to mention students bored by the destructive bromides of political correctness on race-class-gender that greet them in course after course, will welcome this courageous and clearly written challenge to a long-sterile orthodoxy.  Give your undergraduates some real diversity - design a course around this book!"]

Gottfredson, Linda S.   "The Science and Politics of Race-Norming."  American Psychologist 49 (November 1994):  955-963.
   [Gottfredson thanks Gordon for comments.]

[18 November 94. Gordon fax-letter to ABC News.]

[22 November 94.  ABC World News Tonight with Peter Jennings report on The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund.]

[13 Dec 94. "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," Wall Street Journal. Gordon is a signatory.]

 

1995

Gordon, Robert A.  "The Great Disturbance About Intelligence."  Planning for Higher Education 23 (Spring 1995):  19-28.
   Cited in:
    Gordon, "Everyday Life as an Intelligence Test," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 203-330

Gordon, Robert A.  In Baltimore Sun (April 3, 1995), D1.
   Cited in:
    Jerome G Miller, Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1996

Kohn, Marek.  The Race Gallery:  The Return of Race Science.  London:  Jonathan Cape, 1995.
   [Published September 15th.  The author refers to Gordon and Gottfredson on pages 96, 98, 112, 113, and 114.]

Walsh, Anthony.  Biosociology:  An Emerging Paradigm.   Forward by Robert A. Gordon.  Westport, Conn.:  Praeger, 1995.
    [Published October 13, 1995.  Louis R Andrews' "Stalking the Wild Taboo" website refers to Gordon's connection to the book.  See http://lrainc.com/swtaboo/late/newbooks.html .]

Gordon, Robert A.  "The Irresponsible Abuse of Colleagues."  The Johns Hopkins Newsletter (December 8, 1995), A13.
   Cited in:
    Glayde Whitney, "Professor Shockley's Experiment," Mankind Quarterly 37 (Fall 1996): 41-60

 

1996

Gordon, Robert A.  "How Intelligent Is Our Intelligence Policy?"  Review of Intelligence Policy by Angela Browne-Miller.  In Contemporary Psychology 41 (June 1996):   573-576.

[12 September 1996.  The University of New Orleans's school newspaper, The Driftwood, carries an editor's note in the letters to the editor section acknowledging letters defending Edward M Miller which it has decided not to print for lack of space.  These include letters from Robert A Gordon, J Philippe Rushton, Helmuth Nyborg, and Jared Taylor.  See www.uno.edu/~drif/september12/letter.htm .  Gordon also sent a letter to the New Orleans Times-Picayune which was never published.  See the discussion of the Miller controversy at  http://lrainc.com/swtaboo/stalkers/em_contr,html .]

Gordon, Robert A.   "Intelligence Debate."  Letter.  Gambit Weekly (October 1, 1996)
    [Available on David Duke's website:  http://www.duke.org/data/Miller-RobtGordon.htm .]

Gordon, Robert A.  "Parental Licensure and Its Sanction."  Society 34 (November-December 1996):  65-69.
   
Cited in:
    Charmaine Crouse Yoest, "Big Brother Is Watching: Parent Licensing, Parent Training, an Parent-Teacher Contracts," Family Research Council Insight, 1997  (available online at http://www.pff.org/frc/insight/is97f4pa.html )

 

1997

Gordon, Robert A.  "Everyday Life as a Intelligence Test:  Effects of Intelligence and Intelligence Context."  Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997):  203-320.
   Cited in:
    Linda S Gottfredson, "Why g Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 79-132
    David Lubinski and Lloyd G Humphreys, "Incorporating General Intelligence Into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences," Intelligence 24 (January-February 1997): 159-201
    Kevin Lamb, "'The Problem of Equality' Revisited: A Rejoinder to Stretesky," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 22 (Summer 1997): 205-248

Gordon, Robert A.  "How Smart Are We About What We Broadcast: An Open Letter to ABC News."  Letter to Roone Arledge, Diane Mendez, Elizabeth Nissan, Bill Blakemore, Albert Oetgen, Peter Jennings, David Westin.  June 17, 1997.
   [This is a very long critique of ABC News World News Tonight's November 22, 1994 report on The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund.  Gordon arranged to have it posted in the Pioneer Fund's web site at www.pioneerfund.org/ABCletter.html .]

 

Revised:  24 June 1998

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