Raymond Bernard Cattell
(1905-1998)

(Part I:  To 1963)

[20 March 1905.  Raymond Bernard Cattell was born in Hilltop, a village on the north side of West Bromwich in Staffordshire, on the outskirts of Birmingham.  He was the second of three sons of Alfred Ernest Cattell and Mary Field Cattell.
    His father, Alfred Ernest Cattell, was born in Hilltop on August 20, 1870 and died (in a fire) and was buried in Torquay, Devonshire in 1936.  Alfred Cattell was apprenticed and worked as a mechanical engineer, and operated a small factory, Cattell Brothers, with his younger brother, Harry Cattell (1866-1946), who also was apprenticed and worked as a mechanical engineer.  Raymond Cattell reported having administered an intelligence test to his father, who received a score of 120.
    R.B. Cattell's mother, Mary Field Cattell, nicknamed "Polly," was born in Hilltop in 1880 and married Alfred Cattell on September 21, 1898.  She died in 1974 at the age of 94 in Torquay and is buried in the Paignton cemetery.   Raymond Cattell reported that he determined her I.Q. to be 150.
    R.B. Cattell's paternal grandfather, Joseph Cattell, was also born in Hilltop.  His family was from Scotland or the border area between Scotland and England.  He also was apprenticed and worked as a mechanical engineer and died and was buried in Hilltop around 1920.  His wife, R.B. Cattell's paternal grandmother, Perry Cattell, was born, died, and buried  in Hilltop.  She lived about 90 years.
    R.B. Cattell's maternal grandfather, Henry Field, was born on March 27, 1830 and died on March 2, 1906.  Tall, blond, and commanding, he owned the Thomas Shaw, Lion Works, in Hilltop, a factory that produced steel axles and springs.   The firm, which employed about 200 workers, was established in 1826 and operated by the Field family until it closed in 1929 during the Great Depression.  R.B. Cattell's mother, Mary Field Cattell, was a part owner of the factory.
    R.B. Cattell's older brother, Cecil Henry Field Cattell,  was born on September 8, 1902 in Hilltop.  He contracted rheumatic fever in his youth and was left with heart damage and confined to sedentary activities in adulthood.  He worked as a bank clerk in Torquay until his death from a heart attack in 1959 at the age of 57.  He had a daughter and two grandchildren.
    R.B. Cattell's younger brother, Stanley Neville Cattell, was born in 1912.   He worked as an engineer in Devon.  He had a daughter and five grandchildren.  He still lives in Devonshire.]

[1912. When he was six, Cattell's family moved from Hilltop to a seaside house on Tor Bay in south Devonshire.  At the time they moved there, it was a popular middle-class resort and retirement district.  Cattell lived there until 1921 when he matriculated at King's College, London, which he attended on a county scholarship.   He later returned to work as an instructor at Exeter University and an advisory psychologist at the progressive school at Dartington Hall.  He spent much of his Darwin Studentship in Devonshire.  He later published recollections of Devonshire that express a strong romantic sense of place and of maritime adventure.]

[1920s.  Cattell described his experience in the 1920s in a 1984 essay ("The Voyage of a Laboratory, 1928-1984"):  "In 1921 I found myself in science at the University of London in the midst of the ferment of social and political ideas that broke out after World War I.  Shaw, Wells, Huxley, Haldane, and Russell were our prophets:  Oddly, as I see it now, I was able to meet them all!   I was lucky also in having Charles Spearman, developing the psychological logic of factor analysis, on one side of the college yard of University College and Fisher, developing analysis of variance, on the other.  [Did he meet Fisher before the Darwin Studentship in 1935?]  Interpreting these two poles of statistics technically, but more interested in social and political implications was Sir Cyril Burt.  Soon I thought I saw the possibility of reaching in human affairs beyond the traditional rules of thumb into radical improvements based on a science of psychology.  I said goodbye to the senseless pendulum of left and right politics, and wrote Psychology and Social Progress (1933) ... "
    Several accounts suggest that Cattell was attracted to some form of socialism during the 1920s.  In a March 20, 1937 letter to C.P. Blacker about The Fight for Our National Intelligence, Leonard Darwin wrote that Cattell "started, he told me, with a strong socialistic bias, and was surprised at his results;"   and in a May 15, 1937 letter to Blacker, Cattell wrote, perhaps not without irony, that "I have also written an article replying to the attack made in the Daily Herald, taking a conciliatory attitude and attempting to prove (may God and the Conservatives forgive me) that eugenics is the ultimate expression of the essential socialistic principles (though not the converse)."
    In a 1974 memoir, Cattell wrote that he "was a socialist student in the heyday of Shavian and Wellsian socialism."  Jonathan Harwood adduced this statement as evidence of the now well-documented fact that eugenics in interwar Britain was not an exclusively right-wing phenomenon.  (See Harwood, "Nature, Nurture and Politics," The Meritocratic Intellect, edited by J.V. Smith and David Hamilton, pp. 115-29, Aberdeen University Press, 1980.)  He criticized Geoffrey R. Searle for referring to Cattell, in his "Eugenics and Politics in Britain in the 1930s" (Annals of Science, 1979), as a "right-wing extremist," which, Harwood concluded, was "appropriate in the political spectrum of the 1970s but which ignores Cattell's admiration for the socialism of Shaw and Wells in the 1920s and 1930s."  (Harwood did, however, describe Cattell's 1972 book, A New Morality from Science, as a "right-wing eugenic fantasy.")
    Harwood was certainly correct about the heterogeneity of interwar eugenics, but his judgment reflected an anachronistic view of 1920s and 1930s progressivism that understates the ambiguity and fluidity of ideological classifications during the period and exaggerates the differences between the progressivism that influenced Cattell and the characteristic concerns of the radical right.  It has been argued that Shaw's socialism never amounted to much more than a commitment to eugenics, and much the same can perhaps be said of Cattell.  There is no public record of his attitude at the time toward the defining events of the period, such as the first MacDonald government or the General Strike of 1926.  As the above quote indicates, by the time of his first book, Psychology and Social Progress, the manuscript of which was largely completed by 1931, the trend of his ideas, although strongly progressivist, bore little relation to socialist egalitarianism.]

 

1924

[1924.  Cattell receives a B.A. degree with first class honours in chemistry from Kings College, London.  He was the first member of his family and the only one of his brothers to receive a university education.  After graduation, he abandoned the natural sciences for a career in the new science of psychology.  As he described it in a 1984 paper, "On a cold and foggy London morning in 1924 I turned my back on the shining flasks and tubes of my well-equiped chemistry bench and walked over to Charles Spearman's laboratory to explore the promise of psychology."  The decision to change fields severely strained his relations with his parents.
    Adrian Wooldridge emphasizes the political roots of his turn to psychology:  "As a young socialist, [Cattell] turned from chemistry to psychology because a lecture given by Burt inspired him with 'a feeling that only there was there a radical solution to our social problems'."  Adrian Wooldridge, Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England, c.1860 - c.1990 (Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 204.  Wooldridge cites an interview with Cattell conducted by Frank W. Warburton in the summer of 1961.  In his review of Hearnshaw's Cyril Burt in Behavior Genetics (May 1980), Cattell recalled that he "had repeated contact with Burt from 1924 to 1939, ... [and thereafter] only at much longer intervals ... "  Burt clearly was the most important influence on the development of Cattell's career.]

1926

[1926.  Cattell comes to work in Spearman's laboratory at University College, London.]


1927

[1927-32.  Cattell becomes a lecturer in the Education Department of the University College of the South West, Exeter (now the University of Exeter), about 20 miles north of his family's home.]

1928

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Significance of the Actual Resistances in Psychogalvanic Experiments."  British Journal of Psychology 19 (July 1928):  34-43.

[1928-42.  "Stimulated by research with ... Spearman, Burt, and Thurstone ... I published about a dozen contributions in the field of ability research. After that ... set out ... into personality and motivation research."]

 

1929

[February 1929.  Cattell receives his Ph.D. degree.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Experiments on the Psychical Correlate of the Psychogalvanic Reflex."  British Journal of Psychology 19 (April 1929):  357-383.

 

1930

Cattell, R.B.  The Subjective Character of Cognition and the Pre-Sensational Development of Perception.  British Journal of Psychology Monograph Supplements, vol. 5, no. 14.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1930.
    [Dissertation.]

Cattell, R.B.  Cattell Group Intelligence Test.   London:  George E. Harrap, 1930.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Effects of Alcohol and Caffeine on Intelligent and Associative Performance."  British Journal of Medical Psychology 13 (1930): 20-33.
    [Issued 30 May 1930.]

Cattell, R.B.  "Intelligence Levels in Schools of the Southwest."  Forum of Education 8 (November 1930):  201-204.
   [This journal was incorporated into the British Journal of Educational Psychology in 1931.]

[1930-32.  Cattell conducts research on temperament factors under Spearman's supervision.  This was toward the very end of Spearman's career at University College, London, just before Burt succeeded him.]

[1 December 1930.  Cattell marries Monica Hazel Campbell (née Rogers), an artist and the daughter of the director of an art school.  They had one child, Hereward Seagrieve Cattell (born in London in 1932), who is now a Bethesda, Maryland orthopaedic surgeon. They divorced in 1934.  See Cattell's 1974 memoir.]

 

1931

Kretschmer, Ernst. The Psychology of Men of Genius.   Translated and with an Introduction by R.B. Cattell.  International Library of Psychology.  London:  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1931.

Cattell, R.B.  "The Assessment of Teaching Ability:  A Survey of Professional Opinion on the Qualities of a Good Teacher."  British Journal of Educational Psychology 1 (February 1931):  48-72.

[3 May 1931.  Letter of reference written by Charles Spearman on Cattell's behalf:  "To Whom It May Concern:  I understand that Dr. R.S. [sic] Cattell is applying for a traveling studentship.  I am glad to be able to support his application.  I was one of his Examiners of his qualifications for the Ph.D. in psychology, and was much impressed by the way in which he maintained the scientific attitude derived from his original training in the physical sciences and nevertheless showed himself to be completely and exceptionally able to grasp the psychological standpoint.  Subsequently I followed his work for the Ph.D. and regard it as a very fine achievement.  Since then he has displayed great activity and initiative in various manners.  On the whole I should say that he is just the sort of man who as a fellow would do credit to himself, our country and this university, besides benefiting science."
    Cattell used this letter in his June 18th, 1935 application for the Leonard Darwin Research Studentship.      SA/EUG/C.62.]

[19 June 1931.  Announcement that Cyril Burt will succeed Spearman in the chair at University College, London, effective 1 September 1932.]

[31 September 1931.  Date to the forward to Cattell's Psychology and Social Progress.  It was published in early 1933.  The forward was written in Paignton, Devonshire.]

 

1932

Cattell, Raymond B.  Perserveration Tests of Temperament:   An Assessment of Teaching Ability.  Unpublished M.A. in Education thesis, London Day Training College, 1932.
   [Written under Cyril Burt's supervision.  Burt was Professor of Educational Psychology at the London Day Training College, on Southampton Row, 1924-1932.]

[1932. Child Guidance Council Fellowship in Clinical Psychology.    He worked at the London Child Guidance Clinic in Islington.  This clinic had been established in 1928 and was directed by Dr. William Moodie.]

[1932-37.  Director, City of Leicester Child Guidance Clinic.   Cyril Burt had been involved with the establishment of child guidance clinics in Britain.  In his 1974 memoir, "Travels in Psychological Hyperspace," Cattell alluded to the marginal position to which this job confined him within the emerging psychology profession:  "Through all the experiences of the merely 'fringe' jobs in psychology that I was compelled to take I was able to keep some research and writing going."]

Cattell, R.B.  "Psychologist or Medical Man?"  The Schoolmaster (September 8, 1932):  330-332.
    [This was written against the background of a disagreement between Cyril Burt and WIlliam Moodie, among others, concerning the relative professional roles of psychiatrists and psychologists in the field of child guidance.]

 

1933

[1933.  Cattell serves as an advisory psychologist at the progessive school at Dartington Hall, in South Devon, among other things administering intelligence tests to the students there.]

Cattell, R.B.  The Cattell Intelligence Test, Group and Individual.  London:  G.G. Harrap, 1933.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Psychology and Social Progress:   Mankind and Destiny from the Standpoint of a Scientist.  London:   C.W. Daniel, 1933.
    [Available January 1933.  Charles Daniel published heterodox books, pamphlets, and magazines (including The Crank, The Open Road, and Purpose) on psychology (including works by Alfred Adler and Francis G. Crookshank), the social credit movement, vegetarianism, Esperanto, anti-socialism and anti-feminism, nature cures, mysticism, and spiritual healing.]

Cattell, R.B.  "Temperament Tests.  I.  Temperament."  British Journal of Psychology 23 (January 1933):   308-329.
    ["... my papers on temperament structure and measurement which appeared in 1933-34 owe much to" Burt, whose approach was in turn influenced by McDougall.]

[17 January 1933.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of "Occupational Norms of Intelligence..."    Published in July 1934.]

[31 January 1933.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of "Temperament Tests II."]

[31 January 1933.   Letter of reference written by William Moodie, M.D., M.R.C.P., D.P.M. (Director, London Child Guidance Clinic) on Cattell's behalf::   "Dr R.S. [sic] Cattell held a Fellowship in Psychology at this Clinic for a year.  He was an enthusiastic worker, with an original outlook, and his thoroughness in tackling case work rendered his observations useful, not only in a purely clinical way, but as a contribution to the mass of knowledge concerning child psychology.
    "He brought to his work a thorough grounding of his subject, and this, coupled with his practical experience and energy, render him a particularly suitable person for the academic instruction of students.
    "He is an agreeable colleague, and gets on well with children."      SA/EUG/C.62.
    Cattell subsequently (June 18, 1935) submited this letter to the Eugenics Society in support of his successful application for the Leonard Darwin Research Studentship.
    Moodie, a psychiatrist, became Director of the London Child Guidance Clinic in Islington upon its establishment in 1928 after Cyril Burt turned down the position.   Moodie wrote Child Guidance by Teamwork (1931) and contributed with Burt and Emanuel Miller to How the Mind Works (1933).  In his biography of Burt, Leslie Hearnshaw wrote (pp. 97-98):  "It was not long before Moodie made it clear that in his view psychologists were to play a subordinate role in the clinics, and to be confined to the cognitive aspects of the mind and the measurement of intelligence.  This attitude was totally at variance with Burt's own conception of the part to be played by the psychologist."  Cyril Burt, Psychologist (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1979).  Moodie also contributed a Foreward to Cattell's A Guide to Mental Testing (1936).]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Hilda Bristol.  "Intelligence Tests for Mental Ages of Four to Eight Years."  British Journal of Educational Psychology 3 (June 1933):  142-169.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Temperament Tests. II. Tests."   British Journal of Psychology 24 (July 1933):  20-49.

Bramwell, B.S.  Review of Psychology and Social Progress by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Eugenics Review 25 (October 1933):  194-195.
     [Byrom S. Bramwell (1877-1949), the son of Sir Byrom Bramwell, a prominent Scottish physican, attended Edinburgh University, from which he received an LL.B. degree in 1903.  He made a career with the London firm of Barclay and Fry Ltd., lithographers and letterpress printers.  He became a member of the Eugenics Society in 1921 and a member of its Council the following year.  He was its Treasurer, 1929-33, and Chairman of its Council, 1933-43.           He reviewed Cattell's book without disapprobation, and indeed Cattell, in his June 18, 1935 application for the Darwin Studentship, was able to note that it "was very encouragingly dealt with in the Eugenics Review."]

Harding, D.W.  "Social Eddies."  Review of Recent Social Trends in the United States by the President's Research Committee on Social Trends.  In Scrutiny 2 (December 1933):  313-319.
    [Harding was co-editor of Scrutiny with F.R. Leavis.   About one-third of the review is devoted to a discussion of Cattell's Psychology and Social Progress.
    " ... Out of the whole summary comes the Committee's pathetic conviction that, although they don't know where they want to go, community effort helped by science will somehow get them there.
    "This is the burden of Dr. Cattell's book too.  Because of this one is in danger of overlooking the immense pains that must have gone to the accumulation of an imposing mass of sociological and psychological information.  In his book the same lopsidedness and retarded cultural development evident in Recent Social Trends leads not to uneasiness but to earnest enthusiasm and hope.   Everything, he thinks, is clear.  Or soon would be if only we let the psychologists and sociologists experiment with us for a time.  'Sexual ethics, like other moral rules, can be derived from biological considerations by careful research and reasoning.  Although there is need for much more experiment, it seems safe to conclude that divorce by mutual consent, the institution of trial marriage, greater freedom in sexual relationships and other changes not involving dysgenic effects or loss of social purposefulness, ought to be socially recognized.'  (Among the authorities he quotes in this connection are H.G. Wells on 'Secret Places of the Heart' and the Women's Co-Operative Guild on 'Maternity'.)  The standard by which he arrives at these conclusions is given early in the book.  'The primary ideal of social life from which all others are derived, can only be that of forward Evolution.'  'Living things,' he explains in more detail, 'have constantly tended to evolve 'higher' organisms, more and more complex forms of life, capable of greater control over their environment and over the 'lower' forms.'  It is by these criteria, presumably, that we judge between the Goths and the Romans, or say Delius and Mr. Henry Ford.  It seems, unfortunately, that the two criteria do not always go together and that what might be regarded as more complex forms of life are not necessarily capable of greater control over their environment.  It is not surprising that in coming to a discussion of art and culture Dr. Cattell has to admit that by his criteria 'at first sight it is difficult to see what use cultural competition can be to the groups concerned, or how it can lead to any real natural selection among groups.'  After a short discussion however he concludes that 'In truth, though the relationships are here less obvious and more in the psychological realm, the effect on group survival is no less real.  Firstly, art is an aid to sublimational education:  it raises the general level of expression of instinctive energy, makes possible nobler integrations of character and thereby results in better directing of national mental activity and greater 'wisdom' in all fields.  Secondly, it increases national prestige in the eyes of other nations, producing an attitude which reacts favourably in the economic spheres, favours the formation of alliances in time of war, and assists potently in the general spread of that nation's culture.'  It is perhaps only fair to give an instance of the more practical suggestions that Dr. Cattell has to make.  The most impressive, occuring in the chapter headed 'The Control of Destiny' is that a nation like Great Britain should be divided into 'sociological experimental groups.'  'England and Scotland might have decided to adopt a dual group formation - a northern and a southern community ... Then there might be mooted in the southern group the question as to whether the existent rate of increase of income-tax with salary was the best socially and eugenically, or again whether the school-leaving age ought or ought not to be raised by one year, or whether divorce ought to be granted on demand or only after twelve months' notice.  Two counties might be chosen sufficiently similar in economic conditions, such as Dorset and Somerset.  One would then be put under the first system and the other under the second.  The people desiring one system would, as far as possible, migrate to the county in which their preferred system was at work.  Then the social and economic effects of the two systems could be accurately compared over a period as long as one or two generations if necessary.'  'For if the believers in action' - but this is only Matthew Arnold - 'who are so impatient with us and call us effeminate, had had the same good fortune, they would, no doubt, have surpassed us in this sphere of vital influence by all the superiority of their genius and energy over ours.  But now we go the way the human race is going, while they abolish the Irish Church by the power of the Nonconformists' antipathy to establishments, or they enable a man to marry his deceased wife's sister.'   One wonders whose confidence has been the more misplaced, Matthew Arnold's or Dr. Cattell's."]

 

1934

[1934.  Cattell and his first wife divorce.  See Cattell, "The Early Years."]

Cattell, Raymond B. Your Mind and Mine:  An Account of Psychology for the Inquiring Layman and the Prospective Student. London:  George G. Harrap, 1934.

Scott Moncrieff, George.  Review of The Way of All Women by M. Ester Harding and Psychology and Social Progress by Raymond B. Cattell.   In The Criterion 13 (April 1934):  480-482.
    [Scott-Moncrieff was a prominent conservative Scottish writer.   He writes:
    "Neither of the two books here reviewed is a work of pure psychology:  in both the philosophical constantly recurs.  Otherwise they have nothing in common.
    ...
    "With the literary quality and quiet assurance of Dr. Harding, Dr. Cattell makes a sorry contrast.  He presents an epitome of the worst fallacies of psychology and the facile philosophizing of the day.  Unlike Dr. Harding his approach is one through a form of philosophy of psychology, and attempts rather to solve the life of society than that of the individual.  His philosophy is that of Progress;   and his book is directly derivative from the works of others, only the more superficial of which he has succeeded in digesting.  He is arrogant in his self-delusions, and his illusions are familiar and juvenile.  He advocates God as a useful conceit for the masses.  He accepts implicitly Bertrand Russell and Judge Lindsay.  He obtains conclusive evidence from shaky statistics.  One would recommend Dr. Cattell to relinquish his professorship and go to the world in order to get in touch with reality.
    "The approach of the two authors to the topic of sexual freedom provides an adequate comparison of their perception.  Dr. Harding describes the continual, if shifting, problems introduced, and distinguishes the 'degenerate spirit of democracy abroad to-day' with its cry for more liberty, less convention, for what it so largely is:  self-seeking and cowardly, doomed to disappointment, inevitable under whatever conventions may prevail.  Dr. Cattell finds a 'progressive' tendency, and assures us that 'education' can prevent too facile promiscuity after the removal of the existing barriers, and that the average human life will have the 'benefit of intimacy with two or three lovers before its permanent love - an enrichment that would bring great balance to one's attitude to life and an appreciation of what is rightly to be expected of marriage.'  To the mind of the 'progressive' everything is a digit with a plus or minus sign in front of it:  all 'love affairs' are approximately the same:  he progresses with each and almost automatically achieves the state of the qualified husband.   Whereas if it means, as it usually does, that the lover has failed to solve what he has taken upon himself, the opposite must tend to be the case."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Occupational Norms of Intelligence, and the Standardization of an Adult Intelligence Test."  British Journal of Psychology 25 (July 1934):  1-28.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Friends and Enemies:  A Psychological Study of Character and Temperament."  Character and Personality 3 (September 1934):  54-63.

[September 1934.  At a British Association meeting in Aberdeen, Cattell reads "The Practicing Psychologist in the Educational System."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Border Line Feeble-Minded Child:   How Can He Be Catered for in the School System?"  Mental Welfare 15 (October 1934):  99-105.
   [A journal of the Central Association for Mental Welfare, of which Cyril Burt was a vice-president.]

Kilgour, J.  Review of Your Mind and Mine by Raymond B. Cattell.  In The New Era in Home and School 15 (December 1934):  256.

 

1935

Cattell, R.B.  Cattell Group Intelligence Scale.   London:  George G. Harrap, 1935.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Perseveration and Personality:   Some Experiments and a Hypothesis."  Journal of Mental Science 81 (January 1935): 151-167.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "On the Measurement of 'Perseveration'."  British Journal of Educational Psychology 5 (February 1935):  76-92.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Practising Psychologist in the Educational System."  Human Factor 9 (February 1935):  54-62.

[14 March 1935.  C.P. Blacker to Byrom Stanley Bramwell (Messrs. Barclay and Fry, Ltd., The Grove, Southwark S.E. 1):
    "I enclose herewith a draft of a proposed letter to the Secretaries of the Royal Society, the Royal Statistical Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.  Would you be kind enough to vet this in any way you see fit?  You will observe that I have altered the memorandum on the foundation in order to conform with what was decided at yesterday's Council Meeting."
    The enclosed draft states:
    "Draft                                                                                                               14.3.35
    "Dear Sir,
    "The Council of the Eugenics Society has decided to found one or more Leonard Darwin Studentships in Eugenics.  These will carry an emolument of £250. a year.  I attach a memorandum on these Studentships.
    "For the selection of candidates, the Council has decided to set up an independent Committee consisting of five persons - two appointed by the Eugenics Society and one each by the Royal Society, the Royal Statistical Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.  The recommendations made by this committee will be subject to approval by the Council and the work undertaken must, in general, fall within the scope of the Aims and Objects of this Society as set forth in the enclosed leaflet.
    "Will you be kind enough to bring this letter before your appropriate Council or Committee and let me know, as soon as convenient, if your Society is prepared to appoint a representative?"                 SA/EUG/C.36.]

[27 March 1935.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell, "Standardization of Two Intelligence Tests for Children."   Published in January 1936.]

[Early summer 1935.  Leonard Darwin and the Council of the Eugenics Society approve a proposal that the Society should establish a Leonard Darwin Research Studentship, to be funded by Darwin. The grant is to be in amount of £ 250 from October 1st, 1935, renewable for a second year, tenable at any approved institution in the UK, for research on subjects bearing on eugenics.  A five-man committee is established to administer the award:
    R.A. Fisher                 Eugenics Society
    Julian Huxley             Eugenics Society
    F.H.A. Marshall        Royal Society (London)
    Dr Fraser-Harris      Royal Society (Edinburgh)
    David Heron             Royal Statistical Society
    Heron (1881-1969), a halt Scottish associate of Karl Pearson at University College, London from 1905 to 1915, remained active in UCL affairs thereafter.   He worked for a London insurance firm from 1915 to 1941.  See the obituary by Egon Pearson in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A (1970).]

[June 1935.   Times advertisement announces the establishment of the Leonard Darwin Research Studentship and calls for applications by June 30th.]

[18 June 1935.  Cattell to the General Secretary of the Eugenics Society:
"Dear Sir,
    "I am very interested in the Leonard Darwin Studentship as I have for some time been working towards an estimation of the changes that are taking place in intelligence in various communities, as you will see from my book 'Psychology and Social Progress', which was very encouragingly dealt with in the Eugenics Review.   Unfortunately the endowment offered is only one half of my present salary, but if you think the Trustees would be willing for me to take off only two terms full time and to continue the work in my spare time, I should be pleased to send particulars of my proposed plan of work.  Perhaps you will let me know whether it is worth while my giving a more detailed account of my past and proposed future research?"  The letter was written on City of Leicester Education Department letterhead.
    Two letters of recommendation were attached:
1.   Charles Spearman (3.5.31):  "To Whom It May Concern:   I understand that Dr. R.S. [sic] Cattell is applying for a traveling studentship.   I am glad to be able to support his application.  I was one of his Examiners of his qualifications for the Ph.D. in psychology, and was much impressed by the way in which he maintained the scientific attitude derived from his original training in the physical sciences and nevertheless showed himself to be completely and exceptionally able to grasp the psychological standpoint.  Subsequently I followed his work for the Ph.D. and regard it as a very fine achievement.  Since then he has displayed great activity and initiative in various manners.  On the whole I should say that he is just the sort of man who as a fellow would do credit to himself, our country and this university, besides benefiting science."
2.   William Moodie, M.D., M.R.C.P., D.P.M. (London), Director, London Child Guidance Clinic (31 January 1933):  "Dr R.S. [sic] Cattell held a Fellowship in Psychology at this Clinic for a year.  He was an enthusiastic worker, with an original outlook, and his thoroughness in tackling case work rendered his observations useful, not only in a purely clinical way, but as a contribution to the mass of knowledge concerning child psychology.
    "He brought to his work a thorough grounding of his subject, and this, coupled with his practical experience and energy, render him a particularly suitable person for the academic instruction of students.
    "He is an agreeable colleague, and gets on well with children."      SA/EUG/C.62.]

[19 June 1935.  From office staff, Eugenics Society, to R.A. Fisher:
    "I enclose a copy of a letter received this morning in connection with the Leonard Darwin Research Studentship, with which I am afraid I do not know how to deal.  I should be grateful if you would be so kind as to let me know what reply to send.
    "I have so far received 16 applications for further particulars."       SA/EUG/C.62.]

[20 June 1935.  R.A. Fisher to Cattell:
"Dear Sir,
    "Your letter to the Secretary of the Eugenics Society has been passed on to me.  As Chairman of the Committee, I have no right to anticipate its decisions, but my opinion, for what it is worth is that the Committee will be inclined to give preference to applicants offering whole time, and to post-graduate work which could not otherwise have been undertaken."         SA/EUG/C.62]

[28 June 1935.  Cattell to R.A. Fisher:
    "Many thanks for your letter regarding my application for the Darwin Studentship.
    "Whilst I recognise that, other things being equal, the Committee will prefer applicants offering whole time for research, I should like to make a definite application, describing the particular work which I am in a position to undertake.
    "My work would be divided into three parts, at least one of which would strike entirely new ground.
    "(1)    To make direct intelligence tests, with the most valid tests which recent research has provided, of the intelligence quotients of all members of about seventy families.  I think I may say that my experience of intelligence testing and the interpretation of results is rivaled by few investigators in this country.
    "I should work out all possible correlations between these figures but principally between the mid-parent and the mid-child.  As far as I know, no such correlation on actual tests have yet been carried out.
    "(2)    To test the whole of the typical City population at a certain age level and to work out the fertility rates for various intelligence quotient levels.  I am already in a favorable position for getting that data satisfactorily since I am Psychologist for the Leicester City Schools, and could get tests done with a satisfactory technique on a large scale.  Here I should also relate the intelligence level of the children to the occupation of the parent.  This latter, I know, has already been done in the Isle of Wight and Northumberland, but not, I think, with a single City community.
    "(3)    To repeat (2) for a rural area;   perhaps a dozen scattered villages.
    "From these results I should make calculations showing the probable trends of inborn intelligence levels in the population under different conditions, and I should hope to publish the whole in a book intended to appeal to educated people generally.
    "My difficulties in accepting the studentship under the ordinary conditions lie principally in the fact that it would be awkward for me to get a whole year's leave of absence from my present post.  On the other hand, I should be working on the problems for at least a year and my position in the administrative machinery of a City Education Authority would permit me to gain material with much greater ease and certainty than the average field worker could hope for.  It would in fact mean that the Eugenics Society would be having a research carried out on a larger scale than would otherwise be possible, with the same expenditure.  At the same time it would mean from my point of view that I should be able to undertake work which, with the prospect of two terms' leisure in which to complete the results and work them out, I should not otherwise contemplate undertaking.
    "I shall be pleased to send a list of my previous research, and any testimonials, if you will kindly let me know whether they are required.  My academic qualifications include a Ph.D. in psychology, B.Sc. in physical sciences and an M.A. in education."       SA/EUG.C.62]

[5 July 1935.  Cattell to the Business Secretary, Eugenics Society:
    "In response to your request for particulars under Headings C. and D. of the Regulations for the Leonard Darwin Research Studentships, I have the pleasure in informing you that I should plan to carry out my research in collaboration with Professor Burt, the Psychological Laboratory, University College, London.
    "The following persons would, I am sure, be glad to give you further particulars of my past work.
                    Dr. C.S. Myers,
                        Principal,
                        National Institute of Industry Psychology,
                            Aldwych House,
                                Aldwych,
                                    London, W.C. 2.

                    Dr. Cyril Burt, of the above address."           SA/EUG/C.62]

[30 July 1935.  Committee awards Cattell (from among 10 candidates) the first Leonard Darwin Research Studentship.  See "Notes of the Quarter" Eugenics Review 27 (October 1935): 185-7;  R.A. Fisher "Eugenics, Academic and Practical," Eugenics Review 27 (1935): 95-100;   and Joan Fisher Box, R.A. Fisher (New York: Wiley, 1978), 282-283.]

[1 August 1935.  R.A. Fisher to Cattell:
"I have much pleasure in informing you that, at the meeting of the Leonard Darwin Studentship Comittee, you were unanimously elected to the Studentship.  This election will, however, require the confirmation of the Council of the Eugenics Society before it becomes effective.  I should like personally to keep in close touch with your programme of work, since this will be essential for the renewal of the Studentship for a second year, which will have to be considered next Summer.  At that time, indeed, we shall require to have from you an interim report to lay before the Council.  In the meantime, there are a few points in your research which it is not too early to discuss at once.
    "Section (1) of your programme includes measurements of intelligence, not only of children, but of parents.  This is thought by many psychologists to be a matter of great difficulty, and I should be glad to know by what means you think the difficulty can best be overcome.  In so far as testing intelligence in children and adults may concern different psychological attributes, one would expect the parental correlations to be somewhat, and perhaps largely, reduced.
    "You do not mention it, but I imagine that tests in at least a large number of children and parents will be duplicated, so as to have a measure of reliablity appropriate to the main body of the material.  In part (2) you mention the fertility rates for various intelligence quotient levels.  These I take to mean the sizes of the families to which different children of the chosen age belong.  In this connection I may mention that the actual size of the living family, if completed, is from some standpoints more important than the total number of births.
    "In connection with the occupational status of the parent, it is of some importance to choose and use occupational designations which shall be comparable with those employed in other, possibly subsequent, enquiries.  The Registrar General's office has, since 1921, employed a very full and elaborate classifications [sic] of industries and occupations, which should, I suggest, if possible form the basis of the classifications you use.  In suggesting this I recognize, of course, that valid results can be obtained for the special purposes of the enquiry from any classification carried out carefully and consistently in your population.
    "A point of great importance arises in this connection.  It is probable in most English communities that parents of a lower social status have, on the average, more children than more prosperous parents, also, from the enquiries to which you refer, that the latter have more intelligent children.  The question is whether, among the parents of a given status, the more intelligent have more or fewer children appears to be an open one;  and one needing rather special care in its elucidation.  In the same social class it is certain that parents of many children can give them less ample educational opportunities than parents of fewer children.  In consequence if in an enquiry  it were possible to choose children having closely equalised educational opportunities, it is possible that, from this cause alone, the more intelligent would come from the larger families.
    "It seems that a large part of the social promotion by which children of the less affluent parents are promoted into the better paid occupations takes place through the medium of educational opportunities.  The extent to which such promotion is conditioned, respectively, by the inherent ability of the child, and by the size of the family to which he belongs, is a problem of the greatest socialogical [sic] importance, on which we have, so far, but little direct data.  I hope you may find it possible to orient your enquiry so as to throw as direct light as possible on this problem."        SA/EUG/C.62.
     See J.H. Bennett, ed., Natural Selection, Heredity and Eugenics:  Including Selected Correspondence of R.A. Fisher with Leonard Darwin and Others (Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 188-189, 282n19.]

[1 August 1935.  R.A. Fisher to Mrs Collyer:
    "I am returning herewith the particulars supplied by you about the different candidates.  Will you please notify all but Dr. Cattell that they have not been appointed.  It might, I think, be proper to express the hope that a second Studentship may be established, on the same conditions next year, since one or two of the applicants, such as Fordon and Gross, were thought highly of by the committee.   Perhaps you will consult Dr. Blacker as to the propriety of this course."   SA/EUG/C.62.]

[2 August 1935.  C.P. Blacker to Byrom Stanley Bramwell.   He encloses "a circular letter which I suggest we might send to the Council."  It reads:
    "Draft                                 MEMORANDUM TO COUNCIL                            2.8.1935
...
"(3)   Darwin Research Studentship.  According to a decision reached by the Council on February 5th, 1935, the decision of the Darwin Studentship Committee as to the first scholarship should be approved by the Council.  The Darwin Studentship Committee consists of Professor Fisher and Professor Huxley representing the Society, Dr. F.H.A. Marshall representing the Royal Society, Dr. Fraser-Harris representing the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Dr. David Heron representing the Royal Statistical Society.  This Committee has met twice, on May 28th and July 30th respectively.  At their last meeting, which took place on Tuesday, July 20th, 10 applications were considered.  Subject to the approval of the Council, the Committee unanimously decided to award the first scholarship to Dr. R.B. Cattell (M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D.) who wishes to carry out the following investigation in Leicester -
        "1.  To make intelligence tests
        "2.  To test the whole of the typical City population at certain age and work out fertility rates for various i.q. levels
        "3.  To repeat (2) for a rural area.
    "It is hoped that Members of the Council will not wish to oppose the decision taken by the Darwin Studentship Committee.  If I do not hear to the contrary by Wednesday, August 14th, I will take it that you approve of ... the recommendations of the ... Leonard Darwin Studentship Committee ..."             SA/EUG/C.36.]

[29 August 1935.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker:
"My Dear Blacker,
    "I note that in our Council Minutes it is recorded that the 'Darwin Studentship' has been awarded to Dr. Cattell, the subject being, as I understand, the relation between intelligence, age, and fertility in various districts.  This seems to me to be an excellent choice.
    "There are plenty of other subjects which could be selected in the future with advantage.  For example I have often wished that an impartial enquiry on the effects of taxation on the birth rate could be made, this being a complicated problem on which considerable differences of opinion exist.  However it is not for me to make suggestions."  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[1935.  Meeting of the British Association, in Norwich.   Cattell and two research students at the Psychological Laboratory at University College, London, -- R.M.W. Travers and John Cohen -- discuss a common interest:   Cattell had been "planning a journal to form a body of opinion among the general public in favour of referring political, social, and cultural problems to the sciences which deal with humanity," and the other two men were planning a departmental journal to make "immediately available the results of scientific work of topical social interest."  The begin collaboration on a project to establish a journal.  "An editorial board of leading authorities in the various sciences was formed, and a periodical, Human Affairs, was projected to bring topical problems into fruitful contact with recent advances in the social and biological sciences."   The magazine never appeared, but two edited volumes, Human Affairs (1937) and Educating for Democracy (1939) were published.
   Travers (b. 1913), like Cattell, was awarded a Leonard Darwin Research Studentship.  He was at the Galton Laboratory 1935-37.  See N. Wallace and Travers, "A Psychometrical Study of a Group of Specialty Salesmen," Annals of Eugenics 8 (1938): 266-302, and Travers, "The Elimination of the Influence of Repetition on the Score of a Psychological Test," Annals of Eugenics 8 (1938): 303-318.  He emigrated to the U.S. shortly after Cattell.  During the 1950s he worked at the Personnel Research Laboratory, Air Force personnel and Training Research Center, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, where he worked with Lloyd Humphreys.   Cohen subsequently had a distinguished career at the University of Manchester.]

[25 September 1935.  Date on "Leonard Darwin Research Studentship Report," drafted by R.A. Fisher:
    "Leonard Darwin Research Studentship Report
    "Of the ten candidates, three offered programmes of research in psychology, principally concerned with intelligence tests, two offered biological studies of the effects of selection, two research in vital statistics, while the remaining three may be classed as physiological, economic, and anthropological
    ...
    "The candidates who seemed capable of adding to existing knowledge by genuine research were all in the two groups of psychologists and biologists ... of these both the programme and the qualifications submitted by Dr. R.B. Cattell were such as to make the committee unanimous in choosing him.
    "This choice, which would in any case have been strongly supported, was reinforced by a consideration of policy, namely, that, although the Studentship should be open for the encouragement of researches covering a wide field, provided that they throw light on the eugenic effects of the selective processes at work in mankind, yet the study of human quality and of differential reproduction in human populations has a special claim on the support of the Society."    A copy of this report was enclosed with an October 8th, 1935 letter from Fisher to C.P. Blacker.  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[Editor.]  "Notes of the Quarter."  Eugenics Review 27 (October 1935):  181-189.

[1 October 1935.  Cattell's tenure of the Darwin Studentship begins.]

[3 October 1935.  Italy invades Ethiopia.  Cattell refers to this development without disapprobation in The Fight for Our National Intelligence (April 1937).]

[8 October 1935.  A meeting of the Council of the Eugenics Society approves plans for five members' meetings, to be held in the period from January 21st to June 16th 1936.  The last of these is to feature a lecture by Cattell, scheduled for June 16th, with a title not yet decided.]

[8 October 1935.  R.A. Fisher to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Blacker,
    "I enclose a report of the candidates for the Darwin Studentship.   I drafted it as a personal statement, since the committee could not meet to consider it;  but, in fact, each of the other members has written giving his concurrence in what I have said."  A copy of the September 25th, 1935 report is attached.  SA/EUG/C.62]

[November 1935.  Preliminary meeting of the group of mostly psychologists that produces The Study of Society: Methods and Problems (1939), a widely marketed volume of essays touting value of social science in solving social problems.  They meet twice yearly hereafter to coordinate work on the book.   Cattell is active in the group and writes a draft chapter on personality assessment; when he leaves England in 1937 the chapter is reassigned to C.J.C. Earl.   The other participants include Frederic C. Bartlett, J.M. Blackburn, J. Drever, Morris Ginsberg, T.H. Pear, A.I. Richards, R.H. Thouless, P.E. Vernon, and others.]

[22 November 1935.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell (City of Leicester Education Dept., Newark St.):
    "Dear Dr. Cattell,
    "The Eugenics Society is a member of an organization called the Conference of Educational Associations which holds its twenty-fourth annual meeting between December 30th, 1935 and January 6th, 1936. This Association is attended or the most part by teachers and persons interested in or concerned with education. An opportunity to address a meeting has been allotted to the Society at 3 p.m. on Wednesday, January 1st.
    "The Council of this Society approved, some time ago, that the subject for discussion at our meeting should be 'Health Certificates before Marriage.' It transpires, however, that this subject is unacceptable to the Conference, and I am told that they would be much more interested in a topic that would bear more directly on the problems of education, for instance, as the results of intelligence tests, etc.
    "The object of this letter is to ask you if you would care to address a meeting of this Conference on any subject which you think might be of interest to educationalists on the date in question. Your expenses to and from London would be paid by the Society.
    "I am extremely sorry to give you such short notice, but it was only recently that the secretary of the Conference of Educational Associations informed me of the unacceptability of the subject we had proposed, and the decision to offer an alternative subject was only taken at a General Purpose Committee meeting of the Society, held the day before yesterday." SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Measurement of Interest."   Character and Personality 4 (December 1935):  147-169.

[12 December 1935.  Cattell (City of Leicester Education Dept.) to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Dr. Blacker,
    "Everyone seems to be going in for the snappier titles in scientific work today; indeed at times I have had leanings that way myself, so I shall not object to being in the fashion by having the title of my paper modified in the manner you suggest. I presume the indication is that the lectures themselves should also be a little more 'popular' and if I can garnish mine without overstepping sober statements, I will try to do so in moderation.
    "Could you let me know what is happening with regard to the Eugenics Society's lecture at the conference of Educational Associations on January 1st? I myself had a feeling that the title of the lecture I suggested for the gathering was somewhat stilted and I think I might modify it slightly if you consider it desirable, when I know the lecture is definitely to be given." SA/EUG/C.62.]

[12 December 1935.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Thank you for your letter of the 12th. It is good of you not to mind altering the title of your lecture which will be announced as 'Is the National Intelligence Declining?'
    "The Conference of Educational Associations will be very happy if you will give the lecture you have promised on January 1st. I have arranged for the Rev. J.C. Pringle, the secretary of the Charity Organization Society, to take the chair for you, and I will try to be present myself. The Society will, of course, pay your expenses to and fro if you will let me have an account of these after the meeting.
    "With kind regards and many thanks for your kindness in helping us out." SA/EUG/C.62.]

[16 December 1935.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Thank you for your letter of December 13th. I enclose herewith a programme of the Conference, from which you will see that your lecture has been arranged for 3 p.m. on Wednesday, January 1st. I enclose herewith a complimentary ticket.
    "I have to-day received a letter from Miss Challen, which contains the following paragraph:
    ' I wish to remind you that seven pages of the Conference Report (approximately 3,330 words) are allowed free for the report of each session. Associations must report their own meetings. The printing of a full account (verbatim if possible) is of great value t the Associations concerned and to the Conference report. Typescript or MSS. For insertion in the Report should be sent in, if possible, within one week of the end of the Conference and at any rate, not later than the end of January.' "   SA/EUG/C.62.]

 

1936

[1936-37.  Cattell is absent from his post in Leicester, conducting his Darwin Studentship research.  Formally affiliated with R.A. Fisher's Galton Laboratory, he spends much of the time in Devonshire.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Standardization of Two Intelligence Tests for Children."  British Journal of Psychology 26 (January 1936):   263-272.

[1 January 1936.  The 24th annual conference of the Educational Associations is held at University College, London.  Cattell warns of a "disastrous" lowering of national average intelligence within two generations.   His comments are widely reported in the press.]

"Peril of Race Deterioration."  Times (January 2, 1936), 15.
   [A report of Cattell's talk of the previous day.]

"Eugenics Society:  Danger of Race Deterioration:  Doctor on High Birth Rate Among the Dull."  Northern Echo (Darlington), (January 2, 1936)
    [    "The grave danger that the race would deteriorate was stressed by Dr. R.B. Cattell, Director of the School Psychological Clinic in Leicester, addressing the Eugenics Society at University College, London, today.   The meeting formed part of the annual conference of educational associations now in progress atthe College.
    "'Schools," said Dr. Cattell, "are being forced to modify their standards by proportion to the borderline and  feeble-minded children.   All kinds of delinquency are more prevalent among dull children.
    "Mental capacity has been proved by researchers to be an inborn characteristic of the individual, and it is virtually unaffected by mental training or nutrition
                                                  
GRAVE STATE OF AFFAIRS
   
"The only way in which average national intelligence capacity can be increased, therefore, is by providing for a higher birth-rate of the more intelligent and diminishing the birth-rate of the dull and of the borderline feeble-minded.
    "Investigations at present show a grave state of affairs in that there is a greater birth-rate among the dull.  They usually have a lower standard of living and are less able to support and educate their children."
    In on manufacturing city children above normal intelligence were being produced in families of 2.1, and those of average intelligence in families of 3, while children of defective intelligence were on an average in families of 4.5.  Such figures indicated that even within two generations there would be a disasterous lowering of the national standard of intelligence.
    "Those who complacently say, 'It will not happen' must remember that the process is too slow to be noticed by an individual in his life experience.   History provides instances of empires which have deteriorated in this way.
                                            
TEACHERS SHOULD COMPLAIN
  
"If we had a statesman worthy of the name he would be thinking of the next generation.  But posterity has no votes.  The Church is not interested in biological problems, and it is really the school teachers who should complain because it is they who are blamed for turning out poor material."
    Replying to questions, Dr. Cattell said that sterilization touched only the edge of the problem and the most obvious thing to bear in mind was that the majority of parents who had these large families did not want them, and they would be willing in the majority of cases from purely selfish motives, to restrict the family.
    At present birth control knowledge was in the hands of those who should not have it.  If we could prohibit that knowledge to the better educated and more intelligent classes and supplt it to the slums it would be a great advantage.  He suggested that parents who had a certain number of children in the special schools should be given advice on birth control.
    Men of genius were four or five times as frequent among the well-to-do as among poor families.]

"Race Deterioration:  Fears of 'Disasterous' Lowering of Average Intelligence."  Manchester Guardian (January 2, 1936), 12.
    ["A warning that within two generations there will be a disasterous lowering of the national average intelligence was given by Dr. R.B. Cattell, director of the School Psychological Clinic at Leicester, when he addressed the Conference of Educational Associations at its resumed meetings at University College, London, yesterday.
    "Schools, he said, were being forced to modify their standards by the proportion of border-line feeble-minded children.  Among dull children all kinds of delinquency were more prevalent.  Mental capacity had been proved by repeated research to be an inborn characteristic of the individual virtually unaffected by mental training or by wide variation in nutrition or by general environment.  The only way in which the average national intelligence could be increased, therefore, was by providing for a higher birth-rate of the more intelligent section of the commnity and by diminishing the birth-rate of the dull and border-line feeble-minded.
    "Investigations at present showed that the birth-rate was much higher among the dull who, incidentally, had a lower standard of living and were less able to support and educate their children.
    "In one manufacturing city children of above normal intelligence were being produced in families averaging 2.1, those of average intelligence in families of three, and those of defective intelligence in families of an average of 4.5.   Those figures indicated that within two generations there would be a disasterous lowering of the national average of intelligence.
                                                       
'Posterity Has No Votes'
  
"Those who complacently said that it would not happen should remember that the process was too slow to be noticved by an individual in his life experience.  History presented repeated examples of civilisations that had 'gone thin on top' and disintegrated, giving place to relative barbarism.  'If we had statesmen worthy of the name they would be thinking about the next generation, but posterity has no votes and the Church is not interested in biological matters.'
    "School teachers were really the people who ought to complain, since they were being blamed by business men for turning out incompetent children.
    "Dr. Cattell said his statements were based on the results of mental tests which psychologists had been using for more than twenty years.  They were not mere estimates.  Sterilisation would only touch this problem.  It had to be kept in mind that the majority of parents who had large families did not want them and would be willing to restrict them.  If they could prohibit birth control to the better educated and more intelligent classes and apply it to the slums it would be all to the good.  He suggested that knowledge should be given to all parents who had a certain number of children.
    "Mr. R.J. Bartlett, of King's College, said that they were really condemning those who were at the bottom because those who had managed to climb to the top were not doing their duty in the breeding of the race.
    "Another delegate said that it should not be thought that poverty and dullness of intellect necessarily went together.  Many men of genius had come from poor families.
    "Dr. Cattell replied that men of genius were four or five times as frequent among the well-to-do as they were among the poorer families."]

[2 January 1936.  Bristol Western Daily News story on Cattell's talk of the previous day.  This is cited by Greta Jones in Social Hygiene in 20th Century Britain.]

[3 January 1936.  Date on John L. Gray's letter to the Manchester Guardian criticizing the views expressed by Cattell in his january 1st speech.   The letter appears in the January 7 edition.]

[4 January 1936.  West Yorkshire Pioneer story on Cattell's findings.  Cited by Greta Jones.]

Gray. J.L.  "Influence of Environment on Mental Capacity: Comparative Intelligence of the Poor and Well-to-Do."  Letter. Manchester Guardian (January 7, 1936), 18.
["It is difficult to read without impatience opinions so irresponsible and so little based on scientific evidence as those of Dr. R.B. Cattell in his address to the Conference of Educational Associations reported in your issue of January 2.  Fears of a 'disasterous lowering of the national average intelligence within two generations' are the common emotional stock-in-trade of the more reactionary type of eugenist.  They are not founded on any large-scale investigation into the distribution of intelligence within the community, nor do they correctly interpret the results of modern research in genetics.
    "In the first place, it is simply not true that mental capacity has been proved 'by repeated research to be an inborn characteristic of the individual, virtually unaffected by mental training or by wide variation in nutrition or by general environment.'   Students of genetic psychology recognise only two valid methods of deciding this issue.  One is to compare the performance on standardised intelligence tests of individuals genetically related but reared in different environments.  The other is to study the resemblance between individuals sharing the same environment but of different degrees of hereditary relationship.  Freeman, Holzinger, and Mitchell in 1928 demonstrated that the intelligence of orphan brothers and sisters was very considerably improved after they had spent several years in foster homes, the greater gain being shown by the sib who was placed in the socially and culturally superior home.  Moreover the intelligence of foster and own children came to be remarkably similar.  On the other hand, recent twin studies have revealed that fraternal twins resemble each other much more than ordinary brothers and sisters, although genetically the two classes are not different.  This can only happen because twin children, even if resulting from the fertilisation of two different ova, share the same uterine environment and the same early upbringing.

   "Dr. Cattell's second contention is that in a period of differential fertility dull children come from large and poor families and bright children from small and prosperous ones.  This statement is entirely misleading.  That there is a negative correlation between intelligence and family size in the general population nobody denies.  But it is very small, of the order of one-fifth of what it would be if the two series were perfectly correlated.  Moreover it does not exist at all among children of the prosperous classes educated in London fee-paying schools.   In other words, above a certain income level parents who produce a large number of children have offspring as intelligent as those who restrict their families to one or two.   Although the evidence is not yet conclusive, it is highly probable that a great part of the observed inferiority in the average intelligence of the poor is associated not with their genetic constitution nor with their fertility, but with their poverty.
"Thirdly, I do not know what Dr. Cattell means when he declared that 'men of genius were four or five times as frequent among the well-to-do as they were among the poorer families.'  Does he completely reject the possiblity that genius or high talent is often obscured or destroyed by poverty and social inequality?  In any case, his figures are not relevant to intellectual capacity as measured by intelligence tests.   In a sample of 10,000 school children recently examined by Miss Pearl Moshinsky and myself 50 per cent of all individuals of high ability were children of wage-earners and 33 per cent of the higher social and professional classes.  Two-thirds of the total originated in elementary schools.
"Finally, it is absurd to speak of a declining national average of intelligence when we fail to utilise the high ability of three-quarters of the brighter children in elementary schools.  Average figures in social statistics are frequently abused.   With a population like ours, in which there are eleven times as many children in the State schools as there are in fee-paying schools, a survey of the national resources of personnel may afford to ignore the fact that the average intelligence of children from prosperous homes is somewhat higher than that of the poor.  What does matter is that the total number of able individuals whose services are utilised by society should be increased as much as possible.  This could be done within the next two generations, or much earlier if we wish, by extending opportunities of higher education to the vast numbers of able but poor children who at present lack them."]

[8 January 1936. C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "I do not know whether you have seen the Manchester Guardian of January 7th.  This contains a letter from Mr.J.L. Gray criticizing the statements which you seem to have been reported as having made on January 1st.  I do not recall your having said what Mr Gray says that you said. Surely you stressed the importance of environmental factors.  I do not know whether you intend to reply to this letter, but I draw your attention to it in case you have not seen it."  Blacker also forwarded a copy of Gray's letter to Julian Huxley.  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[8 January 1936.  Date on Cattell's 735-word letter to the editor of the Manchester Guardian responding to John L. Gray's January 7 letter. It appears in the January 15 edition.]

[9 January 1936. Julian Huxley to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Pip,
    "Thanks for letting me see the cutting. It looks as if our friend Cattell has been letting himself go in a rather stupid way.
    "Gray is definitely a good man, though rather biased in the opposite direction. Have you got a copy of his paper? I should welcome it very much in preparing my Galton Lecture. I must meet these criticisms. If not, could you let me have the reference?"
    In longhand, Huxley adds, "Cattell has a good paper in the last no. of Character and Personality."  SA/EUG/C.185.
    This letter is dated eight days before Huxley delivered the Galton Lecture.  See Huxley, "Eugenics and Society," Eugenics Review 28 (April 1936): 11-31.
    Greta Jones, Social Hygiene in Twentieth Century Britain, p. 109, cites the letter as evidence of "Huxley's anger at Cattell's book."]

[11 January 1936 (Saturday). Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Dear Dr. Blacker,
    "Thank you for drawing my attention to Gray's letter. I had, as it happened, seen it and sent a reply which may be in today's or Monday's paper. (Though, as it was belated, the Editor may not publish).
    "Actually it is not really possible to discuss the technical points he raises in the medium of a newspaper.  I know Gray from of old. He never loses an opportunity to attack my modest efforts!  I say, without acerbity, that he has no standing in psychology and that his technical arguments are quibbles which I shall deal with in the right place.  What I and others object to in the man is the invariable truculence and abusiveness of his manner.  I have tried to get hold of him to discuss the matter in a rational, scientific manner - possibly, I shall succeed in meeting him for this purpose in the near future.  If I don't it won't be my fault.   I think his allegiance to the environmentalist political viewpoint of the London School of Economics has much to do with his scientific arguments."  SA/EUG/C.62.   Cattell is writing from Sunnymede, Torquay.]

Cattell, R.B.  "Environment and Mental Capacity:   Intelligence Largely Inherited."  Letter.  Manchester Guardian (January 15, 1936), 18.
    [Dated January 8th.  "Mr. Gray's unnecessarily abusive letter regarding my lecture foretelling a decline in national intelligence (accurately reported in your columns on January 2) reminds one vividly that there are qualities other than intelligence which society needs to foster.
    "The technical aspects of Mr. Gray's criticism are met in textbooks of psychology, but their tone raises a point of the utmost importance regarding the fitness of the social psychologist to handle our social problems.  For it is as certain as day following night that many of the social problems through which we now blunder painfully in the track of politicians will in the next generation be solved by the technical advice of social psychologists and economists.
    "At this suggestion people of experience will object that men of science are notoriously difficult to organise in co-operative endeavours.   Psychologists will also add that sometimes, viewed from the standpoint of the emotional development of the individual scientist, a special scientific field is often a 'funk hole' permitting the individual to escape from a proper adjustment to his fellows and to life as a whole.  This does not matter in the physical sciences, but if social psychologists, scientists in human nature, are to play their valuable role in social life they must, in addition to intellect and moral integrity, possess a psychoanalytic understanding of their own motives and a comprehensive philosophy of life.  The man in the street may be ignorant of technical issues, but he can sense whether a personality is well balanced or led by motives unrelated to the social need.  My hopes for the evolution of the social psychologist are heartened by finding that the half-dozen leading social psychologists in this country are men with deep human sympathies motivating their technical understanding.
    "Only people fully qualified in all branches of psychology are fit to handle these problems.  So long as economists and others are encouraged to pick up psychological data and handle them statistically, without regard to the total meaning, so long shall we have misunderstandings, such as the present one, damaging the repute of the social sciences.
    "The lecture of which Mr. Gray complains was given to practical men concerned to guide their efforts for the betterment of society by the light of scientific evidence.  I maintain that any philanthropist wanting to apply his efforts at the point of maximum effect would set out to raise our level of inheritable mental capacity.  If the scientist will use a little imagination he will realise that business men, journalists, and administrators have no time for the quibbling of scientific men.  They want the gist of the thing to act upon, for they see that life is short and indifference widespread.
    "For that matter any farmer or stock-breeder, or indeed any man of ordinary power of observation, knows that the national level of intelligence can be raised by breeding more from the gifted than from the less gifted stocks.  Mr. Gray unfortunately has lost sight of this fact long ago, when he first began to study the subject, and now seeks to paralyse initiative by hair-splittings akin to those which from time to time lead the ordinary man to suppose that Darwinism or the atomic theory is 'totally disproved.'
    "I confidently repeat my main theses:  (1) That intelligence (as measured by sound tests, not by the early American material on which Mr. Gray relies) is largely inherited.  (2)  That throughout the bulk of the population the birth-rate is greater among the less intelligent.  (3)  That no politician has yet glimpsed the meaning of this decline of mental capacity.  If finer research should show that intensive training can expand mental capacity a few points (as Mr. Gray claims) the legislation which I advocate is no whit less necessary.  What manufacturer would year after year work up inferior raw material when his processes could be shortened once and for all by using an improved raw material?
    "With my critic's contention that we should make better provision in schools for the intelligence we have already got in the population I, and I think every psychologist worthy of the name, would heartily agree.  But here Mr. Gray speaks as if school were the whole of life.  Though in school we may have more high intelligences than there are opportunities in civilisation, in the social problems of our times we have more opportunities than we have gifted individuals to cope with them."]

[1st Quarter 1936. Cattell is elected a member of the Eugenics Society.]

[February 1936.  Birth Control News, Marie Stopes' paper, carries a story on Cattell's findings.  Cited by Greta Jones.]

Gray, J[ohn] L[inton]. The Nation's Intelligence. Changing World Library, edited by Hyman Levy. London: Watts, 1936.

Cattell, R.B.  A Guide to Mental Testing for Psychological Clinics, Schools, and Industrial Psychologists. London:  University of London Press, 1936.
    [With a forward by William Moodie.]

[16 March 1936.  C.P. Blacker, Memorandum on the Present Position of the Eugenics Society:
    " ... It was Professor Fisher's suggestion that the three external bodies above mentioned should be asked yo appoint representatives to the Committee ...
   "At the instance of Lord Horder, the selection made by the Darwin Studentship Committee was submitted to the Council as a recommendation and became effective after the approval of the Council had been given.  It was unthinkable, however, that the Council should have failed to approve the recommendation of a Committee thus constituted."  SA/EUG/C. 36.]

Cattell, R.B.  Review of Psychology and Religion by David Forsyth.  In The New Era in Home and School 17 (April 1936): 116.

Cattell, R.B.  "Temperament Tests in Clinical Practice."   British Journal of Medical Psychology 16 (1936): 43-61.
   [Issued 18 May 1936.]

[5 June 1936.  Cattell (Prince of Orange Hotel, Barton, Torquay) to Mrs. G.P. Collyer:
"Dear Mrs. Collyer,
    "Perhaps there has been some 'duplication of functions,' for Professor Fisher obtained from me about a fortnight ago the Report of my year's work which was to be made before June 1st. He said he would be distributing copies of it to members of the committee. Would you be so kind as to pass on to the Secretary to the Editor of the Eugenics Review the attached letter and summary, which he is awaiting for the July issue of the Review. P.S. Could you let me have four more tickets for my lecture on the 16th?"  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[9 June 1936. C.P. Blacker to Cattell (Prince of Orange Hotel, Barton, Torquay):
    "Many thanks for your letter of June 5th.  I did not know that Professor Fisher had communicated with you directly or I would not have bothered you with a request for a report on your work.
    "I have to-day received a letter from Professor Fisher informing me that the Darwin Studentship Committee unanimously of the opinion that your Studentship should be continued for a second year. I am delighted to hear of this. I look forward to seeing you on Tuesday, the 16th.
    P.S. I have passed on to the Editor your memorandum for the July issue of the Review." SA/EUG/C.62.]

[16 June 1936 (Tuesday). Members' Meeting No. 6, Eugenics Society, at the rooms of Linnean Society, London, with R.A. Fisher in the chair.  (Fisher left the country around this time for an extended stay in the United States and did not return until late October or early November.)  At 5:15 PM, Cattell delivered his lecture on the question "Is National Intelligence Declining?"  After the lecture, Cattell dined with C.P. Blacker.  Cattell wrote a resumé of the lecture:
    "There has been much indirect evidence, e.g. the large families of borderline mental defectives, suggesting that national intelligence may be declining from generation to generation through the replacement of more intelligent by less intelligent strains.
    "Psychological tests show that mental capacity is largely innate and to a considerable extent inherited.  A direct answer could therefore be given by testing a sufficiently representative sample of our child population with intelligence tests to see whether the more intelligent or the les intelligent are being produced in bigger families at the present day.
    "All the children in one industrial city and one rural area at a certain age were tested.  The results revealed an astonishing state of affairs, the children of very limited capacity being produced in greater numbers than average children and average children than children of good mentaliy.
    "A marked fall of average intelligence is therefore taking place at the present time.  This is a recent phenomenon for in former generation (a) the able did not limit their families any more than did the incapable (b) the death rate was higher among the children of relatively incapable.
    "As a result of this decline of intelligence we may expect (1) an increasing demand in the education system for special school accomodation for the defective and border line defective (2) an increase in juvenile delinquency (3) an increase in the number of permanently unemployable people, since the tendency of industry and society is to make more openings for people capable of being trained to high degrees of skill whereas most people are being produced at the level of poor educable capacity.
    "Remedies calculated to arrest this flood of low grade capacity and to lead to a progressive increase in the numbers of the relatively intelligent are discussed."   SA/EUG/C.62]

"Intelligence Is 'Declining'." Daily Mirror (June 17, 1936)
   ["A marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at the present time.
    "In a paper read to the Eugenics Society, in London last night, Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee, explained that his view followed from testing all the children in one industrial city and one rural area with intelligence tests.
    "'The children of very limited capacity are produced in greater numbers than average children,' he says."]

"Is Intelligence Declining?: An Educationist's Test: 'Marked Average Fall'." Liverpool Daily Post (June 17, 1936)
   ["A marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at the present time. This is the conclusion of Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee.
    "In a paper read to the Eugenics Society in London last night, he explained that his view followed the testing of all the children in one industrial city and one rural area with intelligence tests.
    "'The results revealed an astonishing state of affairs,' he said, 'the children of very limited capacity being produced in greater number than average children, and average children in greater number than children of good mentality.
                                                        Effects of Decline
   "'A marked fall of average intelligence is, therefore, taking place at the present time, he added. "This is a recent phenomenon, for in former generations the able did not limit their families any more than did the incapable, and the death-rate was higher among the children of the relatively incapable'.
    "Mr. Cattel [sic] said that as a result of this decline of intelligence one might expect an increasing demand in the education system for special school accomodation for the defective and border-line defective, an increase in juvenile delinquency, and an increase in the number of permanently unemployable people, since the tendency in industry and society was to make more opening for people capable of being trained to high degrees of skill."]

"Average Intelligence." Editorial. Liverpool Daily Post (June 17, 1936)
   ["Psychologists are usually rather sceptical persons but the psychologist of the Leicester Education Committee who says that a marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at present, seems to have no doubt about things. In a paper to the Eugenics Society, in London last night, he explained how this, as he calls it, 'astonishing state of affairs,' has been revealed to him. Apparently his conclusion is based on nothing more substantial than an intelligence test of the children in an industrial and rural area. Many psychologists are extremely critical of the value of such attempts to isolate and test specific mental qualities, and would rigidly hesitate to base sweeping conclusions on the results obtained from them. Elusive temperamental qualities of mind and character are apt to escape such procrustean tests: and it is these very qualities that may vitiate their results. But the explanation given by the Leicester psychologist of his conclusion is even more questionable than his method of reaching it. He suggests that average intelligence is declining because the more intelligent people are producing fewer children. But this is a familiar eugenic assertion which itself surely needs to be proved."]

"Intelligence Is Declining:  'Astonishing' Results of Psychologist's Tests:  Recent Phenomenon."  Glasgow Bulletin (June 17, 1936)
   ["A marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at the present time.
    "That is the conclusion of Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee. In a paper read to the Eugenics Society in London last night he explained that his view followed the testing of all the children in one industrial city and one rural area with intelligence tests.
    "'The results revealed an astonishing state of affairs,' he said. 'The children of very limited capacity are being produced in greater numbers than average children, and average children in greater numbers than children of good mentality.
    "'A marked fall of average intelligence is therefore taking place at the present time. This is a recent phenomenon, for in former generations the capable did not limit their families any more than did the incapable, and the death rate was higher among the children of the relatively incapable'."]

"School Test Reveals Fall of Average Intelligence." Leicester Daily Mercury (June 17, 1936)
   ["That a marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at the present time is the conclusion of Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee.
    "In a paper read to the Eugenics Society in London last night, he explained that his views followed the testing of all the children in an industrial city and one rural area with intelligence tests.
    "'The results revealed an astonishing state of affairs,' he said, 'the children of very limited capacity being produced in greater numbers than average children, and average children in greater numbers than children of good mentality.
    "'A marked fall of average intelligence is therefore taking place at the present time'."]

"Intelligence Lower: City Psychologist on Modern People." Leicester Evening Mail (June 17, 1936)
   [ "'A marked fall of average intelligence is taking place at the present time,' Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee told the Eugenics Society in a paper which he read last night in London. His conclusion was based on an intelligence test of children in an industrial city and in a rural area.
    "'The children of very limited capacity are being produced in greater numbers than average children, and 'average' children in greater numbers than children of good mentality,' he said.
    "'This is a recent phenomenon, for in former generations the able did not limit their families any more than the incapable, and the death-rate was higher among the children of the relatively incapable.'
    Mr. Cattell forecast an increase in the number of special schools for defective and borderline defective cases, an increase in juvenile delinquency and an increase in the number of permanently unemployable children as a consequence."]

"Not So Smart:  Intelligence Said to Be Declining."   Northern Daily Telegraph (Blackburn), (June 17, 1936)
    [    "Mr. R.B. Cattell, psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee, considers that a marked fall of average intelligence is in progress.
         "In a paper read to the Eugenics Society in London last night, he explained that his view followed the testing of all the children in one industrial and one rural area.
        "'The results revealed an astonishing state of affairs," he said, "the children of very limited capacity being produced in greater number than average children, and average children in greater number than children of good mentality.
        "'A marked fall of average intelligence is, therefore, taking place at the present time.  This is a recent phenomenon, for in former generations the able did not limit their families any more than did the incapable and the death-rate was higher among the children of the relatively incapable.'
        "Mr. Cattell said that as a result of this decline of intelligence one might expect an increasing demand in the education system for special schools accomodation for the defective, and an increase in the number of permanently unemployable people, since the tendency was to make more openings for people capable of being trained to high degrees of skill."]

"Not So Brainy?" Glasgow Daily Record (June 18, 1936)
[ "That a marked fall of average intelligence is taking place in the present generation is the conclusion submitted by the Psychologist of the Leicester Education Committee, in a paper read to the Eugenics Society in London.
    "This conclusion is apparently based only upon intelligence tests taken of the children of an industrial and a rural area, respectively - and that is surely not sufficient to justify the generalisation to which he commits himself.
    "Nor is it likely that the explanation which the Psychologist offers for the state of affairs he describes will be accepted without question. For he suggests that average intelligence is declining because the more intelligent people now have smaller families.
    "Has no genius, then, ever sprung from a large family? And would not a search of the National Dictionary of Biography reveal more than one erudite and eminent man whose parents laid claim neither to learning nor unusual intelligence?"]

[21 June 1936 (Sunday). Cattell (Prince of Orange Hotel, Barton, Torquay) to C.P. Blacker:
    "I enclose a draft of a letter designed to appeal to the Senate Education Committee in such a way that there may be no [illegible] in their granting my extension of research leave. I hope that, in accordance with your suggestion, it will be possible for Lord Horder to send it.  It's awfully good of you to go to the trouble of such devices and I hope the letter will be successful.  I will write to the Director at Leicester a letter if possible to arrive about the same time: I shall be sending it on Wednesday.
    "You also asked for an account of expenses, which I enclose.
    "I want to thank you very much indeed for your generous hospitality on Tuesday evening  which I thoroughly enjoyed: I hope my I.Q. was not unduly impaired by the excellence of the wine!"  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[23 June 1936.  C.P. Blacker to R.B. Cattell (Prince of Orange Hotel, Barton, Torquay):
    "Many thanks for your letter of June 21st enclosing a note of your expenses in connection with the lecture and with your work, and a draft of a letter to Mr. Armitage.
    "In the near future you will receive a check to cover your expenses.
    "I have had your letter to Mr. Armitage typed out and have sent it to Horder, requesting him to sign it.  I do not think that there wil be any difficulty about his doing this.
    "I am going away for a fortnight tomorrow and Mrs. Collyer can deal with any problems which may arise in my absence.
    "With kind regards and again many thanks for the interesting lecture, upon which I have heard several favorable comments."
    A typed and edited version of the letter to Cattell's superior, F.P. Armitage, drafted by Cattell for signature by Lord Horder is enclosed:
"F.P. Armitage, Esq., C.B.E., M.A.
"Director of Education
"Education Offices
"Newarke Street, Leicester

"Dear Sir,
    "For the last year, Dr. Cattell has been in receipt of a Darwin Research Fellowship, tenable for two years.  I write to inform you that, after considering the results obtained by him to date, the Council of the Eugenics Society have unanimously re-awarded the [in Cattell's draft:  "have recommended that he be asked to hold the Darwin"] Fellowship for a second year.
    "Dr. Cattell, while wishing to complete his enquiries, is, I understand, concerned lest the extension of his leave of absence for another six months should inconvenience the Leicester Education Committee, which, he informs me, has already been very generous in facilitating his research.  I would therefore express the hope that the Committee will consider the importance of the survey which Dr. Cattell is conducting.  His findings are likely to be of interest to educational authorities and organizations and may ultimately be found helpful in solving some of the social and scholastic problems presented by [in Cattell's draft:  "and may well lead to a solution of the very great problems of the nation's"] dull and defective children [in Cattell's draft:  "dull and defective in the nation's schools"].
    "Dr. Cattell has had an extensive experience of these problems in the school system in which he has worked and I hope that the Committee will see its way to granting him leave a little longer so that this experience may be given a practical application [in Cattell's draft:  "a little longer to apply this experience, with the success which has already characterized his research, to the completion of what will prove to be, I am sure, a classical investigation"].
"Yours faithfully,

"President."   SA/EUG/C.62.]

[Anon.] "Intelligence and Fertility." Eugenics Review 28 (July 1936): 126-127.
   ["Notes of the Quarter." On Cattell's June 16th lecture.]

[11 July 1936.  Mrs. Cora B.S. Hodson to the Editor, Eugenics Review:
    "Dr. Blacker's crushing criticisms of the comparison I have ventured to make between our own country and North and Central Europe in regard to the incidence of feeble-mindedness requires careful treatment and I should be grateful to be allowed to give a considered reply in the October issue ...
    "I believe this issue of the Review will contain the research of Dr. Cattell.  If readers will carefully study this, they will realize that Dr. Blacker's points three and four do not stand if Dr. Cattell's evidence is accepted.   He shows that in some regions I.Q. 95 occurs in 50%;  further his high figures for feeble-mindedness are graded at I.Q. 70 not 75 or 80.  He makes the Wood report look altogether an under-estimate.  Teachers with ten years' experience in this country do not feel his conclusions to be an exaggeration."]

[15 July 1936. Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Many thanks for your letter. I am sorry that Mrs Hodson has seized me as a missle in this argument and I hope that your letter will terminate it. Actually I haven't thought about any results very much from the standpoint of the percentage of mental defect in the country as a whole, neither are they well adapted to answering that question. Roughly my position is this: I am quite at a loss to understand the German use of I.Q. 95 as the borderline for mental defect. It might arise from entirely different meanings to mental age, or, if the conception is the same, from a much lower average than exists in this country, combined with a very unusual distribution. Everywhere in this country a Binet I.Q. of 70 is regarded as the upper limit of mental defect. This is equivalent to an I.Q. of about 67 on more modern tests giving a wider scatter e.g. that used in the present research. My results therefore indicate a three and five percent incidence of mental defect (for town and country respectively) as against the two and three percent of the Wood Report. The present social standard of defect continues to correspond to and I.Q. of 67-70.
    "I should prefer the above comment to be inserted to represent my opinion and to be used in your letter as you wish, but if, for reasons of space, you think it is better to confine your remarks on the matter to the present concluding sentence of your letter I would suggest modifying slightly in the manner shown (see letter). I entirely agree that a disservice is done to Eugenics by scaremongering in place of constructive work, and if the nature of my findings justifies me in striking a pessimistic note in this particular field I do so only when the facts are well founded, which I am afraid is not true of this assertion about mental defect. The matter deserves investigation in a small way and if I get a chance to calibrate my tests against some German tests I shall certainly do so.
    "I am pleased to say that the letter which you sent to the Leicester committee has had the desired result and must thank you heartily for the 'scheme.' I am at present very busy writing up my results for publication as a small book, to which Major Darwin has agreed to write a forward. I am wondering whether to call it 'The Fight for Our National Intelligence' or 'Inquest on National Intelligence.' The latter seems to me crisper and the former may not ring to well in pacifist ears, but Major Darwin as voted for the former so I think I shall stick to it." SA/EUG/C.62.   Cattell is writing from the Prince of Orange Hotel, Barton, Torquay, Devonshire.]

[17 July 1936. C.P. Blacker to Dr. Maurice Newfield (editor of Eugenics Review):
    "Mrs. Hodson's original circular letter was sent to all Fellows and Members of the Society. Many of those, knowing that Mrs Hodson has been secretary of the Society, and that, until recently, she was a member of the Council, may well have concluded that her amazing statement to the effect that the best available data show that Great Britain has approximately four times as much feeblemindedness as the northern part of Europe was based on full evidence in the possession of the Society and was the sober expression of the Society's views. At least one Fellow of the Society has, to my knowledge, drawn this conclusion.
    "From the experience which I have gathered in the course of the period during which I have been connected with the Society, I unhesitatingly say that the most dangerous enemies of eugenics are now not to be found among the ranks of socialists or even Roman Catholics, but among those of its over enthusiastic and intemperate advocates. It is a fact that the Society has acquired in certain quarters the reputation of consisting of cranks, faddists and alarmists. This reputation will take some time to die and in the meanwhile we must be careful not to prolong its life by irresponsible generalisations.
    "Though I am among the first to acknowledge the immense services which, in the past, Mrs. Hodson has performed for the Society, I am persuaded that in making statements such as the one contained in her circular letter, she is doing a serious injury to the cause of eugenics. The four reasons for which, in my letter published on page 87 of the April issue, I stated that Mrs Hodson's deductions seemed to me fallacious are, in my opinion, quite unaffected by her letter in this issue … "      SA/EUG/C.159.]

[4 August 1936.  International conference of the New Education Fellowship, in Cheltenham. Cattell criticizes the existing school examination system as unreliable.]

"Psychologists and Examinations:  Lives Spoiled by Failure."  Times (August 5, 1936), 7.
   [On Cattell's Cheltenham discussion of school examinations.]

Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.   In Lancet 231 (August 15, 1936): 379.

[September 1936.  Date on Leonard Darwin's Introduction and Cattell's Author's Foreword to The Fight for Our National Intelligence.]

[1 September 1936. Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "I have just completed that presentation of my results on "Intelligence Decline etc" intended for a wider public than the Eugenics Society. Major Darwin has written me a most useful and very pointed 'introduction' and I am hoping to get two other brief introductions from other points of view (one by an educationist of note). The whole thing will then comprise about 35,000 words.
    "I am writing to ask if you could suggest to me a suitable and a likely publisher, possibly one who has already been concerned with publications or the Eugenics Society?
    "I should also like to ask you whether the four installments of payment of my fellowship grant could this year be spaced evenly throughout the session, say, October, Jan, March and June (last year the first came about Xmas and the last is still to come).
    "Trusting you have enjoyed a good summer vacation."   SA/EUG/C.62.  Cattell is writing from Cotley Kiln, Longdown, Near Exeter, Devonshire.]

[3 September 1936.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell (Cotley Kiln, Longdown, Nr. Exeter):
    "Thanks you for your letter of September 1st.  With regard to the installments relating to the Fellowship, I have looked up the file, and the arrangement appears to be that you are sent the sum of £62.10.0 at the end of every quarter.  Since the Fellowship began in October of last year, you have been sent a cheque about the beginning of January, April, and July.  A cheque will follow at the beginning of the month.
    "It is difficult for us to arrange for the cheque to reach you punctually on the last day of the quarter because Mrs. Collyer is in the habit of asking the Treasurer to sign the cheques on Friday and they usually leave this office on Friday night.
    "Will the same arrangement be convenient for you for the coming year?  I understand that this was the arrangement decided on by the Darwin Studentship Committee.  If, however, you would like to receive the payments at the beginning of each quarter, I will see what can be done, but if you do not feel strongly about the matter, it would, I think, be best to leave the arrangement as it is.
    "With regard to a publisher of your book, I am afraid I have few suggestions to make.  The Oxford University Press have published three books for the Society - mine on Voluntary Sterilization,' Glass's entitled 'The Struggle for Population' and one still in the press entitled 'A Social Problem Group?' which I am editing."    SA/EUG/C.62.]

[22 September 1936. Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Blacker,
    "To be read at your leisure.  As you are thinking over family allowances, you may like to read the enclosed, the thought it contains seems to me new and true;  but experience shows it may be old and false!  Show it to Glass if you like.
    "Huxley goes [illegible] one in the eye in this Morning's Times, which I enjoyed."   PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[23 September 1936. C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "Thank you for your letter of September 22nd enclosing your note on Cattell's Investigation of Family Allowances. I will read it quite carefully, and I hope in due course and if necessary, to write to you again. It will provide a useful basis for conversation when I come to see you with Glass."    PP/CPB, Box 3.]
 

Darwin, Leonard. "Family Allowances." Unpublished manuscript, October 1936.
   [The text begins:  "In facing the problem of family allowances from the eugenic and also from the social point of view, contradictory demands are met with and compromises have to be made. On social grounds it must be urged that … large families be discouraged because of the correlation between stupidity and the size of the family - granted that Cattell is correct." PP/CPB, Box 3.]

Cattell, Raymond B. "Is National Intelligence Declining?" Eugenics Review 28 (October 1936): 181-203.
    Cited in:
    Robert C Nichols, "Nichols Replies to Flynn," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, pp. 233-234, New York: Falmer Press, 1987
    Nathan Brody, Intelligence, 2nd ed, San Diego: Academic Press 1992

[October 1936. Date on F.P. Armitage's Introduction to Cattell's The Fight for Our National Intelligence.]

[7 October 1936.  Cattell (Cotley Kiln) to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Dr. Blacker,
    "I took it that your letter of the 3rd Sept required no reply and that my silence would be taken as giving assent to your proposition that the arrangement for quarterly payments should remain as last year.  A number of matters have since accumulated, however, on which I should like briefly to write to you, and on the payments business I must trouble you to the extent of asking whether the last of the four quarterly payments could be modified, so as not to fall outside the academic year.  In other words, could it be made soon after the third payment and before August?
    "In the work on inheritance of temperament traits, in which I propose to carry out laboratory tests on twins, I find myself in the position of having to do quite a good deal of preliminary reading.  I already have nine large volumes before me and in a week's time I am coming to London for more.  I am planning to summarize all the work done in this country, in America and Germany by about Xmas, after which I shall start on the experimental work.  If the summary of all past work on this matter is likely to be of interest to the Eugenics Society I should be pleased to give a paper on the matter, should you be short a lecturer.
    "With regard to the 'popular' presentation of my presently appearing article in the Eug. Rev. which I have completed as a book with the title 'The Fight for Our National Intelligence' I am still unprovided with a publisher.  I tried the Oxford University Press as you suggested, but, like the other publisher whom I approached, they seemed to think that it was the sort of work in which the risk would have to be taken by the author.  It is apparently still too technical to be popular.   If I meet with the same verdict from other publishers I am wondering whether the Eugenics Society would consider helping with its publication?  In that case, of course, the Society would take over also the returns on sales.
    "In connection with the same troublesome object a problem has arisen on which I would welcome your advice.  I wrote to Lord Horder asking if he would write a brief introduction, the length of a letter, to launch the work upon the public with the stamp of the Eugenics Society.  But apparently he declines to write anything even the length of a letter, for I have received no reply.  Do you think he is averse to the idea or merely very busy?
    "I shall be at the Eugenics Society lecture on the 20th Oct. and I should greatly appreciate it if you could come out to dinner with me afterwards - or some other evening in the week."  SA/EUG/C.62.  Blacker forwarded a copy of the letter to Horder.]

[12 October 1936.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your letter of October 7th.  I will deal with the various points you raise serially.
    "(1)  Payment.  I note that you would like the last of your four quarterly payments to be made to you inside the academic year and before the beginning of August.
    "I understand from Mrs. Collyer that she has been in the habit of paying you the sum of £62.10s. at the end of each quarter, and that you received cheques for this sum on or about the first of January, April, July, and October of this year.
    "Your proposal, therefore, presumably refers to next year and I write to ask if it would meet your requirements if in July, 1937, we were to pay you the sum a final payment of £135.  This would embrace the usual sum of £62.10s. paid to you in July, 1937, and a similar sum (in this case the final payment) which is due in October.
    "If you will let me know whether this arrangement is convenient to you I will raise it with the Treasurer.
    "(2)  Temperamental Traits in Twins.  I note that you are now reading up the literature on this subject, and that you would be in a position to give a lecture on it by about Christmas.  As a matter of fact, I have now fixed up my programme of lectures up till June of next year but if your offer could be kept open till the autumn of 1937, I think it very probable that the Executive Committee would like to avail themselves of it.  We generally hold meetings on the third Tuesday of October, November, and December.
    "(3)  'The Fight for Our National Intelligence.   I note that you have not succeeded in obtaining a publisher for this book and that you suggest that the Eugenics Society might agree to assisting in this publication.   If the Society were to do this it would, I think, want the book to be vetted and approved by someone responsible to the Society.  Since the work was undertaken under the supervision of a special committee of which Fisher is Chairman I think that the best plan would be for you to approach Fisher on his return [from the United States] and discuss the matter with him.   If, having read your book he and the Committee would agree to recommend to the Council that the Society should help with its publication I can undertake that the proposal will receive consideration.  Fisher returns I believe about Christmas time.   In the meanwhile, would you think it worthwhile writing to the Oxford University Press requesting them to let you know, as author of the book, what risks they would like you to undertake if they were to publish it for you.  You need not tell them at this stage that thee is any question of the Eugenics Society subsidizing the book.
"(4)  Lord Horder.  I note that you have had no reply from Lord Horder to the request that he should write a brief introduction to your book.  I do not know his reason for not replying but I think it could be overcome if before asking him to write the introduction you could assure him that the book had been apraised by the Darwin Research Studentship Committee.  You have on the Committee rather critical persons and it is not outside the bounds of possibility that they might not find themselves in agreement with some detail of methodology or with some of your conclusions.   A difficult position would arise if Horder, in his capacity as President of the Society, were to write an introduction to a book, produced under the auspices of a Committee to which the Society had appointed representatives and if, subsequently, members of this appointed Committee found reason to object to the book or if they complained that they had not seen the book before publication.
    "(5)  I am glad to know that you will be present on October 20th and I look forward to having a talk with you.  It is very kind of you to ask me to dinner but I much regret that I am engaged."  SA/EUG/C.62.  Blacker forwarded a copy to Lord Horder.]

[19 October 1936. C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "I enclose herewith a copy of part of a letter dated October 16th from Cattell to me. I also enclose a copy of my reply which is, I think, self-explanatory.
    "In view of the fact that our contact with Cattell has been established by the Darwin Research Studentship Committee, it is, I think, very desirable that Cattell's book should be seen and approved by at least the Chairman of that Committee. I do not know whether you will agree with me.
    "I make this suggestion as a point of procedure more than anything else, for I feel very sure that if you yourself had nothing to criticise about the book, it would be very unlikely that Fisher would find much. At the same time, in dealing with Fisher I have found that discretion is the better part of zeal."     PP/CPB, Box 3.
    Fisher was still travelling in the United States when Blacker wrote this letter.]

[20 October 1936.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker:
    "As far as I can judge you have done a wise thing about Cattell and Fisher. (By the way, is he, Fisher, at home yet?) I like Cattell, but he is verbose, and in several details I hardly saw eye to eye with him. I have been a little rash, perhaps; for at his request I have also written a foreward, and I have done it without seeing the whole book. Chap IV I have not read. I wonder if Horder knows that I also am writing an introduction. You can say I told you so. He ought to know. If there are no serious holes in Cattell's work, it is, in my opinion, very important. On p 190 of this Review, he says that 75% of the children of f.m. [feeble-minded] are also f.m. I should guess this is an overstatement. I did not see this in full detail when I wrote my introduction, so did not comment on this point. I criticised Cattell manuscript quite freely in many details, and he took my remarks very well."      PP/CPB, Box 3.
    Fisher set sail from New York for home on October 26th, after having been in the United States since June.]

[21 October 1936.  C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "Many thanks for your letter of October 20th.  I saw Cattell last night at a members meeting, and he agrees with my suggestion that Fisher should look through his book before Horder is asked to write an introduction."     PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[3 November 1936.  Cattell (Cotley Kiln) to C.P. Blacker:
    "I promised to send you some further particulars regarding the article which you kindly agreed to write on Eugenics for the omnibus volume 'Human Affairs'
    "I think I can best do this by asking you to look at the enclosed scheme which gives the names of the other writers and describes the general aim of each article.  One wants on eugenics an account of the science of eugenics and of the purposes of the Eugenics Society, explained in an authoritative but easily readable fashion, such as would appeal to the educated but unspecialised reader.  The article should be about 4000 words and I should be greatly obliged if you could send it to me or to Mr Travers, Human Affairs, Sentinel House, Southhampton Row, W.C.1 not later than December the 10th.
    "In connection with my temperament enquiries I am needing to consult a book which I cannot get in any of the libraries known to me and which I should like to suggest might be put in the Eugenics Society library if it is not already there, since from the various references to it which I have seen it seems to be a very useful source book.  It is 'Schizophrenia: A Symposium by Various Authors" Williams and Williams, Baltimore, 1931.  I imagine the book may be well known to you, in which case you will best be able to judge whether the expense would be justified to the library, but it would certainly be a help in my work if I could get it at the Society's library."     SA/EUG/C.62.]

[10 November 1936. C.P. Blacker to Clinton F. Chance.
"Dear Clinton,
    "You may recall that I promised you some Press-cuttings of an accrimonious [sic] correspondence between Cattell on the one hand, and representatives of the London School of Economics - in the shape of Hogben and Gray - on the other.  I have not forgotten about this, but to my great regret, I find that the Press-cuttings have been mislaid.  My recollection is that I sent them to Horder some time ago when the question arose of Cattell asking him to write an introduction to his book.  The difficulty is that at that time I wrote Horder a letter with several enclosures, but the nature of these enclosures was unfortunately not specified.  I have written to Mrs. Scarfe to ask her if, without causing herself undue trouble, she can put her hand on these cuttings."   SA/EUG/C.64.]

[Cattell joins the Editorial Board of Character and Personality sometime between v 5 n 1 (Sept 1936) and v 8 n 1 (Sept 1939).]

 

1937

Cattell, R.B. Under Sail Through Red Devon, Being the Log of the Voyage of the "Sandpiper".  London:  A. Maclehose and Co., 1937.

Haldane, J.B.S.  "View on Race and Eugenics: Propaganda or Science?"  Letter.  Eugenics Review 28 (January 1937):  333.

Cattell, R.B.  Letter.  Eugenics Review 28 (January 1937):  334-335.
   [Response to Haldane.]

Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell. In British Medical Journal, no. 3969 (January 30, 1937): 221-222.

Cattell, R.B. Review of The Nation's Intelligence by J.L. Gray. In The New Era in Home and School 18 (February 1937): 58-59.

[4 February 1937.  Cattell (Leicester) to C.P. Blacker:
    "I have just completed the second analysis of my intelligence and birth rate data, i.e. the analysis into intelligence according to occupational group of the parents, and study of the intelligence-birth rate relationship within each occupation.   These results are not of sufficient general interest perhaps to justify another complete article in the Eugenics Review, but I think a bare statement of the findings in a short article might provide members with material for discussion.  Do you think the Leonard Darwin Research Fellowship Committee would like me to prepare these results for submission to Dr. Newfield?
    "My investigation of temperament inheritance proceeds slowly, as I have found it necessary to read and condense a huge amount of material before I can profitably begin my experimental work.
    "I am hoping to interest the B.B.C. in a statement of the results of my first year's research.  Might I mention your name as a witness to the scientific nature of the enquiry?
    "You might be interested to see my review in the next issue of 'The New Era' of Gray's 'The Nation's Intelligence' for he makes certain statements about the Eugenics Society which I have thought it necessary to refute there.
    "I hope the statement at the top of the current Eugenics Review will not be interpreted as a reflection on the scientific validity of my article.  If anyone can produce evidence that the figure of 75%, which I gave in my article and in my letter, is a misrepresentation, I hope it will be brought forward."   SA/EUG/C.62.]

[5 February 1937. C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Thank you for your letter of February 4th.  I will consult with Fisher who is, as you know, the Chairman of the Leonard Darwin Research Fellowship Committee, as to whether that Committee would like you to write the proposed short statement for the Review.
    "I much hope that you will succeed in interesting the B.B.C. in your work.
    "I will look out for the next issue of the New Era in which you review Gray's book.
    "I do not think that anyone could construe the statement at the top of page 334 of the last issue of the Review as a reflection on the scientific validity of your article.  This is the sort of statement which the Editor is in the habit of inserting when differences of opinion are expressed between distinguished contributors."  SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, R.B.  Review of Social Determinants in Juvenile Delinquency by T. Earl Sullenger.  In Character and Personality 5 (March 1937):  261-262.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Declining Intelligence in the Schools: Education and the Birth-rate."  The Schoolmaster 131 (March 12, 1937):   452-

R.C.  "Three Sponsors for a Backward Work."  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Daily Herald (March 14, 1937)

[15 March 37.  Cattell to Education Officer, London County Council.  In the LCC archives, manuscript file EO/PS/1/24, cited in Appendix I, "Burt and the Collection of Experimental Data in LCC Schools Before 1940," in Gillian Sutherland and Stephen Sharp, "'The Fust Official Psychologist in the Wurrld':  Aspects of the Professionalization of Psychology in Early 20th Century Britain," History of Science 18 (September 1980): 181-208.  "...in 1937 Cattell sought permission to identify and study pairs of male thirteen-year-old twins in London schools. The results of this .. found their way into print..."
    The reference is to Cattell and Molteno (1940), which , Sutherland and Sharp state, was one of only two twin studies mentioned in the pre-1940 LCC archives.  The other was an earlier project of Lancelot Hogben's Department of Social Biology at LSE, which produced Herrman and Hogben (1932-33) and Gray and Moshinsky (1932-33).
    "As the details of these two investigations make plain, it was exceedingly difficult and time-consuming first to identify pairs of twins, second to assemble an appreciable number of pairs and third to distinguish between DZ and MZ. The LCC had indeed initially tried to deflect Cattell by suggesting he use Hogben's data. While Burt was supposedly collecting twin data at this time, there is no mention of it in the correspondence surviving about these two projects. Cattell and Molteno (1940) used data on 89 pairs "from the elementary schools of London, Leicester, and Derby." They thank Burt "for assistance in getting material."]

[17 March 1937.  LCC Education Officer to Cattell.   Response to previous item.]

[19 March 1937. C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "Many thanks for your letter of March 18th … I am glad that you liked Cattell's book.  I have not yet read it.  You may have seen that Haldane attacked him quite vigorously in the last issue of the Review on account of a loosely-worded generalisation.  There has also been a violent attack on his new book in the Daily Herald.  This paper describes the book as one of the most reactionary that has been written."     PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[19 March 1937. Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Many thanks for your invitation to address the Eugenics Society for a second time.  I should greatly like to do so but I doubt if the subject of 'Twins' is one on which I can be considered an authority.  My research has been on temperament inheritance and the subject of twins has only come up as a sub-section of that enquiry.  I should feel much more at home dealing with the inheritance of temperament and devoting part of the time to the technique of twin study.  Even so, I doubt if my research on twins will have reached a stage when I can give definite results, as early as the end of this year.
    "I have just heard from Travers and Cohen that the book 'Human Affairs' has been accepted by the University of London Press and is practically ready for printing.  We propose to add, in response to what seems to be a real public interest, a short biography of each contributor, in an appendix.  I wonder might I trouble you for a dozen lines of biography suitable for insertion, including a list of published works.  I attach a sample (which is, however, rather too brief) by another contributor ... "    SA/EUG/C.62.]

[20 March 1937.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker.  Marked PRIVATE:
    "As I may accidentally given [sic] you a wrong impression on one point about Cattell's book, I like to put it right.  I had not read it - more than a few pages - when I wrote, I believe.  I had read the uncorrected manuscript, and criticised it freely.  He is young by nature, enthusiastic, fearless, dogmatic, and possibly tactless.  He started, he told me, with a strong socialistic bias, and was surprised at his results.   And it is these results which seem to me to be very important.  As to Haldane's attack, what Cattell intended by 'the children of mental defectives' was, what it means literally, when both parents are defective.  He should have explained this, as he does in his book.  As to the attack by the Herald, it does not much affect anyone, like myself, who has some vague recollection of the reception of the Origin of Species, very seriously. It is a necessary stage in some cases, and at all events prevents the book being overlooked. I remember hearing of a lady in an important social position in London saying that he wished my father had died before he had written that book. Did I ever tell you this little anecdote about one of my family, I don't know which?
    A was a lady friend of ours, and X a lady she met casually.
    X- 'What people one does meet in society these days.'
    A. 'Well, who have you been meeting?'
    X 'I actually met a son of that man Darwin.'
    A. 'Well, what did he do? Did he bite'
    X 'No that was the most horrible part of it. He was like anyone else.'
A may have touched up the story, for [illegible] I can tell."  PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[22 March 1937. C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "Thank you for your letter of March 20th. I will carefully read Cattell's book and will write to you about it again. I confess to being a little nervous about him. I agree that one should nottake too seriously the hostile attitude of the Daily Herald; at the same time, it is very dificult to get through any eugenic legislation if the Labour Party is strongly opposed. I do not myself believe that their opposition is implacable like that of the Catholics. I am therefore a little distressed that they are irritated in a way that could be regarded as unnecessary.
    "This, however, involves no strictures on Cattell's book which I have not read yet." PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[23 March 1937.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker.  Marked PRIVATE:
    "One more word about Cattell. You will, I suspect, find him an irritating writer. He is young in mind, verbose, and rather tactless. I do not think this is what the Labour party will mind. It is his conclusions. We are on the horns of a dilemma. We must conceal our conclusions or be abused. I have been found fault with, rather mildly, by Haldane amongst others; but not violently enough to call attention widely to what I have said. If we had had more abuse we might have made more progress in the 70 years of our campaign. I may have made mistakes in my dealings with Cattell, and if so I must face the music. I want a more bold programme; but being so much out of the world, I may be mistaken. But I thought the draft annual report on the whole very satisfactory, and that you deserve congratulations … I have not finished Cattell yet."   PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[24 March 1937.  C.P. Blacker to Leonard Darwin:
    "Thank you for your letter of March 23rd. I am not quite sure that I see eye to eye with you about that probability of our having made more progress if, in the past, we had been more abused. My experience of the majority of Labour critics is that it is the language in which certain conclusions are presented rather than the conclusions themselves to which they take exception. If the facts are unexceptionable there is, I think, a sufficient number of intelligent and objective-minded people in the Labour Party to appreciate their significance. What particularly infuriates them is the intimation of a consciousness of class superiority by which our conclusions are sometimes coloured. For purposes of consumption by members of the Labour Party, it is best, I think, to state the facts and draw the conclusions cautiously and to abstain from alarums and jeremiads. It is sometimes tactful to introduce a note of regret into one's statement of conclusions unfavorable to the poor.
    "I should have thought that we have by now got beyond the stage at which it would benefit us to be abused in the Press. Such abuse gives, I should have thought, an undesirable type of publicity, and makes people feel that the postulates of eugenics are dubious and highly controversial. The conclusions, particularly as regards the social problem group of the Wood Committee and the Brook Committee, were of great eugenic significance; but they were so worded as to be entirely free of any implication of class consciousness and were surprisingly little attacked by the members of the Labour Party, and as I remarked before, I find it difficult to see how any eugenic legislation can be got through Parliament if it meets with the almost unanimous opposition of Labour. Such legislation will become increasingly difficult as the Labour Party regains power … We surely want to convey that eugenics in its basic ideas is no longer violently controversial.
    "The word 'eugenics' has, in my experience, three disadvantages, or rather unfavourable connotations. In the first place, it is regarded by Socialists as a systems of thinly disguised class prejudice; secondly it is regarded in many circles as a joke … "    PP/CPB, Box 3.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Is Nation's Mental Capacity Declining?   Birth-Rate's Bearing on Intelligence Levels."  Daily Telegraph (March 25, 1937), 14.
   [A 2,000 word article on the editorial page.]

Warburton, T.J.E.  "World Intelligence Declining:  What Is 'Ability'?:  War and the Fittest."  Letter.  Daily Telegraph (March 29, 1937)
   [ "Dr Raymond Cattell, in his article on national intelligence, is perfectly correct. There can be no doubt that the standard of intelligence not only in the country, but throughout the world, is steadily declining.
    "Intelligence was once defined as the ability to earn one's living, but this definition cannot be altogether true. There are people in high places to-day, who, to judge from their reported utterances, are supremely lacking in fundamental intelligence, whatever their ability as money-makers may be.
    "Intelligence is really 'awareness,' the possession of a sense of reality and proportion. Thus political and other extremists are unintelligent, and their intolerance is akin to madness.
    "I cannot, however, share Dr. Cattell's pessimism about hereditary dullness. Nature sees that her children shall be wonderfully adaptable, and given the right teaching, young human beings can at least be made 'aware.' Admittedly, common sense cannot be taught by rule of thumb, but a lot can be done to teach children to think for themselves and develop their individualities. Most unfortunately, often this is not done.
    "Under a dictatorship it could scarcely be expected that young Nazis or Communists or Fascists would be instructed so as to develop their critical faculties, for proportion and Totalitarianism are incompatible.
    "But even in this democratic country tradition plays far too great a part in the 'moulding' (significant word) of character."]

Lynam, M.J.  "World Intelligence Declining:  What Is 'Ability'?:  War and the Fittest."  Letter.  Daily Telegraph (March 29, 1937)
   [ "Dr Cattell appears to ignore the whole purpose of man's existence. His first suggestion is the restiction of low-grade births.
    "Would it not be wiser to ensure that the hoped-for increase in the number of better-grade births would be forthcoming before reducing still further our already inadequate national birth rate?"]

A.M.R.  ""Birth-Rate and Brains."  Letter.   Daily Telegraph (March 31, 1937), 11.
    ["Referring to Dr. Cattell's excellent article in Thursday's Daily Telegraph concerning birth-rate bearing on intelligence levels, our income-tax regulations must be helping to cause the unhappy state he foreshadows.
    "The majority of the mentally fit are to be found in the middle classes, whose incomes generally range between £500 and 2,000.  They are producing less than two children per family, which is a dwindling asset.
    "Probably the chief causes of this are the high cost of education compared with income, and the fact that school feeds paid by parents who send their children to public or private schools are taxed, although, by making their own arrangements for the education of their children, they relieve the State of much expense."]

Summerson, S.  "National Intelligence:  Statistics Which May Mislead."  Letter. Daily Telegraph (March 31, 1937), 12.
    ["Dr. Raymond Cattell, in his article on the nation's mental capacity, refers to the faster breeding rate among those of low intelligence.  He will remember that 35 years ago, when eugenics was a 'fad,' the higher reproduction rate of the 'lower classes' was stressed ass a danger to the next generation, but, so far, the danger has not materialised, since other factors have balanced it.
    "Again, the figures given for mental defectives, viz., 4.6 per 1,000 in 1905 and 8.4 in 1928, are based on different standards, and figures for the inmates of mental hospitals suffer from the same defect.
    "The whole value of measurements of mental capacity depends on the standards taken.  Too often these standard qualities are exclusively those which make for success in modern business.  The work of Lothrop Stoddard and of Spengler, to whom Dr. Cattell refers, is largely vitiated by this defect.  I submit that more fundmental qualities must be brought into the picture before the politican can be justified in basing drastic legislation on such conclusions.
"Finally, Dr. Cattell refers to the 'mainly hereditary natures of intelligence.'   Lord Horder, in his presidential address to the last annual meeting of the Eugenics Society, deprecated the facile relegation of all differences of mental capacity to heredity, and stressed Dr. Julian Huxley's view that 'lack of mental energy may be due to lack of vitamins or other nutritional deficiencies, and reliable general conclusions cannot be drawn from observations on material from different environments until it is possible to allow scientifically for the effect of environment."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Study of the National Reserves of Intelligence."  Human Factor 11 (April 1937): 127-137.
    [Cattell submitted this article at the invitation of C.S. Myers.]

Haldane, J.B.S.  "Professor J.B.S. Haldane's Criticism."   Letter.  Eugenics Review 29 (April 1937):  81.

Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.   In Civil Service Assembly News Letter 3 (April 1937):  6.

[2 April 1937.  Cattell to LCC Educ. Officer, on twin data.   See Sutherland & Sharp (1980).]

Myers, Arthur.  "Declining Intelligence."  Letter.   Daily Telegraph (April 5, 1937), 11.
    ["In your letters on declining intelligence there has been, as far as I am aware, no attempt to supply any fact to support the view.  Dr Raymond Cattell bases his conclusions on the statistics of the greater birth-rate of the poorer classes.  Can it not be true that the apparent greater intelligence of the middle classes is due to  wider education and the environment of the individual concerned, and is not necessarily an attribute of the class to which he belongs?
    "In the many intelligence tests conducted by such specialists as Binet and Burt there is only a very slight difference in favour of children attending the higher class school, and this slight difference can easily be due to better home conditions and nutrition.
    "If intelligence be defined as 'awareness,' that is to say, ability to cope with environment, is there any evidence at all that civilised man is more intelligent than his predecessors?  It is very easy to confuse intelligence with such things as education, sophistication, bodily health, &c."]

[5 April 1937. Julian Huxley to C.P. Blacker:
    "I have been reading Cattell's book, which I had no chance of getting to before, and feel rather worried about a number of points, the chief being that though he mentions that he is being aided by the Eugenics Society and is working on a Darwin Research Studentship, the MS. was never circulated to any members of the Studentship Committee. With regard to other special committees of the Eugenics Society that I have been on, and the Population Investigation Committee, the drafts of any publications have always been circulated to the members for their comments. This seems to me an important matter of principle.
    "I see that Lord Horder has written a Forward, which again makes the book even more of an official Eugenics Society publication. So far as I know, the MS. was not submitted to the Council either.
    "This would not be so important - though, as I say, I think it is a matter of principle - if it were not for the fact that the book is written in a very provocative style. His data concerning the relation of I.Q. to size of family are very interesting, but his conclusions seem to me extremely sweeping, and I should have thought it would have been much better to have written a more sober book, trying to evaluate more in detail the role of heredity and environment in regard to intelligence tests as between different classes, rather than making these hair-raising predictions which seem to me in considerable measure unwarranted.
    "I have seen several unfavorable reviews of the book - one or two saying that it is a disservice to Eugenics, so that I think the matter is of some importance."     SA/EUG/C.186.
    Blacker forwarded a copy of Huxley's letter to R.A. Fisher, which led to further correspondence among the three men on the subject of Cattell's book.  It was not possible to locate all of this correspondence in the Eugenics Society and Blacker papers in the Wellcome Institute library.]

Cattell, R.B.  "Intelligence Tests."  Letter.   Daily Telegraph (April 14, 1937), 15.
    ["Though it is gratifying to find that my contentions on declining national intelligence are evoking serious attention, it is somewhat surprising to find the letters and comments which have since appeared to amply fulfil my prediction that most people will turn to the facile course of doubting the evidence rather than to the more difficult problem of designing remedies.
    "My results are not, as Mr. Myers has assumed, based on statistics of the greater birth-rate of the poorer classes.  The division was not into greater and lesser earning capacity, nor into educated and uneducated, but into more or less intelligent.
    "There are as many definitions of intelligence as there are people, and Mr. Warburton is entitled to define it as awareness.  But the power of 'g,' tested by psychological tests, has been shown, by correlation, to be important for success in practically all mental performances, and especially for those concerned with the handling of complex problems.  The same unitary power has been shown to be largely hereditary.
    "Mr. Summerson's quotation of Professor Julian Huxley that lack of mental energy may be due to lack of vitamins, &c., is in harmony will the full summary of available evidence on environment and hereditary given in my chapter on mental capacity.  The mental energy and school performance of school children improve with improved nutrition, through a better use of available mental energy, but this mental capacity continues to develop at its own rate.
    "I do not, of course, consider my results as final.  I should be the first to agree that a Commission of Inquiry is urgently needed.  But there is a second necessity, additional to expert investigation, and that is a general public more widely read in psychological matters and able to draw correct inferences from the facts which such a commission might discover."  The letter was dated April 12.]

"Size of Families:  Relationship to Mental Ability."   Birmingham Post (April 14, 1937)
    ["Dr R.A. [sic] Cattell, school psychologist to the Leicester Education Committee, told the Leicester Peronal Health Association in an address that, on the whole, children referred to him because of dullness or small mental capacity tended to come from large families.  Usually a child which gained a secondary scholarship came from a small family.
    "Tests in Leicester had shown that children of genius came from families of an average number of 2.35, of average intelligence from families averaging 3.4 and with children on or over the border line of feeble-mindedness the average was 4.13.   In the rural districts of Devonshire, where a smilar test had been made, children of the highest intelligence came from families averaging 1.8 and of the lowest intelligence from families averaging 4.72."]

[14 April 1937. C.P. Blacker to Clinton F. Chance, marked PRIVATE:   "Last week Julian rang me up about the tone of Cattell's book.  I told him that I had no responsibility for this and suggested his writing a letter to me as Secretary of the Society.  Cattell's work, you will recall, has been conducted under the auspices of the First Darwin Studentship Committee of which Mrs Collyer is the Secretary and with which I have nothing to do.  I enclose herewith for your information a copy of tracts from letters from Huxley and Fisher dated April 8th and 9th. The correspondence between these two aroise from my sending Fisher a copy of Huxley's letter of April 5th.
    "Enc.  Copy of letter from Professor Huxley."   SA/EUG/C.64.]

[15 April 1937. Letter from the head teacher of the Haselrigge Road School to an LCC Education Officer, on twin data.  Cited in Sutherland and Sharp (1980).]

[16 April 1937. Julian Huxley to C.P. Blacker.   Greta Jones, in Social Hygiene in XXth Century Britain, cites this (Eug/C64) as evidence that Huxley viewed Cattell's book with disapprobation.]

[28 April 1937. Julian Huxley to C.P. Blacker:
    "I am glad you have dealt with Cattell's book as you have. It brings out the value of his observations, but puts him in his place as regards his treatment."     SA/EUG/C.186.]

Cattell, Raymond B. The Fight for Our National Intelligence. London: P.S. King and Son, 1937.
   [This is one of Cattell's important early works. It has elicited much comment over the years.  A half-century after the book's publication, Cattell commented on its reception in his Beyondism: Religion from Science (1987), pp. 281-282:  "In a lifetime of work in social science I have several times written demanding in the name of science that social scientists clearly present their actual scientific findings with  separate statement of any ethical or political values before they venture to combine them in social recommendations.  There is no abandonment of that essential position in the above statement.  The 'purist' scientist rightly detests those quasi-scientists who cheat the lay public in this matter.   Unfortunately, this purist ideal often leads to the equally mistaken view that a scientist should never - even with explicit explanation that he is combining these findings with such and such values - get excited or passionate about urgent social matters.  I personally experienced these prejudices when I wrote, in 1937, The Fight for Our National Intelligence.  It happens that (a) few studies (see Van Court, 1986) before or since have used such adequate rural and urban samples relating birth rate to intelligence, and (b) no study has approached the separation of environmental and genetic factors by the unique use there made of culture-fair intelligence.  The strong 'emotional' appeal I made for facing this social problem (epitomized by 'fight' in the title) automatically evoked entirely indefensible derogation of the scientific work itself, by shocked 'academic' scientists.   Since evolutionary values were clearly stated in the final integration of the findings, on the one hand, and the social recommendations on the other, I have no hesitation in standing by that book as an instance of the proper emotional vitality for an ethical position based on science."
    CITED IN:
    Cattell, "A Study of the National Reserves of Intelligence" Human Factor 11 (April 1937): 127-137
    James Fisher, Review in The New Era 18 (May 1937): 147-148
    (Anon.), "Correlation Between Intelligence and Size of Family" Lancet 232 (June 19, 1937): 1475-1476
    (Anon.), Review in British Medical Journal, no. 3991 (July 3, 1937): 15-16
    Pearl Moshinsky, "A Gloomy Prophecy," Review in New Statesman and Nation 14 (July 31, 1937): 190-192
    Cattell, "Some Further Relations Between Intelligence, Fertility and Socio-Economic Factors," Eugenics Review 29 (October 1937): 171-179
    (Anon.) Review in Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education 11 (1937): 138
    Richard M Titmuss, Poverty and Population: A Factual Study of Contemporary Social Waste, London: Macmillan, 1938
    John A Fraser Roberts, RM Norman and Ruth Griffiths, "Studies on a Child Population III. Intelligence and Family Size," Annals of Eugenics 8 (1938): 178-215
    Cattell, "Some Changes in Social Life in a Community with a Falling Intelligence Quotient," British Journal of Psychology 28 (April 1938): 430-450
    Cattell and J. Leslie Willson, "Contributions Concerning Mental Inheritance," British Journal of Educational Psychology 8 (June 1938): 129-139
    Frank Hankins, Review in American Sociological Review 3 (June 1938): 411-412
    Cattell, Psychology and the Religious Quest, London: Thomas Nelson, 1938
    Joseph J. Spengler, "Seed Beds of America" Journal of Heredity (December 1938)
    J.M. Blackburn, "Intelligence Tests," in The Study of Society, edited by Frederic Bertlett, Morris Ginsberg, E.J. Lindgren and R.H. Thouless, 154-83, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1939
    William Butler Yeats, On the Boiler, Dublin: Cuala Press, 1939
    Lionel S. Penrose, "Intelligence and Birth Rate" Occupational Psychology 13 (April 1939)
    Pearl Moshinsky, "The Correlation Between Fertility and Intelligence within Social Classes" Sociological Review 32 (April 39): 144-65
    Cattell, "Effects of Human Fertility Trends Upon the Distribution of Intelligence and Culture," Thirty-Ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington: Public School Publishing, 1940
    Norman E Himes, "Human Genetics and Sociology," Eugenical News 25 (March 1940)
    G.S.A. O'Hanlon, "An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Fertility and Intelligence," British Journal of Educational Psychology 10 (November 1940): 196-211
    Cattell, General Psychology, Cambridge: Sci-Art, 1941
    Pearl Moshinsky, "Social Environment as a Modifying Factor in the Correlation Between Maternal Age and Intelligence of Offspring," Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 20 (January 1942): 47-60
    Cattell, "The Measurement of Adult Intelligence," Psychological Bulletin 40 (March 1943): 153-193
    Cattell, "Cultural Functions of Social Stratification I and II," Journal of Social Psychology 21 (February 1945): 3-55
    Godfrey Thomson, "The Trend of National Intelligence"(Galton Lecture), Eugenics Review 38 (April 1946): 9-18
    Cyril Burt, Intelligence and Fertility, Eugenics Society Occasional Papers No. 2, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1946
    TC Schneirla, "Problems in the Biopsychology of Social Organization," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41 (1946): 385-402
    Cyril Burt, "The Trend of National Intelligence," British Journal of Sociology 1 (1950): 154-168
    Lionel S Penrose, "Propagation of the Unfit," Lancet 259 (September 30, 1950): 425-427
    Cattell "The Fate of National Intelligence: Test of a Thirteen-Year Prediction," Eugenics Review 42 (October 1950): 136-148
    Cattell "Classical and Standard Score IQ Standardization of the I.P.A.T. Culture-Free Intelligence Scale 2," Journal of Consulting Psychology 15 (April 1951): 154-159
    KJ Anselmino and R Gross, "Geburtenregelung im USA," Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 76 (April 13, 1951): 508-511
    P.E. Vernon, "Recent Investigations of Intelligence and Its Measurement," Eugenics Review 43 (October 1951): 125-137
    Godfrey Thomson, A History of Psychology in Autobiography v 4 (1952)
    Frank Lorimer, "Trends in Capacity for Intelligence," Eugenical Review 37 (June 1952): 17-24
    Otis Dudley Duncan, "Is the Intelligence of the General Population Declining?," American Sociological Review 17 (August 1952): 401-407
    John Donald Nisbet, Family Environment, A Direct Effect of Family Size on Intelligence, Occasional Papers on Eugenics, No. 8, London: Eugenics Society and Cassell, 1953
    I Th. Papavassiliou "Intelligence and Family Size," Population Studies 7 (March 1954): 222-226

   Anne Anastasi "Tested Intelligence and Family Size," Eugenics Quarterly 1 (September 1954): 155-60
    Anne Anastasi "Intelligence and Family Size," Psychological Bulletin 53 (May 1956): 187-209
    Boleslaw A Wysocki and Aydin Cankardas, "A New Estimate of Polish Intelligence," Journal of Educational Psychology 48 (December 1957): 525-33
    Anne Anastasi "Differentiating Effect of Intelligence and Social Status," Eugenics Quarterly 6 (June 1959): 84-91
    Ludwig Winter, Der Begabungsschwund in Europa, Paehl: Verlag Hohe Warte, 1959

    James McVicker Hunt, Intelligence and Experience, New York: Ronald Press, 1961
    Cattell, "Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: A Critical Experiment," Journal of Educational Psychology 54 (February 1963): 1-22
    Lionel S Penrose, "Some Formal Consequences of Genes in Stable Equilibrium," Annals of Human Genetics 28 (1964): 159
    Donald T. Torchiana, W.B. Yeats and Georgian Ireland, Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1966
    Carl Jay Bajema, "Human Population Genetics and Demography: A Selected Bibliography," Eugenics Quarterly 14 (1967): 205
    James McVicker Hunt, "Has Compensatory Education Failed? Has It Been Tried?," Harvard Educational Review 39 (Spring 1969): 278-300

   Gerald T. Kowitz, "The Tiger in the Curriculum," Educational Forum 35 (1970): 55-63
    Cattell, Abilities, 1971
    Jerome H Waller (Dight Institute), "Differential Reproduction" Social Biology 18 (June 1971): 122-136
    Arthur Falek, "Differential Fertility and Intelligence," Social Biology 18 Supp. (September 1971): S50-S59
    (Anon.), "Intelligence and Fertility," British Medical Journal 2 (April 15, 1972): 125-26
    Frederick Osborn and Carl Jay Bajema, "The Eugenic Hypothesis," Social Biology 19 (December 1972): 337
    C. Kerr, "Race, Intelligence and Education," Medical Journal of Australia 1 (January 27, 1973): 199-201
    Frederick Osborn, "The Emergence of a Valid Eugenics," American Scientist 61 (July-August 1973): 425-429
    Cattell, in A History of Psychology in Autobiography, vol. 6, edited by Gardner Lindzey (1974)
    Cattell, "Travels in Psychological Hyperspace," The Psychologists, edited by T.S. Krawiec (1974)
    Bill Bytheway, "A Statistical Trap Associated with Family Size," Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (January 1974): 67-72

    Peter Urbach, "Progress and Degeneration in the 'IQ Debate' (I)," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (June 1974): 99-135
    Cattell, "Differential Fertility and Normal Selection for IQ," Social Biology 21 (Summer 1974): 168-177
    J. McVicker Hunt and Girvin E. Kirk, "Criterion-Referenced Tests of School Readiness: A Paradigm with Illustrations," Genetic Psychology Monographs 90 (August 1974): 143-82
    Arthur R Jensen, Review of Abilities by R.B. Cattell, in American Journal of Psychology 87 (1974): 290-296
    J. McVicker Hunt, "Reflections on a Decade of Early Education," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3 (1975): 275-330
    Geoffrey Russell Searle, Eugenics and Politics in Britain, 1900-1914, Leyden: Noordhoff, 1976
    Frederick Osborn and Carl Jay Bajema, "The Eugenic Hypothesis," in Eugenics: Then and Now, edited by Carl Jay Bajema, Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1976
    R.A. Lowe, Journal of Curriculum Studies 8 (1976): 139
    Atam Vetta, "Dysgenic Trend in Intelligence," Social Biology 23 (Fall 1976): 265-267
    Cole P Dawson, "Seedbed for Eugenic Activity: The First and Second Race Betterment Conference," International Review of History and Political Science 14 (August 1977): 1-13
    Carl Jay Bajema, "Genetic Implications of Population Control," Encyclopedia of Bioethics edited by Warren T. Reich, 1307-1311, New York: Free Press, 1978
    Cattell, "Are Culture Fair Intelligence Tests Possible and Necessary?," Journal of Research and Development in Education 12 (Winter 1979): 3-13
    Geoffrey Russell Searle, "Eugenics and Politics in Britain in the 1930s," Annals of Science 36 (March 1979): 159-169

    R.A. Lowe, "Eugenicists, Doctors and the Quest for National Efficiency," History of Education 8 (1979): 293-306
    John Macnicol, The Movement for Family Allowances, 1918-45, London: Heinemann, 1980
    Charles Webster, "Introduction," in Biology, Medicine and Society 1840-1940, edited by Charles Webster, 1-13, Cambridge University Press, 1981
    Geoffrey Russell Searle, "Eugenics and Class," ibid, 217-242
    Brian Evans and Bernard Waites, IQ and Mental Testing: An Unnatural Science and Its Social History, Atlantic Hill, N.J.: Humanities Press. 1981
    Michael Billig, Ideology and Social Psychology: Extremism, Moderation and Contradiction, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982
    Nancy Stepan, The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800-1960, London: Macmillan, 1982
    Greta Jones, "Eugenics and Social Policy Between the Wars," Historical Journal 25 (September 1982): 717-728
    Cattell, "Inflation and Business Cycles from the Standpoint of Psychology and Sociobiology," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies (1982)
    Michael Billig, "The Origins of Race Psychology-II," Patterns of Prejudice 17 (January 1983): 25-31
    Cattell, "The Role of Psychological Testing in Educational Performance," Mankind Quarterly 23 (Spring-Summer 1983): 227-77
    Germaine Greer, Sex and Destiny: The Politics of Human Fertility, London: Secker and Warburg, 1984
    Gillian Sutherland, Ability, Merit and Measurement: Mental Testing and English Education 1880-1940, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984
    John C Loehlin, "R.B. Cattell and Behavior Genetics," Multivariate Behavioral Research 19 (April-June 1984): 337-43
    Arthur R Jensen, Review of Intelligence and National Achievement, edited by R.B. Cattell, in Personality and Individual Differences 5 (1984): 491-2
    Anne Anastasi, "Some Emerging Trends in Psychological Measurement: A Fifty-Year Perspective," Applied Psychological Measurement 9 (June 1985): 121-138
    Marian Van Court and Frank D Bean, "Intelligence and Fertility in the United States: 1912-1982," Intelligence 9 (January-March 1985): 23-32
    Michel Schiff and Richard C. Lewontin, Education and Class, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986
    Richard Lynn and Susan L Hampson, "Further Evidence for Secular Increases in Intelligence in Britain, Japan, and the United States," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (March 1986): 203-204
    Lynn and Hampson, "The Rise of National Intelligence," Personality and Individual Differences (1986): 23-32
    Greta Jones, Social Hygiene in Twentieth Century Britain, London: Croom Helm, 1986
    Cattell, Beyondism: Religion from Science, New York: Praeger, 1987
    Robert C Nichols, "Nichols Replies to Flynn," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, London: Falmer Press, 1987
    Cattell, "Fitness and Intelligence," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (June 1987): 305
    Richard Lynn, "Debate on Intelligence," Review of Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, in Mankind Quarterly 28 (Fall 1987): 27-40
    Paul Scott Stanfield, Yeats and Politics in the 1930s, New York: St Martin's Press, 1988
    Michael R Olneck "IQ and Birthrates," Letter, Atlantic 264 (December 1989): 13-14
    Cattell, "What Eugenics Revisited Needs: Comment," Mankind Quarterly 31 (1990): 161-162
    Richard Lynn, "The Role of Nutrition in Secular Increases in Intelligence," Personality and Individual Differences 11 (1990): 273-85
    Richard A Soloway, Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990
    James J Jenkins and JT Tuten, "Why Isn't the Average Child From the Average Family?," American Journal of Psychology 105 (Winter 1992): 517-26
    Elazar Barkan, The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States Between the World Wars, Cambridge University Press, 1992
    Nathan Brody, Intelligence, 2nd edition, San Diego: Academic Press, 1992
    John Carey, The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice Among the Literary Intelligentsia, 1880-1939, New York: St Martin's Press, 1992
    William H Tucker,
The Science and Politics of Racial Research, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994
    Adrian Wooldridge, Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England, c.1860 - c.1990, Cambridge University Press, 1994
    Nicholas J Mackintosh, "Declining Educational Standards," Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed? edited by Nicholas J Mackintosh, 95-110, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995
    John Carey, "Die Intellektuellen und die Massen," Merkur 49 (1995): 875-889
    Richard Lynn, Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations, Westport: Praeger, 1996
    Barry Mehler, "Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the New Eugenics," Genetica 99 (1997): 153-163
    Kevin Lamb, Review of Dysgenics by Richard Lynn, in Mankind Quarterly 37 (1997): 335-339
   Graham Richards, 'Race', Racism and Psychology: Towards a Reflexive History, London: Routledge, 1997
    Kevin Lamb, "Raymond B. Cattell: A Lifetime of Achievement," Mankind Quarterly 38 (Fall-Winter 1997): 127-181

Cattell, Raymond B. "Intelligence and Citizenship - A Prospect." The New Era in Home and School 18 (May 1937): 136-140.

Fisher, James. Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by R.B. Cattell. In The New Era in Home and School 18 (May 1937): 147-148.

Davies, Margaret.  "Population and Intelligence:   Another View."  Letter.  The Schoolmaster (May 6, 1937)

Cellard, John.  "Birthrate and Intelligence:  A Question for Dr. Cattell."  Letter.  The Schoolmaster (May 6, 1937)

[8 May 1937.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker:
    "Just a few words about Cattell.  I may have been to blame for not seeing the whole text before writing a preface.  But if I had, I think I should only have safeguarded myself a little more clearly.  I have not looked to see if his paper in the Review is reproduced in his book nearly verbatim.  If so he certainly ought to have obtained permission and acknowledged it in the text.  Otherwise, as it was a book written and published on his own initiative and, I suppose, risk, I think he was in no way bound to consult anyone about it.  To enforce such supervision would be very bad for science.   Pearson refused to publish results obtained by E Schuster [?] because they were not what he expected: I judge that the areas selected by Cattell are more representative of England than Stockholm is of Sweden, and his book seems to be less open to objections on statistical grounds than is the Swedish.  Why is the one criticized and the other praised?  Are we not all somewhat influenced by whether the results are pleasing or not to us on irrelevant grounds?  I think it is to the point to note that Haldane alludes again to Cattell in this issue of our Review in an unfavourable tone.   Haldane is, I think, right as to the meaning we usually attach to the words 'offspring of mental defective parents.'  But Cattell can make a good logical case that his reading is correct.  Should not we regard the children of aged or foreign parents as having both parents aged or foreign?"  PP/CPB, Box 3.]

[13 May 1937.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell (Leicester Education Dept.):  "As you doubtless know, your book has excited a good deal of controversy.  I have been asked to find out how far, if at all, it was considered before publication by the First Darwin Research Studentship Committee.  The manuscript or proofs were, presumably, submitted to Major Darwin and to Lord Horder who wrote the preface;  were they also submitted to Professor Fisher and/or to the Studentship Committee?  This, as you know, consists in addition to Professor Fisher, of Mr. Julian Huxley, Professor F.H.A. Marshall, Dr. Fraser-Harris, and Dr. Heron.  With apologies for troubling you, … "        SA/EUG/C.62.]

[15 May 1937. Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "The manuscript and/or proofs of my book were looked over in detail by Major Darwin and Lord Horder, many of whose suggestions were incorporated in the eventual presentation. I had no communication with Prof. Huxley or Marshall since Prof. Fisher was, I understand, to supervise the research, and he, of course, both discussed the planning of the research and the ultimate presentation of the results (after reading the proofs).
    "If controversy is likely to extend into the Eugenics Society itself (or do I read too much into your letter?) you would be best forewarned will all other information, for which reason, I add the following facts. In order to give the book a good start and to call attention to the eugenics aspects of the population problem I have written articles describing the book in the Daily Telegraph, The Human Factor (at the request of Dr. Myers), the Schoolmaster and the New Era. I have also written an article replying to the attack made in the Daily Herald, taking a conciliatory attitude and attempting to prove (may God and the Conservatives forgive me) that eugenics is the ultimate expression of the essential socialistic principles (though not conversely).
    "During Whitsun I am hoping to finish the second article for the Eugenics Review, in which I present fresh data on eugenic and dysgenic trends within special occupations.
    "If there is any further matter on which I can assist please do not hesitate to trouble me. I am glad controversy is in the air, but frankly, I am curious to know in what manner the Society is affected."  SA/EUG/C.62.
    Cattell's address until May 28th is 9, Java Gardens, Paignton, Devon.]

[21 May 1937.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:  "The only comments I have to make on the Fertility Questionnaire concern section 12, on Education.   I think (1) Special schools should be differentiated - at present physical defect and mental defect would be confused, and (2) Secondary Schools should include Intermediate and Central School…"  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[8 June 1937. At a meeting of the Council of the Eugenics Society, it is reported that six people have applied for the Leonard Darwin Research Studentship: Pearl Moshinsky (q.v.), Dora Ilse, Dr. H.L. Gordon, Dr. Grace G. Leybourne, an Mr. Nicholas Roth. Ilse is awarded the Studentship.]

(Anon.)  "Correlation Between Intelligence and Size of Family."  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Lancet 232 (June 19, 1937):  1475-1476.

(Anon.)  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Medical Journal, no. 3991 (July 3, 1937):   15-16.

[14 July 1937. Cattell (City of Leicester Education Department) to C.P. Blacker:
    "As the end of my second year of tenure of the Darwin Fellowship is now reached I thought it would be best if I supplied you with a report of my second year's work.  I have sent a copy of the report to Professor Fisher since I believe he is directly responsible for my work to the Fellowship Committee.
    "I have had an invitation to continue my research work at Columbia University as a research associate of Professor Thorndike and I am thinking of accepting it;  so that I shall be in America for the next two years.  In case I don't have an opportunity of seeing you before I go, I should like to say how greatly I appreciate the help and encouragement which you and the Eugenics Society have given me throughout this research, and how very pleasant the co-operation has been.  If there are any American connections of the Eugenics Society with which you would like me to make contact, or to act in the capacity of a very minor ambassador, I should be very pleased to do so." SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Second Year's Work Under the Leonard Darwin Fellowship."  Unpublished manuscript, July 15, 1937.
   [ "Although the original plan was to study the inheritance of temperament through research by twin comparison methods a good part of the year was used in working out further relationships in the data obtained the previous year on the social distribution of intelligence and fertility. The whole of the city and country data was analysed; first with regard to eugenic or dysgenic trends in occupational groups, and secondly, by means of comparison between rural and urban standards of intelligence and fertility. The results of this analysis were set out in an article prepared for the Eugenics Review, and the article has been accepted for publication in the next issue.
    "Meanwhile data has been gathered concerning the inheritance of temperament. Two batteries of test have been prepared - one of Spearman's 'f' factor in temperament, and one of the nervous quality of perseveration. These have been given to about forty identical and fifty non-identical twins, tested, with the permission of the Education Authorities, in London, Leicester and Derby Schools. The gathering of the physical measurements, finger prints, etc., necessary for the differentiation of the subjects into mono-zygotic and di-zygotic twins has made the whole enquiry a very extensive one requiring temporarily the help of two assistants who needed to be trained specially for the observations which they had to take. The data will, however, be complete by September and I shall then hope to work it up, together with that part of the intelligence test data which has to do with the inheritance of intelligence, into two papers on the inheritance of mental qualities - (1) mental capacity; (2) temperament: which will, in all probability be submitted to the British Journal of Psychology.
    "A by-product of the first year's work has been an article enlarging on a chapter of the book in which the first year's results were published and dealing with "Some Changes in Social Life in a Community with a Falling Intelligence Average." This contribution began on an empirical basis but proceeds analytically and develops some new conceptions in social psychology to aid effective discusion on these problems. It was submitted to the Sociological Review but was rejected and has since been sent to the Journal of Social Psychology (America)." SA/EUG/C.62.
    At the same time he wrote this, Cattell also submitted the paper he refers to here to the British Journal of Psychology, where it appeared in April 1938.]

[17 July 1937.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "Some Changes in Social Life in a Community with a Falling Intelligence Quotient."]

[17 July 1937.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your letter of July 14th enclosing a report on the second year of your work. I do not know whether to be glad or sorry that you are thinking of accepting an invitation to go to America. I am sorry in that the distance separating us may cause us to lose touch; I am glad in that you will doubtless be able to make useful contacts with eugenists in America.
    "I shall read with very great interest the reports of your twin studies." SA/EUG/C.62]

Moshinsky, Pearl.  "A Gloomy Prophecy."  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by R.B. Cattell. In New Statesman and Nation 14 (July 31, 1937):  190-192.

Cattell, R.B. "Education, and the Sciences of Human Nature." In Human Affairs, edited by Raymond B. Cattell, John Cohen and R.M.W. Travers, 140-165. London: Macmillan, 1937.
   [Published 31 August. "Essays by 14 scientists on humanity - what the social sciences can do for man, the planning of his future, and the making of a new human race." Other contribs incl McDougall, Karl Mannheim, Bronislaw Malinowski, JBS Haldane, Lord Raglan, CP Blacker, Morris Ginsberg, Havelock Ellis, etc.]

[2 September 1937. Meeting of the British Association, in Nottingham. At the Psychology Section session, Cattell speaks on personality assessment.]

"Assessing Personality." Times (September 3, 1937), 6.
   [On Cattell's Nottingham talk.]

Bernal, J.D.  "Where Do the Social Sciences Stand?"   Review of Human Affairs, edited by Raymond B. Cattell, John Cohen, and R.M.W. Travers.  In Reynolds News (September 19, 1937), 13.
    [There is a reply to this review in Reynolds News (September 29, 1937).]

"What Science Can Do For Man:  Should World be Placed Under a New Dictatorship - That of the Scientific Specialist?"  Review of Human Affairs, edited by Raymond B. Cattell, John Cohen, and R.M.W. Travers.  In Bristol Evening Post (September 24, 1937)

[1937. Cattell comes to the US to take a two-year position as a research associate to E.L. Thorndike at Teachers College, Columbia University.  (Some accounts describe his position there as Associate Professor, 1937-9.)  He later writes: "...at the great price of giving up my country, I was rescued to a full psychological career. That came through an invitation from E.L. Thorndike ... who had ... been stimulated by ... The Fight for Our National Intelligence." He ultimately spends not two years but the rest of his life, sixty years, in the US.
    See Adrian Wooldridge, "How the Left Betrayed I.Q. Bell Curve Liberals," The New Republic (February 27, 1995): 22-26.  He writes:   "Significantly, the most bigoted British intelligence testers fled to the United States:  William McDougall, a psychologist with something of a fetish for blond, blue-eyed types, left Oxford for Harvard, and Raymond Cattell, who argued, in print, that the race was being swamped by 'sub-men,' later followed him to the States.  (Cattell lives in the United States still;  a list of supporters of The Bell Curve in The Wall Street Journal included his name.)"]

[1937-42.  Cattell serves on the Advisory Board of the Journal of Exceptional Children, published in Battle Creek, Michigan by the International Council for Exceptional Children.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Some Further Relations Between Intelligence, Fertility and Socio-Economic Factors."  Eugenics Review 29 (October 1937): 171-179.
   Cited in:
   Anne Anastasi, "Intelligence and Family Size" Psychological Bulletin 53 (May 1956): 187-209

[1 October 1937.  Leonard Darwin to C.P. Blacker.  "I have also just bought The Nation's Intelligence, Gray (Watts), and have just opened the pages.  It seems to me to want jumping on by a psychologist [illegible].  I hope I am wrong.  To return to the main subject, I think the difficulty of dealing with the positive side of the question can be overcome in ordinary literature by not separating eugenics from social questions too distinctly, and by making the main attack on small families, which does make the campaign eugenic if Cattell and I are right."      PP/CPB, Box 3.]

Joad, C.E.M.  "Sermons in Science."  Review of Human Affairs edited by R.B. Cattell, John Cohen, and R.M.W. Travers.  In New Statesman and Nation 14 (October 2, 1937):  492.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Measurement versus Intuition in Applied Psychology."  Character and Personality 6 (December 1937):  114-131.

[14 December 1937.  Miss Nora R. Lee (honorary secretary, Bradford and West Riding Branch, Nursery School Association of Great Britain) to C.P. Blacker:
"Dear Dr. Blacker,
    "On Friday evening, Jan. 21st 1938, Dr. R.B. Cattell, late of Leicester Education Dept., was to have spoken in the Technical College Hall, Bradford to members of the above branch of the N.S.A.,  The National Council of Women and the Bradford Education Society.
    "The subject was to have been 'IS NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE DECLINING?'  The arrangement was made in the summer but I have heard this week from Dr. Cattell that as he is in America he cannot fulfill the engagement.
    "The meeting we have arranged is a big one embracing as it does three important societies in the city.  Could you please help us out of a difficulty by putting us in touch with an able speaker who will take on Dr. Cattell's engagement in Bradford on Jan. 21st.  We should like him (or her) to speak on the same subject 'Is National Intelligence Declining,' or one as near as possible."    SA/EUG/C.36]

[15 December 1937.  C.P. Blacker to Byrom Stanley Bramwell:
    "I enclose herewith a copy of a letter I have this morning received from Miss Nora Lee of the Bradford and West Riding Branch of the Nursery School Association of Great Britain.  This and my reply are self-explanatory.
    "Would you like to address the meeting on the subject of whether national intelligence is declining?  I do not think that the audience would be very critical or intelligent and I doubt whether you would need more than a very good general knowledge of intelligence testing.  Cattell's argument that national intelligence is declining is based upon the facts of differential fertility which came to light in his enquiry.  One of the objects of the Population (Statistics) Bill is to throw some light on differential fertility.  The general line of a speech could, I think, appropriately be that, on the data available, there are reasons for thinking that existing trends are on the whole leading to a decline in national intelligence but we need further information such as might be yielded, among other things, by the fruits of the Population (Statistics) Bill ... "        SA/EUG/C.36.

    Soloway, Demography and Degeneration, cites Eug/37, December 15, 1937.
    Bramwell had favorably reviewed Cattell's Psychology and Social Progress in Eugenics Review (October 1933).  He accepted the invitation and spoke in Yorkshire on January 21st, 1938 on the subject, "Is National Intelligence Declining?"]

[25 December 1937. William Butler Yeats to C.P. Blacker:
    "I am writing an essay on certain conclusions which I draw from the statistics published by various writers on eugenics.  I intend this essay mainly for Irish readers and I shall publish it here [Dublin] at my sister's handpress.  I wonder if you or some other oficer of the Society could help me in this work by answering a few questions?  Cattell, in his 'Fight for Our National Intelligence', although he gives the 'intelligence quotients' up to the professional classes, gives none for the leisured classes.  In two passages he implies that these are known. Can you tell me where I can find them?
    "I would also be very much obliged if you would tell me what intelligence tests are used in measuring the intelligence of grown men … " SA/EUG/C.357.]

Cattell, R.B.  "A quoi servent les examens?"  Pour L'ere Nouvelle 15 (1937):  13.

(Anon.)  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education 11 (1937):   138.

 

1938

[13 January 1938.  William Butler Yeats to C.P. Blacker:
    "My reply to you has been delayed as I have been travelling.  I thank you very much for your letter and enclosures … In the case of one of my questions either my typist took down the question wrong or Mr Fraser misunderstood me.  What I asked about was the intelligence quota of the leisured classes.  Cattell and others put at the top of their list the professional classes.  Is there any record of the intelligence quota among people living on inherited money?  One would expect it to be pretty high."     SA/EUG/C.357.]

[17 January 1938.  C.P. Blacker to William Butler Yeats:
    "Thank you for your letter of January 13th.  I know of no observations as to the intelligence quotients among the leisured classes living on unearned incomes.   Such persons would be very difficult to get hold of in any organized body."    SA/EUG/C.357.]

[20 February 1938.  William Butler Yeats to C.P. Blacker:
    "I am reviewing the typed script of a long essay on eugenics and various related topics.  I find one gap.  Is there any authoritative definition or description of what constitutes 'intelligence'?  The men who made the tests must have had some clear idea of what they were testing.  Is it [illegible] of attention and coordination.  Or is it a sense of the significance and affinities of objects.   Cattell gives me no adequate help.  I would be greatly obliged if you could help me."     SA/EUG/C.357.]

Cattell, R.B.  Crooked Personalities in Childhood and After:   An Introduction to Psychotherapy.  Contemporary Library of Psychology.   New York:  D. Appleton-Century, 1938.
    [This book was written while Cattell was at Leicester.  His affiliation is listed as Research associate, Columbia University.  It was also published by the Cambridge University Press and in London by Nisbet and Company.]

Cattell, R.B.  The Midland Attainment Tests:  'F', Arithmetic, English.  London:  University of London Press, 1938.

Haldane, J.B.S.  Heredity and Politics.  New York:   W.W. Norton, 1938.
   [On page 95 Haldane criticizes Cattell's 1936 Eugenics Review article.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Psychology of Personality by Ross Stagner.  In Character and Personality 6 (March 1938):  252-253.
    [Cattell and Stagner later worked together as colleague on the faculty of the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Some Changes in Social Life in a Community with a Falling Intelligence Quotient."  British Journal of Psychology 28 (April 1938):  430-450.
    [Republished in Intelligence and National Achievement, edited by Raymond B. Cattell, (Washington, D.C.:  Cliveden Press, December 1983) and in Mankind Quarterly 31 (Summer 1991):  323-344.  Both of these were publications of Roger Pearson (q.v.).]

[April 1938.  Eugenics Review, vol. 30, p. 70, carries a quarter-page ad for The Fight for Our National Intelligence.]

Ashley-Montagu, M.F.  Review of Human Affairs edited by R.B. Cattell, John Cohen, and R.M.W. Travers.  In Isis 77 (May 1938):   508-510.

[1938.  Cattell marries Catherine Jones, a student at Columbia University.  She was born in Georgia in 1913.  They divorce before the end of the year.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and J. Leslie Willson.  "Contributions Concerning Mental Inheritance I - Of Intelligence." British Journal of Educational Psychology 8 (June 1938):  129-149.
   [In the foreword to The Fight for Our National Intelligence, Cattell thanked Willson "for much hard work in giving tests and checking calculations."]

Hankins, Frank H.  Review of The Fight for Our National Intelligence by R.B. Cattell, and A Social Problem Group, edited by C.P. Blacker.  In American Sociological Review 3 (June 1938):  411-412.
   [On Hankins, see Mehler, A History of the American Eugenics Society, 1921-1940, p 364. At the time the review appeared, Hankins was 60 years old and at the peak of this career;  he was the president of the American Sociological Society in 1938.]

Welch, Livingston.  "Important Causes of Maladjustment."   Review of Crooked Personalities in Childhood and After by Raymond B. Cattell.  In New York Times Book Review (August 28, 1938):  9.

[1938-41.  Cattell is appointed G. Stanley Hall professor of genetic psychology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.  During that period, Mark A Graubard was an associate professor of biology and physiology there.  In a 1938 letter to Cattell congratulating him for the appointment, William McDougall stated:  "The path of a psychologist in England is indeed not made smooth or attractive in any way."  This letter is cited by Chris Brand, who is preparing a biography of McDougall,  at http://www.crispian.demon.co.uk/ .  Cattell came to Clark's Psychology Department at a time when it was in turmoil.   See the articles in Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 26 (April 1990).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  Psychology and the Religious Quest:   An Account of the Psychology of Religion and a Defence of Individualism.   Discussion Books, no. 23.  London:  Thomas Nelson and Sons, Autumn 1938.
   [The forward was dated 1938, New York.   The book was dedicated to William McDougall, who died in 1938.]
    Cited in:
    Howard Davis Spoerl, Review in Character and Personality 8 (March 1940): 263-264
    T.A. Lambo, Journal of Mental Science 101 (1955): 239
    A. James Gregor, Review in Mankind Quarterly 2 (March 1962): 216-218
   William H. Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994
    Barry Mehler, "Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the New Eugenics," Genetica 99 (1997): 153-163
    Graham Richards, 'Race', Racism and Psychology: Towards a Reflexive History, London: Routledge, 1997
    Kevin Lamb, "Raymond B. Cattell: A Lifetime of Achievement," Mankind Quarterly 38 (Fall-Winter 1997): 127-181

 

1939

Bartlett, Frederic, M. Ginsberg, E.J. Lindgren, and R.H. Thouless, editors. The Study of Society: Methods and Problems. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1939.

Cattell, R.B.  "The School and the Child Guidance Clinic."  In Educating for Democracy, edited by John I. Cohen and Robert M.W. Travers, 169-182.  London:  Macmillan, 1939.

Drought, Neal. Review of Crooked Personalities in Childhood and After by Raymond B. Cattell. In American Sociological Review 4 (February 1939): 140-141.

[1939. Cattell is awarded the D.Sc. by University College, London.]

[8 February 1939. Lionel S. Penrose reads "Intelligence and Birth Rate" before the British Psychological Society. See Occupational Psychology 13 (April 1939): 110-125.]

Searles, Herbert L. "Culture and Mankind." Review of Human Affairs edited by R.B. Cattell, J. Cohen and R.M.W. Travers and The Marginal Man by Everett V. Stonequist. In Personalist 20 (April 1939): 196-198.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Status of Applied Psychology in England." Journal of Consulting Psychology 3 (May-June 1939): 76-79.

[6 May 1939. Journal of Genetic Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and Molteno (1940).]

Cattell, Raymond B. Review of Psychology Down the Ages by Charles Spearman. In Journal of General Psychology 21 (July 1939): 237-245.

 

1940

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Culture-Free Intelligence Test I."  Journal of Educational Psychology 31 (March 1940):  161-179.
    Cited in:
    Richard Lynn, "Ethnic and Racial Differences in Intelligence: International Comparisons," in Human Variation: TheBiopsychology of Age, Race, and Sex, edited by R Travis Osborne, Clyde E Noble, and Nathaniel Weyl, 261-286, New York: Academic Press, 1978

Spoerl, Howard Davis.  Review of Psychology and the Religious Quest by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Character and Personality 8 (March 1940):   263-264.

Himes, Norman E.  "Human Genetics and Sociology."   Review of Heredity and Social Problems by L.L. Burlingame.  In Eugenical News 25 (March 1940):  13-14.
    ["A notable feature of the book is the use of several tables and charts from ... Cattell's studies of differential fertility and their [sic] social effects in England ... Burlingame concludes ... that 'The intelligent classes ... appear to be decreasing by 15 to 20 per cent in the city and even more in rural England.'   Cattell's studies are extremely valuable, but I am inclined to think they have been accepted here too uncritically."]

[14 May 1940.  Journal of General Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "An Objective Test of Character-Temperament: I."   It is published in the July 1941 issue.]

Feingold, Solomon Norman.  A Culture Free Intelligence Test:   Evaluation of Cultural Influence on Test Scores.  Unpublished master's thesis, Clark University, 1940.

Sarason, Seymour Bernard.  The Effects of Training on Four Intelligence Tests.  Unpublished master's thesis, Clark University, 1940.
   [Sarason, in The Making of an American Psychologist: An Autobiography (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 1988), pp. 116-118, writes: "Through [Cattell]... I was exposed to a non-American psychology, distinctive in 2 respects: an emphasis on factor analysis ... and an emphasis on instinct and genetics as explanatory concepts of human behavior. Neither emphasis made much sense to me ... [W]hat was ground for criticism was [Cattell's] view that a theory was invalid, or at least suspect, if it could not be tested by methods of factor analysis ... If Cattell was articulately critical of Freud's emphasis on psychoanalytical method as the way of comprehending ... personality, he seemed oblivious to his own vulnerability to the same kind of criticism ... [H]e served as an example of how commitment to a method can put blinders on you ... Where Cattell and I tangled was on the nature-nurture problem. It was self-evident to him, and discussed explicitly in his early books, that heredity explained much of human behavior. So in one of his seminars he took the position that salesmen are born, not made. To me that was sheer nonsense.
   "Although I was no longer a Trotskyite, I was enough of a Marxist to regard hereditarian explanations as an unjustified defense of the status quo ... We did not argue about the facts but about the 'truth,' and 2 people could not have had more divergent conceptions of the truth. What neither of us could see ... was that each of us represented very different national outlooks. Cattell came from class-conscious England, still dominated by Galton's work and writings, and I was a product of an immigrant America ... No one has understood or described these contrasting histories better than de Tocqueville in his Democracy in America ... his book explained more of my behavior in Professor Cattell's seminars than you could glean from studying me in any other way ... I was no less extreme than Professor Cattell. It was probably the case that he was far more gracious toward and tolerant of me than I was toward him. He was a cultured, sophisticated, talented, and imaginative Britisher. I was a brash, loud, arrogant, Brooklyn - NY - Newark American Jew. We locked in a battle about psychology unaware that the larger war was cultural. It would be closer to the truth to say that he was probably far more aware of that larger stage than I was ... We [grad students] probably talked more about Raymond Cattell than about any other member of the faculty. We delighted in the fantasy that he and John B. Watson found themselves alone on a desert island. How soon would it be before they agreed not to talk to each other as a way of avoiding mutual destruction?"]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Concept of Social Status."   Abstract.  Psychological Bulletin 37 (July 1940):  472-473.

Cattell, Raymond B., and E. Virginia Molteno.  "Contributions Concerning Mental Inheritance: II. Temperament."  Journal of Genetic Psychology 57 (September 1940):  31-47.
   [Cattell (MBR 1984 p 138) refers to Molteno as "one of the mysterious women Burt's critics say did not exist."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Sentiment or Attitude?  The Core of a Terminology Problem in Personality Research."  Character and Personality 9 (September 1940):  6-17.

[4-7 September 1940.  American Psychological Association meeting at Penn State University. Cattell reads "The Concept of Social Status."]

[1940. Forward date to General Psychology (1941).]

Cattell, Raymond B. "Effects of Human Fertility Trends Upon the Distribution of Intelligence and Culture." In Thirty-Ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, part I, ed. Guy Montrose Whipple, 221-233. Bloomington: Public School Publishing, 1940.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Psychology as a Subject for a Career." Journal of Careers 19 (1940): 356-359.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Knowledge and Character by M. Garnett.  In Journal of Personality 8 (1940):  79-81.

 

1941

Cattell, R.B.  General Psychology.  Cambridge:   Sci-Art, 1941.
   [Cattell described this volume as "an introductory text which reflects the influence of William McDougall."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Adjustment Inventory by Hugh M. Bell.  In The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, edited by Oscar Krisen Buros, 51.  Highland Park, N.J.:  Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1941.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of California Test of Personality by Ernest W. Tiegs, Willis W. Clark, and Louis P. Thorpe.  In The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, edited by Oscar Krisen Buros, 60-61.  Highland Park, N.J.:  Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1941.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of California Test of Mental Maturity by Elizabeth T. Sullivan, Willis W. Clark, and Ernest W. Tiegs.  In The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, ed. Oscar Krisen Buros, 207-209.   Highland Park, N.J.:  Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1941.

Thomson, Godfrey H.  Review of Cattell Intelligence Tests, Revised Edition by R.B. Cattell.  In The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, ed. Oscar Krisen Buros, 210-211.  Highland Park, N.J.:  Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1941.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Dawson Mental Test by Shepherd Dawson.  In The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, ed. Oscar Krisen Buros, 215-216.  Highland Park, N.J.:  Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1941.

Cattell, Raymond B., S. Norman Feingold, and Seymour B. Sarason.   "A Culture-Free Intelligence Test: II. Evaluation of Cultural Influence on Test Performance."  Journal of Educational Psychology 32 (February 1941): 81-100.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "An Objective Test of Character-Temperament: I."  Journal of General Psychology 25 (July 1941):   59-73.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Some Theoretical Issues in Adult Intelligence Testing."  Abstract. Psychological Bulletin 38 (July 1941):   592.

[1941 - 1943 or 1944.  Lecturer, Harvard.  "With some help from Boring ... I soon moved from ... Clark to a lectureship at Harvard."]

[3-6 September 1941.  At an American Psychological Association meeting, Cattell introduces his theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence in "Some Theoretical Issues in Adult Intelligence Testing."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Francis Aveling: 1875-1941."   American Journal of Psychology 54 (October 1941):  608-610.

[c 1941-42.  Archie Wilmot Bray (chairman of the Department of Biology at Rensselear Polytechnic Institute) organizes a lecture series on the topic, "A Revaluation of Our Civilization."  Cattell is one of the invited lecturers;  others include Bronislaw Malinowski (just before his death), Mark Graubard, etc.  Cattell speaks on the topic "The Place of Religion and Ethics in a Civilization Based on Science."  The lectures are published in a book, A Revalution of Our Civilization, in 1944.]

 

1942

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Concept of Social Status." Journal of Social Psychology 15 (May 1942): 293-308.
    [See A.M. Guhl, "Sociobiology and Man," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 21 (October 1965): 22-24.]

[2 June 1942.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of "An Objective Test of Character-Temperament II."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Attitude Fluctuation as a Measure of the 'W' Factor."  Abstract.  Psychological Bulletin 39 (July 1942):   484-485.

[18 July 1942. American Journal of Psychology accepts Cattell's "Fluctuation of Sentiments and Attitudes as a Measure of Character Integration and of Temperament" for publication. It appears in the April 1943 issue.]

[2-5 September 1942. 50th APA meeting, Boston. Cattell reads "Attitude Fluctuation ..

 

1943

[20 January 1943.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "Cultural Functions of Social Stratification I."   It is published after two years, in the February 1945 issue.]

[2 February 1943. Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "Cultural Functions of Social Stratification II." It appears in the February 1945 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Measurement of Adult Intelligence." Psychological Bulletin 40 (March 1943): 153-193.
   Cited in:
   John C Loehlin, Gardner Lindzey and JN Spuhler, Race Differences in Intelligence, San Francisco: WH Freeman 1975

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Fluctuation of Sentiments and Attitudes as a Measure of Character Integration and of Temperament." American Journal of Psychology 56 (April 1943):  195-216.

Cattell, R.B.  "The Description of Personality: Basic Traits Resolved into Clusters."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 38 (October 1943):  476-506.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Description of Personality.   I.  Foundations of Trait Measurement." Psychological Review 50 (November 1943):  559-594.

[Civilian consulting personnel researcher, Adjutant General's Office, War Department (offices on Madison Ave, NY). He works on construction and testing of objective personality tests (with officer selection as the goal).]

 

1944

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Place of Religion and Ethics in a Civilization Based on Science."  In A Revaluation of Our Civilization by Frederick R. Wulsin, et. al., 35-61.  Albany:  Argus Press, 1944.

Cattell, Raymond B. "An Objective Test of Character-Temperament: II." Journal of Social Psychology 19 (February 1944): 99-114.

Cattell, Raymond B. "Projection and the Design of Projective Tests of Personality." Character and Personality 12 (March 1944): 177-194.

[1 June 1944. British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of "Personality Structure and Measurement I and II."]

Cattell, Raymond B. "Psychological Measurement: Normative, Ipsative, Interactive." Psychological Review 51 (September 1944): 292-303.

Cattell, Raymond. "A Note on Correlation Clusters and Cluster Search Methods." Psychometrika 9 (September 1944): 169-184.

Cattell, Raymond B. "Interpretation of the Twelve Primary Personality Factors." Character and Personality 13 (September 1944): 55-91.

Kaempffert, Waldemar.  "Science in Review:  A Psychologist Develops a Scientific Method for the Apparaisal of Personalities."   New York Times (November 5, 1944), E9.

[5 November 1944.  American Journal of Psychology accepts Cattell's "The Description of Personality: Principles and Findings of Factor Analysis."]

Cattell, Raymond B. "'Parallel Proportional Profiles' and Other Principles for Determining the Choice of Factors by Rotation." Psychometrika 9 (December 1944): 267-283.

 

1945

Cattell, Raymond B. "Intelligence and Fertility:  A Plea for Research." Eugenics Review 36 (January 1945):  126-127.
    Cited in:
    Anne Anastasi, "Intelligence and Family Size," Psychological Bulletin 53 (May 1956): 187-209

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Description of Personality: Principles and Findings in a Factor Analysis." American Journal of Psychology 58 (January 1945): 69-90.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Cultural Functions of Social Stratification: I: Regarding the Genetic Bases of Society." Journal of Social Psychology 21 (February 1945): 3-23.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Cultural Functions of Social Stratification: II. Regarding Individual and Group Dynamics." Journal of Social Psychology 21 (February 1945): 25-55.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Principle Trait Clusters for Describing Personality." Psychological Bulletin 42 (March 1945): 129-161.

[1945.  Cattell is appointed research professor of psychology at the University of Illinois.  This was a new research professorship.  The educational psychologist Herbert Woodrow, a Professor there and a recent president of the American Psychological Association (and a cousin of Woodrow Wilson), was responsible for bringing him there.]

[1 September 1945.  Journal of General Psychology receives the manuscript of "Oblique, Second Order, and Cooperative Factors in Personality Analysis."  It appeared in the January 1947 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B. "Personality Traits Associated with Abilities. I. With Intelligence and Drawing Ability." Educational and Psychological Measurement 5 (Summer 1945): 131-146.

Cattell, Raymond B. "Personality Traits Associated with Abilities. II. With Verbal and Mathematical Abilities." Journal of Educational Psychology 36 (November 1945): 475-486.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Life and Work of Charles Spearman." Journal of Personality 14 (December 1945): 85-92.

Cattell, Raymond B. "The Diagnosis and Classification of Neurotic States: A Reinterpretation of Eysenck's Factors." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 102 (December 1945): 576-589.

 

1946

Cattell, R.B. The Description and Measurement of Personality.   Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: World Book Co., 1946.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Structure and Measurement. I. The Operational Determination of Trait Unities."  British Journal of Psychology 36 (January 1946):  88-103.

[14 February 1946.  Godfrey Thomson delivers the Galton Lecture, "The Trend of National Intelligence."  Published in Eugenics Review 38 (April 1946): 9-18.]

Brozek, Josef, Harold Guetzkow, and Ancel Keys, with the collaboration of Raymond B. Cattell, Mary R. Harrower, and Starke R. Hathaway.  "A Study of Personality of Normal Young Men Maintained on Restricted Intakes of Vitamins of the B Complex."  Psychosomatic Medicine 8 (March 1946):  98-109.

[2 April 1946.   Cattell marries for a third time, to Alberta Karen Schuettler.   She was born on October 28, 1916 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania and died on August 21, 1996 in Champaign, Illinois.  The marriage ended on December 31, 1980.   She received a B.A. degree in mathematics from Pennsylvania State University in 1939 and an M.A. degree in mathematics from Radcliffe College in 1941.  She was a mathematics instructor at Wellesley College from 1941 to 1944, a research assistant at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics from 1944 to 1946, and an instructor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1946 to 1947.  She became director of IPAT in 1950.  See Who's Who Among American Women, 3rd edition (1964-65).   The marriage produced four children:  Mary Diana Lynagail Cattell, Heather Eugenia Priscilla Cattell, Roderick Geoffrey Galton Cattell, and Elaine Devon Cattell.
    After his divorce from Alberta Cattell, Raymond Cattell married for a fourth time, to Heather Birkett (born 1936).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Structure and Measurement.   II.  The Determination and Utility of Trait Modality." British Journal of Psychology 36 (May 1946):  159-174.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Riddle of Perseveration:  I.   'Creative Effort' and Disposition Rigidity."  Journal of Personality 14 (June 1946):  229-238.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Riddle of Perseveration:  II.   Solution in Terms of Personality Structure."  Journal of Personality 14 (June 1946):  239-267.

Cattell, R.B., and L.B. Luborsky.  "Measured Response to Humor as an Indicator of Personality Structure. I. Analysis of Humor."  Abstract.  American Psychologist 1 (July 1946):  257-258.

[1 September 1946.  Journal of General Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell, "Simple Structure in Relation to Some Alternative Factorizations of the Personality Sphere." It appeared in the October 1946 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Simple Structure in Relation to Some Alternative Factorizations of the Personality Sphere."  Journal of General Psychology 35 (October 1946):  225-238.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Cursive Miniature Situation Test and Tape-Running Apparatus.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1946.

 

1947

Cattell, Raymond B.  General Psychology.  2nd edition.   Cambridge:  Sci-Art, 1947.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Oblique, Second Order, and Cooperative Factors in Personality Analysis."  Journal of General Psychology 36 (January 1947):  3-22.

G[abler], E[arl] R.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Clearing House 21 (February 1947):  377-378.

Eysenck, H.J.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Occupational Psychology 21 (April 1947):  102-104.

Stogdill, Ralph M.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Educational Research Bulletin 26 (April 16, 1947):  108-109.

Thomson, Godfrey.  "Cattell's Study of Personality."   Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.   In Journal of Educational Psychology 38 (May 1947):  273-282.
   [Thomson was utterly withering in his criticism.  Cattell's response was scheduled to appear in the October or November 1947 issue, but it was reported to have been lost in the mail and didn't appear until the April 1948 issue.]

Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Consulting Psychology 11 (May-June 1947): 153.

[2-3 May 1947.  Cattell is elected to Midwestern Psychological Association. ]

Luborsky, L.B., and R.B. Cattell.  "The Validation of Personality Factors in Humor."  Journal of Personality 15 (June 1947):   283- 291.

T[homson], G[odfrey].  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Educational Psychology 17 (June 1947):  118-119.

[18 July 1947.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and Wispe, "Dimensions of Syntality in Small Groups."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Ergic Theory of Attitude and Sentiment Measurement."  Educational and Psychological Measurement 7 (Summer 1947):  221-246.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Psychological Dimensions of Groups."  Abstract.  American Psychologist 2 (August 1947):  335-336.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Confirmation and Clarification of Primary Personality Factors."  Psychometrika 12 (September 1947):  197-220.

Johnson, Roswell H.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Psychometrika 12 (September 1947):  233-235.

[9-13 September 1947.  At a meeting of the American Psychological Association, Cattell reads "The Psychological Dimensions of Groups."]

[17 September 1947.  Mary Diana Lynagail Cattell, the first child of Cattell's third marriage, is born in Urbana, Illinois.  She received a B.A. degree in psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and worked at a psychologist and administrative associate at the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Demonstration of P-Technique in Determining Personality Structure."  Abstract.  American Psychologist 2 (October 1947):  426.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Lester B. Luborsky.  "Personality Factors in Response to Humor."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 42 (October 1947):  402-421.

Fischer, Robert P.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Social Psychology 26 (November 1947):  269-279.

Cattell, R.B., A.K.S. Cattell, and R.M. Rhymer.  "P-Technique Demonstrated in Determining Psycho-Physiological Source Traits in a Normal Individual."  Psychometrika 12 (December 1947):  267-288.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "La Vida y Obra de Charles Spearman."  Revista Psicologia gen apl Madrid 2 (1947):  337-348.

 

1948

Cattell, R.B. A Guide for Mental Testing for Psychological Clinics, Schools and Industrial Psychologists.  2nd edition.  London:   University of London Press, 1948.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Concepts and Methods in the Measurement of Group Syntality."  Psychological Review 55 (January 1948):   48-63.
    Cited in:
    Brian Mullen, "Introduction: The Study of Group Behavior," in Theories of Group Behavior, edited by Brian Mullen and George R. Goethals, pp. 1-19, Springer Series in Social Psychology, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987

Guilford, J.P.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 43 (January 1948):  114-118.

Line, W.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In American Journal of Psychiatry 104 (March 1948):  (231)-591-591-

Chapanis, A.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Quarterly Review of Biology 23 (March 1948):  88-89.

(Anon.).  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Times Educational Supplement 47 (March 6, 1948):   138.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Dimensions of Personality by H.J. Eysenck.  In Journal of General Psychology 38 (April 1948):   271-274.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Integration of Factor Analysis with Psychology:  A Reply to Godfrey Thomson's Review of The Description and Measurement of Personality."  Journal of Educational Psychology 39 (April 1948):  227-236.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Clinical versus Statistical Measures of Teaching Ability."  Editorial.  Journal of Educational Research 41 (May 1948):  718-719.

[7-8 May 1948.  20th meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, in St Paul MN. Cattell reads "Hypotheses for Investigating the Relationship of Leadership to Group Syntality."]

[June 1948. Journal of Psychology, vol. 16, no. 4.  This is the last issue to list Cattell on its Editorial Board.]

Brozek, Josef.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Psychosomatic Medicine 10 (May-June 1948):  183-184.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Ethics and the Social Sciences."   American Psychologist 3 (June 1948):  193-198.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Intelligence and Fertility by Cyril Burt.  In Journal of Genetic Psychology 72 (June 1948):   315-319.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Multiple Factor Analysis by Louis L. Thurstone.  In Psychometrika 13 (June 1948):  115-119.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Primary Personality Factors in the Realm of Objective Tests."  Journal of Personality 16 (June 1948):   459-487.

[20 June 1948.  Journal of General Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and Luborsky, "P-Technique..."]

[Summer 1948.  Cattell attends the 13th (?) International Congress of Psychology in Edinburgh.]

B[urt], C[yril].  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 1 (July 1948):  134-136.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Lauren G. Wispe.  "The Dimensions of Syntality in Small Groups."  Journal of Social Psychology 28 (August 1948):  57-78.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Hypotheses for Investigating the Relationship of Leadership to Group Syntality."  Abstract.  American Psychologist 3 (August 1948):  362.

(Anon.).  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Scottish Educational Journal 31 (August 27, 1948):  488.

(Anon.).  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Times Educational Supplement, no. 1732 (July 10, 1948):   386.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Religion and Adolescent Character by W.H. Backhouse.  In Journal of Educational Psychology 39 (October 1948):  376-377.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Primary Personality Factors in Women Compared with Those in Men."  British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 1 (1948): 114-130.

 

1949

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Tests and Measurements."  In Patterns for Modern Living:  A Program in Three Divisions, vol. 1, 283-327.  Chicago:  Delphian Society, 1949.

Penrose, Lionel S.  Review of Culture-Free Test by Raymond B. Cattell.  In The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook ed. Oscar Krisen Buros, 312.  New Brunswick:  Rutgers University Press, 1949.

Wechsler, David.  Review of Culture-Free Test by Raymond B. Cattell.  In The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook ed. Oscar Krisen Buros, 313.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949.

[1949. "World War Two postponed a retest to check on the [1936] prediction until 1949 when, with the devoted help of Diana Mills, a complete retesting of the ten-year-old population of [Leicester] was accomplished."
    Richard Lynn referred to the retesting in a 1987 Times of London article:   "In 1935 a young psychologist called Raymond Cattell designed a new kind of intelligence test to measure basic problem-solving ability.  A year later he tested all the 10-year-old children in Leicester.  The average IQ of these children was 100.  In 1949 he tested a new generation of Leicester 10-year-olds:   the results showed there had been almost no increase in intelligence.
    "From then on it was believed that the intelligence of the nation's children was stable."  See Richard Lynn, "Who Can Solve This IQ Riddle?," The Times (August 29, 1987), p. 8.]

[26 January 1949. Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "I meant to call on you at the Eugenics Society when I was in Britain this last summer attending the International Congress of Psychology at Edinburgh, in order to discuss the matter I am now writing about, but circumstances unfortunately denied me the pleasure of a chat with you.
    "As you know, I have always wished to follow up the studies I made in Leicester and Devonshire on fertility and intelligence, in 1936, and my last contribution to the Eugenics Review was an attempt to stimulate some of the rising generation to undertake such a task if I should be unable to do so. There has been in the years since the war a very gratifying increase of technical attention to the problem, but it has come mainly from the people who were in the field before me, namely, Burt, Frazer Roberts [sic], and Thomson, whose recent ("Occasional papers in eugenics") works I have read with much interest.
    "Two inquiries in particular need to be made in order to clear up the relationship beyond doubt:  (1) a study giving evidence on the celibacy rates at various levels of intelligence, to eliminate the chief source of doubt in the predictions and computations I made in 1936;  (2) an actual retesting of the population after a sufficient lapse of time to see whether the prediction, whatever its weaknesses, corresponds tolerably to the final outcome.  Both Burt and Thomson have been aware of these aspects of the question and have tried to bring additional evidence to bear, but I do not think this has been done in the manner or on the scale that answers the question.
    "I am proposing now to test all the ten-year olds in the city of Leicester, just as I did in 1936 and with the same identical test.  I meant to see you in the summer to see what help the Eugenics Society might be able to give to insure that this should be soundly carried out.  Meanwhile, however, I have proceeded with the necessary arrangements, have obtained several thousands of the original tests from the publisher, have been able to obtain the services of the assistant who worked with me in 1936, and have obtained permission from Dr. Thomas, the Director of Education at Leicester for the project to be carried out.  I have also made an application to the Social Science Research Council in Washington for a small grant to enable me to buy the material and to carry out the statistical work when the data is sent to me.  What I greatly need, however, is additional funds to be able to pay my assistant in England, Mrs Diana Meadows, so that she may be able to spend sufficient time to gather the further ancillary data required to do the job as thoroughly as I should like.  Do you think there is any chance of some help from the Eugenics Society Research funds?  I have not yet written to Burt or Thomson on the matter but should appreciate your reactions before doing so.
    "I am enclosing one or two reports which may interest you and perhaps be of relevance to the Eugenics Review."        SA/EUG/C.62.]

[23 February 1949.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your interesting letter of January 20th which raises big questions.  The re-testing of the ten-year-olds in Leicester, thirteen years after your first testing, is obviously an interesting and important project.
    "You may not have seen the article which appeared in The Times on November 17th, 1948, of which I enclose a reprint. The Scottish inquiry was heavily subsidized by the Eugenics Society - to the tune of £2000.   David Glass and John Fraser Roberts have represented the Population Investigation Committee in the many discussions which have taken place with the Scottish Council for Research in Education and have made numerous visits to Edinburgh.
    "I feel sure that if you plan to retest the Leicester ten-year-olds you would find it profitable to discuss first with the people concerned with the Scottish inquiry, the methods they followed - in particular the treatment of special samples of children, who have been intensively tested.
    "You do not say in your letter if you are yourself coming to England to supervise the work in Leicester.  If you are I would like to talk over the project with you.  Indeed, I would arrange a small conference, at which Fraser Roberts and Glass would be helpful.
    "Can you give me a rough idea of about how much money you would like from the Eugenics Society?
    "P.S.  Many thanks for the two reprints.  I found your 'Concepts and Methods in the Measurement of Group Syntality' stimulating."       SA/EUG/C.62.]

[23 February 1949. C.P. Blacker to John A. Fraser Roberts:
    "I attach hereto a letter which I think will interest you, dated January 26th from Raymond Cattell;  also a copy of my reply.  It rather looks to me as if Cattell was unaware of the Scottish inquiry.
    "Personally, I have always found Cattell to be an agreeable and likeable man.  But I felt that he rather overstated the case in his 'The Fight for Our National Intelligence' wherein, you will doubtless recall, acknowledgments were made to the Eugenics Society for a Darwin Research Fellowship.  (The Fellowships were, in those days, entirely handled by R.A. Fisher).
    "Between ourselves, I am a little bit nervous of Cattell:   the essential problems underlying the Scottish inquiry has been treated by all the people concerned with it with much temperance and caution.  Cattell drew upon himself some vitriolic attacks from anti-eugenists, particularly those located, in those days, at the L.S.E.  We do not want the same thing to happen again now.  His book was not an entirely unmixed blessing to the Society.
    "I hope you will approve of my answer to Cattell."      SA/EUG/C.62.
    This is cited in Adrian Wooldridge, Measuring he Mind: Education and Psychology in England, c.1980-c.1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 145.]

Cattell, R.B., and L. Ghose Tiner.  "The Varieties of Structural Rigidity."  Journal of Personality 17 (March 1949):   321-341.

Greenall, Philip D.  "Two Criticisms."  Letter.   British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 2 (March 1949):   64-65.
   [A criticism of Cattell.]

[J.W.].  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 2 (March 1949):  68.

[4 March 1949.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Thank you for your letter of February 23 and the enclosed cutting from the Times, both of which I found very interesting.  It is gratifying to realize the active part that the Eugenics Society has been playing in the last few years in Government population policy and discussions.  It is equally good to see the effective research that is now being carried out, particularly in that field in which some of my first work was done when in England.  I have read the Occasional Papers in Eugenics by Burt, Thomson, Terman and yourself, so I was prepared for this Times article and eager to see these first results of the intelligence retesting.  The Scottish survey is commendably thorough, and I have written to Dr. Thomson to be sure that in my study we shall not be omitting any observation made in his that it is practicable for us to make.
    "Although my own retesting is bound to be on a smaller scale, being at an altogether lower level of expenditure, I think there is one respect in which we can make an improvement.  Every intelligence test may be regarded as a measure partly of general ability and partly of acquired skill, principally of a verbal kind.   I very much suspect that Thomson's result, showing a slight increase in intelligence, is due to the slight decline in general ability being more than offset by the improvement of verbal ability that has taken place through improvement of elementary schools.  My own survey in Leicester was, fortunately, made with a non-verbal test, and I am retesting with the same non-verbal test, so that the answers will give information of a more analytical nature than that available from the Scottish survey.   Although the test is non-verbal, it is not as free from culture influence as tests can be made today.  Accordingly, I am planning to test the children twice, once with the old non-verbal test and, following this, with the new culture-free test.  Thus while preserving continuity, we are laying the foundation for a more culture-free comparison between this year and a testing some ten or fifteen years hence.
    "I cannot see any opportunity of getting over to England for some time, and I am carrying out the study through the agency of the Leicester Education Department and my former assistant, Mrs. Diana Meadows, by remote control.  This slows down proceedings somewhat but does not detract from their accuracy, since matters of detail are being discussed before the actual testing begins.  In reply to your question as to how much assistance I should like to ask from the Eugenics Society, I should like to say that the answer depends on the scale upon which the project is carried out and upon the amount of circumstantial data that we try to include.  As a minimum, but a very useful and effective amount of help I would like to ask for 200 pounds.  I should like to spend one hundred of this on extra test material (at present the retesting with the culture-free test is not planned to cover more than two-thirds of the number of cases tested with the non-verbal test) and one hundred pounds to employ Mrs. Meadows for an extra three or four months, in order that she might be able to visit the homes of a select sample to determine certain facts requisite to predictions.  For example, we do not have any evidence as yet on the survival rate at different levels of intelligence, and I was hoping that Mrs. Meadows might discover the number deceased in each of a number of families at different levels of intelligence.
    "If three hundred pounds could be granted, I should like to spend the further one hundred pounds in surveying private schools in the neighborhood of Leicester which would otherwise have to be left out of our calculations.  However the immediate need is some assurance of the above minimum sum, in order that we may enter upon plans within the next month which might entail, ultimately, the expenditure of such a sum.   I should like, therefore, formally to ask you if you would kindly inform me, on behalf of the Eugenics Society, whether such a grant could be made to help in his research.  Needless to say, the assistance of the Eugenics Society would be acknowledged in any research publications made from this study either in Britain or the U.S.A."
    SA/EUG/C.62.]

[7 March 1949.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and David R. Saunders, "Inter-relation and Matching of Personality Factors from Behavior Rating, Questionnaire, and Objective Test Data."  It appeared in the May 1950 issue.]

[18 March 1949.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your full letter of March 4th containing a request that an application for a grant of a minimum of £200 be formally presented to the Council.
    "This matter will receive careful attention.  The Council does not meet again until June.  Some preliminary considerations to your application can however be given before then. I shall be writing you again later."     SA/EUG/C.62.]

[22 March 1949.  Cattell to Elfred Thomas (Director of Education, City of Leicest Education Department).]

[28 March 1949.  Elfred Thomas, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Director of Education, City of Leicester Education Department) to Cattell:
    "Thank you for your letter dated 22nd March 1949.
    "You will know that I am extremely reluctant to be in any way unhelpful to you in the research which you are carrying out in Leicester.  It is, however, quite clear that information concerning father's occupation is one of the things which we are not justified in asking children at the present time.  You may be interested to know that the Committee has recently abandoned the practice of asking for this information even in the case of children admitted to Grammar Schools.  I quite agree that, in 9 cases out of 10, no difficulty would arise but in the odd case in which the father is, for example, in prison, we might be in trouble.
    "I am afraid therefore that I must reaffirm my decision that this information cannot be included in your present series of tests."     SA/EUG/C.62.]

[30 March 1949.  David V. Glass to C.P. Blacker:
    "I think that Cattell's proposal, interesting though it seems, requires very careful consideration.  As you say, Cattell was far from cautious in his expression in the 1937 book.  But at the same time, I do not see how you can possibly bind him, in giving him a grant, to be more cautious in his expression on this occasion.  That would in fact mean the editing of any results by some committee before the results were published, and I very much doubt if a person in Cattell's position would be prepared to accept this control.  Certainly I myself, were I in a similar position, should rather resent it.
    "At the same time, the problem of testing another age group of children in a small area is rather complicated by all the possibilities of selective migration, and I feel that it is very doubtful if any results obtained by Cattell could be used to interpret the actual trend of intelligence over the period between 1935 and the present day.  You will remember that Professor Thomson and his department have done quite a large series of re-tests in England and Wales at the suggestion of the P.I.C., and it is hoped that a paper on the results will be published in the near future in Population Studies.  I am not sure whether, even with a non-verbal test, Cattell's extra study would contribute very much greatly.
    "My general feeling therefore is not especially favourable.   On the other hand, Professor Thomson and Dr. Fraser Roberts are far more competent than I am to express views on this subject, and I think that the major emphasis should be placed on their opinions." SA/EUG/C.62.]

[30 March 1949.  John A. Fraser Roberts to C.P. Blacker:
    "I find it rather difficult to make up my mind about the suggestion of a grant for a repetition of Cattell's survey.  My only doubt is about the question of numbers.  The standard error of the difference will be distinctly large.  The numbers in the Scottish survey and also for certain English areas are far greater.  On the other hand, I think there is much substance in Cattell's argument that all these other surveys depend on verbal group tests, and so are particularly liable to be disturbed by test sophistication and changes in educational methods.  His non-verbal tests are much more likely to be free of these influences.  The sum asked for is not large and on the whole I feel that the support asked for should be given."
SA/EUG/C.62.]

Fleming, C.M.  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Education 81 (April 1949):  232.

[11 April 1949.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Many thanks for your letter of the 18th of March indicating that my request for research assistants will receive careful attention by the Council.  It has been necessary to start the actual intelligence testing in the city of Leicester because the education authorities required that it be completed before cetain examinations begin towards the end of the academic year.  I regret to have to report that my negotiations with the Social Science Research Council here have not been successful as far as the obtaining of research funds for expenditure in England is concerned.  Apparently the Marshal [sic] Plan does not extend very easily to research matters!  In these circumstances it becomes urgently necessary to obtain some research assistance from the Eugenics Society if the whole project is not to be arrested in mid-career.  I have been able to get together enough from my own pocket and from Harrap and Company, the publisher of the intelligence test, to pay Mrs. Meadows, my former assistant in Leicester, to carry out the actual testing which is now going on;  but it is expenses thereafter, in connection with statistical work and the home visiting that threaten to hold up the project.
    "As I indicated in my earlier letter on the design of the experiment, I have felt it most desirable to carry the inquiry a stage or so further than in former studies, notably by using culture-free tests and by making inquiries about the death rate for various intelligence levels.  My hope of obtaining the latter through the schools has been reduced by the enclosed letter from the Director of Education at Leicester, in which he points out that it is difficult for him to authorize either (a) obtaining from the child a statement of the father's occupation or (b) obtaining a statement from  the child about the deaths in the family.  As I do not feel that I can press this matter with him any further, I believe the only way to obtain the information now is by the visits of a social worker to a stratified sample of homes.  It is in connection with this that I would like to obtain the assistance of the Eugenics Society.  I believe that if we could hire a social worker, quite a junior worker, for three months we could obtain data on enough cases to obtain statistically reliable results on the relation of birth rate to intelligence within an occupation and the relation of death rate to intelligence level in the family.  I earnestly hope that the Eugenics Society Council will be able to endow the study to the extent of 200 pounds, for I think that this 200 pounds, applied tactically in the present attack on the problem, would be very well spent in terms of a contribution of our knowledge on the social trends."       SA/EUG/C.62]

[22 April 1949.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "I brought your letter of March 4th up before a meeting of the Finance Committee in April 13th and of the Executive Committee which met today.  Your application for a grant of £200 was sympathetically considered.
    "It was unanimously agreed to make a grant of £200 towards the testing by means of non-verbal tests of children in Leicester, as set out in your letter.   I was further asked to say that if you find it impossible to raise the additional sum of £100 to enable Mrs. Meadows to conduct home visits, you might like to let me know.   The Committee hopes that you will find it possible to raise this sum from some other source."   SA/EUG/C.62]

[26 April 1949.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your letter of April 11th enclosing a letter to you from the director of Education of Leicester dated March 28th.  I return this herewith, having retained a copy.
    "You will by now have received my letter of 22nd April informing you that the Executive Committee have approved a grant of £200 for the purposes you describe.
    "Do you intend to come to this country in the course of this year in order to direct the starting of this work?"  SA/EUG/C.62]

[25 May 1949.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "It was very good news to hear that the executive committee had granted the two hundred pounds to assist in the research at Leciester, since in fact, I had already let the research go ahead!  I have had weekly reports from Mrs. Meadows in the last few weeks to the effect that the testing program is going off very well, according to schedule.  Apart from the question of having to ban inquiries about the number of deaths in the family the education committee at Leicester has been most cooperative and helpful, and it seems to me that the data is being gathered under very good working conditions.
    "As I mentioned in one of my earlier letters, I hoped to obtain from Messers. Harrap, the publishers of the non-verbal test, a free supply of tests for this undertaking and some monetary assistance.  They have agreed to cover the cost of the undertaking up to the end of June, on the understanding that as a byproduct from the inquiry they may have the results to extend the standardization of the intelligence test.   I therefore should like to suggest that the sum set aside by the executive committee should be paid out to Mrs. Meadows as from the first of July.  I have suggested to her the rate of six pounds a week, which I think is rather an underpayment for a person of her skill and experience, but since she is very interested in the work for its own sake, she is quite agreeable to that arangement.  Incidental expenses and the cost of a second batch of tests, namely the new culture free tests which we hope to apply alongside the original non-verbal test from Harraps, will run about thirty-five pounds.   This would leave enough, therefore, to employ Mrs. Meadows about twenty-eight or twenty-nine weeks.  I estimate that there will be about twelve weeks work, as from the first of July, involved in scoring the test material gathered and in tabulating it in suitable form for me to proceed with my statistical analyses.  The remaining sixteen weeks could best be spent by obtaining further data on the families in question, but I do not think it is necessary to enter into any plans about that as yet, since it lies too far ahead and since I would like to have some analyses of the data on hand before commencing that part of the work.
    "I do not expect to be able to get over to England myself during the present phase of the work.  I spent a good deal of time last summer making the necessary contacts and instructing Mrs. Meadows and others who might be involved in the inquiry as to the exact procedure, so, on these foundations, the present phase of the work can go ahead quite satisfactorily.  However, I expect to get over to England in twelve months time to discuss issues that have arisen in the research before I proceed to writing the matter up.  Perhaps, needless to add, I should like to submit my first report on the results for publication in the Eugenics Review, though in response to a suggestion from the publishers of my book on national intelligence, I may issue also a revised edition of that book brought up to date with the present research results along with those of Thompson [sic], Burt and Fraser-Roberts.
    "If the above arrangements commend themselves to you, I would suggest that Mrs. Meadows be paid from the Eugenics Society fund at monthly intervals or whatever period is convenient to you, beginning at the end of July 1949.  Her precise name and address are:
                                        Mrs. Diana G. Meadows
                                        The Education Offices
                                        Newark Street
                                        Leicester."
SA/EUG/C.62.]

Saunders, David R.  The Relation of Behavior Rating, Questionnaire and Objective Test Personality Factors.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1949.
    [Saunders was a student in Cattell's lab, and became his frequent collaborator during the first half of the 1950s.]

Gibb, C.A.  The Emergence of Leadership in Small Temporary Groups.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1949.

(Anon.).  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Educational Psychology 19 (June 1949):   146.

[1 June 1949.  British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section receives the manuscript of Cattell, et. al., "The Objective Measurement of Attitudes."  Published in the December 1949 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Determination of the Structure of Drives by Analysis of Attitude Manifestations."  Abstract.  American Psychologist 4 (July 1949):  211-212.

Summerfield, Arthur.  Review of The Trend of Scottish Intelligence.  In British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 2 (July 1949):  189.
   [Refers to Cattell.]

K[elley], D[ouglas] M.  Review of Description and Measurement of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 110 (August 1949):  177-178.

[31 August 1949.  Diana Meadows (The Folly, Ingoldisthorpe, Near King's Lynn, Norfolk) to Miss F.B. Schenk (Eugenics Society):
    "I acknowledge and thank you for your cheque value £24 in respect of the month of August.
    "At the moment I am very busy coping with the marking of approximately 6,000 Test Booklets prior to tabulating and getting out the results according to Dr. Cattell's instructions.  I am wondering therefore if, at this juncture, the Eugenics Society would be interested to have a complete account of the testing as it has taken place during the preceding months, in the Leicester Schools.   This has been set out in detal, and I shall be most happy to forward this if you will let me know the wishes of your Society."   SA/EUG/C.62.]

Brozek, Josef.  Review of A Guide to Mental Testing by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Psychosomatic Medicine 10 (September-October 1949):   319-320.

[4-11 September 1949.  At the 57th Anual Meeting of the American Psychological Association meeting, in New York, Cattell reads "Determination of the Structure of Drives..." and debates Stuart W. Cook (1913-1993) on action research.   Cook was director of research for the American Jewish Congress's Commission on Human Relations.  In 1949 he was a founder of the Center for the Research for Human Relations at New York University.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Dimensions of Culture Patterns by Factorization of National Characters."  Journal of Social and Abnormal Psychology 44 (October 1949):  443-469.

[27 October 1949.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of "The Principal Culture Patterns..."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Note on Factor Invariance and the Identification of Factors."  British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 2 (November 1949): 134-139.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "rp and Other Coefficients of Pattern Similarity."  Psychometrika 14 (December 1949): 279-298.

Cattell, R.B., E.F. Maxwell, B.H. Light, and M.P. Unger.  "The Objective Measurement of Attitudes."  British Journal of Psychology 40 (December 1949):  81-90.
   [Bernard Light received a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1951.   His Ph.D. thesis was "Tension Changes in Patients Undergoing Psychotherapy."]

[1949.  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing established.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  Handbook of the 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1949.

Cattell. Raymond B., and A.K.S. Cattell.  Handbook for the Individual or Group Culture-Free Intelligence Test:  Scale 2 Champaign:   Insitute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1949.

[c. 1949.  Cyril Burt writes to Cattell, among others, about succession to his chair at University College, London.  Cattell doubts that UCL can offer him the research funding that he has at the University of Illinois.]

[1949.  Heather Eugenia Priscilla Cattell, the second child of Cattell's third marriage, is born.  She received a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Michigan State University in 1982.]

 

1950

Cattell, R.B.  Personality, a Systematic Theoretical and Factual Study.  McGraw-Hill Publications in Psychology.  New York:   McGraw-Hill, 1950.

Cattell, R.B.  An Introduction to Personality Study.  London and New York:  Hutchinson's University Library, 1950.

Cattell, Raymond B., David R. Saunders, and Glen F. Stice.  The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1950.

Cattell, Raymond B.  The Culture Free Intelligence Tests:   Scales 1, 2, and 3.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1950.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Lester B. Luborsky.  "P-Technique Demonstrated as a New Clinical Method for Determining Personality and Symptom Structure."  Journal of General Psychology 42 (January 1950):  3-24.
   [Luborsky received a Ph.D. from Duke University in 1945.]

[31 January 1950.  Cattell to Miss F.B. Schenk (Eugenics Society):
    "I am much obliged to you for your letter of January 28th, since I was not exactly certain of the amount of credit remaining in the research account, and your letter helps to clarify plans.  I think we should get the 35 pounds worth of expenses cleared before we pay anything more out for assistance from Mrs. Meadows.   On the other hand, Mrs. Meadows is in the midst of a new phase of work which is very important and which I should not like to see interrupted.  I will write to Mrs. Meadows and have the expenses sent to you at once, and I would then like to take up with Dr. Blacker the possibility of a small extra endowment to enable Mrs. Meadows to complete the social work inquiries which she is now making.
    "As it happens, I was about to write to Dr. Blacker on these matters, and I will do so by the following mail.  Doubtless he will then be able to discuss the matter as a whole with you."  SA/EUG/C.62.]

[31 January 1950.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "I have been hoping for some time to be able to report to you more fully on the survey of intelligence and birth rates in the city of Leicester, but the vastness of the project is slowing up the statistical analysis a good deal, so I am writing this simply to tell you that all is going satisfactorily, and to indicate certain problems which I shall need to take up with you more in detail in the future.
    "We seem to have been more successful on this occasion than twelve years ago in our intention of hunting down every ten year old child in the city, for we have a total of over 4,000 individuals measured as against about 3,000 on the last occasion, and I am sure that the overall population cannot have increased in that proportion in the time elapsed.  We have also innovated by laying the foundation or future studies which will be more satisfactory than that of the past.  The children have, in fact, been tested with two intelligence tests, first, the pictorial, nonverbal, but still culturally influenced test which was used on the last occasion.  It was necessary to use this to get exact comparisons with the previous findings.  Secondly, we have introduced the new Culture Free Intelligence Test, which is more free from educational influences than any test yet used in any of the British or American surveys, e.g. those in Scotland or in Bristol.
    "As far as the analysis has yet gone, it seems that the differential birth rate is not so steep in a negative direction as it was twelve years ago.  It is still too early to see whether the actual mean intelligence has shifted in the way predicted twelve years ago.  I am hoping to improve on the methodology of prediction utilized in the last study by making an allowance in the calculation for the differential death rates (before the average age of reproduction) as well as differential marriage rates.  I am increasingly convinced that these are important and powerful modifiers likely to affect our whole conclusion, and on this occasion I should like to make a strong plea for data on these matters being gathered, even though it is relatively costly to obtain it.
    "This data on relative death rates at different intelligence levels and on relative marriage rates at different intelligence levels cannot be reliably obtained from the ten year old propositi, but must be gathered by social work visits to the homes of a representative sample of the children tested.  When it became evident to me that this was going to be an important aspect of the research (about two months ago) I wrote to Mrs. Meadows and asked her if she would be willing to carry out this extra work, to which request, I am glad to say, she acceded.  With her many local contacts in Leicester, it should not be impossible for her to carry out a survey of about 600 families in an effective fashion, despite the delicacy of the task.
    "Since completing the actual testing, and scoring the test material, and sending all the necessary tables to me, Mrs. Meadows has moved to Norfolk, where her husband has been allocated to a new branch bank, but she is prepared to return to Leicester for two or three weeks at a time for whatever time may be necessary to complete the study in this way.  Unfortunately we are now within about eight pounds of the end of the two hundred pounds granted for the study.  (I have written to Miss Schenk today regarding the disposition of the existing funds.)  I am wondering if the Council could be persuaded to add a supplementary grant to enable this additional aspect of the survey to be completed?  Not to make this intensive social work survey on a small sample, now that all the children are tested, would be spoiling the ship for a halfpenny's worth of paint.  I must admit that the halfpenny is a respectable sized one, for I imagine that it would require about seventy pounds to support the twelve week's [sic] work necessary to visit about 600 families.  If it would help in any discussions with the Council, I should be glad to write a specific memorandum distinct from the present letter describing the particular significance of the social work type of data and indicating the way which it is likely to fit in to the overall calculation.   I should greatly appreciate anything that you can do in this matter.
    "P.S.  It would be possible to break down my report into two articles, one dealing with the intelligence changes and one with birth rate problems.   It would be possible for me to get an article to you for the Review in about a month (I imagine about ten pages in length) if the editor would be willing to handle the matter thus in two 'installments'."    SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Main Personality Factors in Questionnaire, Self-Estimate Material."  Journal of Social Psychology 31 (February 1950):  3-8.

[2 February 1950.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "The Integration of Psychology with Moral Values."   It was published in the September 1950 issue.] 

[3 February 1950.  Diana Meadows to C.P. Blacker:
    "Dr. Cattell has now asked that I should proceed with the collection of data from 600 families of the children whom I tested in the Leicester Schools last year.  In this connection I have to obtain information on the enclosed form, and to approach the families personally.
    "Dr. Cattell asks if you would be so kind as to give me an official letter of introduction to aid in my initial approach.  I should be most grateful if you could do this, as it would certainly give me some authority for asking the questions, and I believe would also comply with the Director of Education's decision that I should not at all connect this social work with the Education Authority, besides giving an offical tone to the enquiry.
    "Dr. Cattell has further suggested that I say "I am working for a Census, and am collecting evidence on Birth Rates and Death rates for a more accurate Census."  I mention this as a possible help towards the wording of any letter of introduction.
    "I shall be most grateful for your help in this matter, and certainly, from my own point of view, should welcome any official form of introduction that you may be good enough to give me."     SA/EUG/C.62.
    There is a hand-written notation in the left margin of the third paragraph:  "?  impossible to comply with this suggestion."]

[21 February 1950.  C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "I have received your letter of January 21st, which placed me in rather a difficulty.  You ask if the Council can find a further sum of £70 to enable Mrs. Meadows to complete her inquiries.
    "I attach hereto a copy of my letter to you dated April 22nd, 1949.  You will see that the Executive Committee had expressed the hope that you would find it possible to raise the additional sum of £100 from some other source.
    "If I bring up before the Executive Committee or before the Council a request from you for a further £70, I will surely be asked if you have explored other sources than the Society as a possible donor.  Would you please let me know by return what the answer to this question is?
    "I am attaching copies of correspondence which I have had with Mrs. Meadows, which is self-explanatory.  My intention is to make it clear to Mrs. Meadows that the Society, while sympathetically disposed to your investigation, was in no sense its sponsor.
    "A meeting of the Council is due to take place on March 21st.  In order that I may have a reply before then, I am sending this by air mail."    SA/EUG/C.62.] 

[23 February 1950.  John A. Fraser Roberts to C.P. Blacker:
    "I don't think you can do anything else.  Having supported the investigation so far we seem bound to find the extra , 70.  Your letters to Cattell and to Mrs. Meadows will, I am sure, make it quite clear to him that the Society is not sponsoring the investigation and that you will be quite free to ask for modifications of the article before publication, or even to reject them altogether." SA/EUG/C.62.]

[28 February 1950.  Mrs Diana Meadows to C.P. Blacker:
    "I write to acknowledge and thank you for your letter explaining the impossibility of your acceding to my request for a letter of introduction to assist in the latter part of the research work which I am now carrying out in Leicester for Dr. Cattell.
    "I quite understand that in the circumstances you mention, it would not of course be practicable for you to write such a letter of introduction on my behalf.
    "I am sorry to have bothered you with the matter, but merely carried out Dr. Cattell's instructions when I wrote.  I have now forwarded your letter to Dr. Cattell.    SA/EUG/C.62.]

[2 March 1950.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "I should be glad to supply you with information regarding the point raised in your letter of the 21t of February in order to make the position more clear when you bring up the matter before the Executive Committee.
    "I have made applications to two of the chief sources of support for social science research, namely the Carnegie Foundation and the Social Science Research Council.  Although individual members of the committees concerned assured me that they thoroughly appreciate the value of this work, they have not found it possible, with the numerous demands for research in different aspects of social science, to find funds to help this project.  I have not applied to any Foundation in England, for it is my impression that resources for research in the area of the social sciences are even more rare than here.
    "As I mentioned in my last letter, I do regard the additional information which this further £70 is to provide as vitally necessary from a scientific standpoint, and indeed, as throwing light on one of the aspects of differential survival rates which has been most systematically neglected in all studies up to this point.
    "Incidentally, it might be a good point to remind the committee that the University of Illinois Graduate Research Board has helped this project directly and indirectly to the extent of about $800.  This it has done by giving me freedom from teaching assignments in order to concentrate on the work, and also by providing a half-time research assistant who has now given about three months of his time to computing, and is likely to give two more before the research is finally ready for publication as a whole."    SA/EUG/C.62.]

[24 March 1950. C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "I brought your letter of 2nd March to the notice of the Council at a meeting last Tuesday. The Council has had to meet some fairly large demands on its funds recently and was not able to make a decision about your request for a further grant of £70 in view of the fact that the Society's Treasurer was unavoidably absent from the meeting.
    "It was decided to refer the matter to the Executive Committee which will meet in April." SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, R.B., and D[avid] R. Saunders.  "Inter-relation and Matching of Personality Factors from Behavior Rating, Questionnaire, and Objective Test Data."  Journal of Social Psychology 31 (May 1950):  243-260.

Saunders, David R.  Practical Methods in the Direct Factor Analysis of Psychological Score Matrices.  Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, 1950

Dubin, Samuel S.  A Factorial Analysis of Personality Traits in 100 Psychopathological Subjects.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1950.

[11 May 1950.  Cattell to C.P. Blacker:
    "Thank you for your letter of April 25th. I was sorry to hear that the Eugenics Society could not spend a further seventy pounds on our enquiry, but the Society has already been very generous in this matter, and I am sure that it must have difficulty in preserving a balance with its limited funds among the various researches demanding some assistance. As it happens, Mrs. Meadows has very kindly agreed to continue the inquiry on her own, against the possibility of my getting some funds from over here, next year. At present, it seems unlikely that I shall be able to visit for another twelve months, when I hope to be over for at least six months. However, the supervision of the work over there has been so thorough that there is nothing more that I could obtain in the way of information if I were actually present.
    "I have pleasure in sending you herewith the first report on the findings, which I have written in a style which I trust will be acceptable for publication in the Eugenics Review.  As I have indicated in the article, the further analyses of the data will yield one and possibly two additional articles.  I should like to publish one of them in this country, in order to try to provoke some interest among the numerous sociologists here, who could do a great deal if they appreciated the problem.  But perhaps you will let me know your views as to whether the second article should also be published in England or could be published there?
    "As I have indicated in the article, one of the more important aspects of this research would seem to be the testing of a population by the nearest thing to a Culture Free Test that we have yet been able to produce.  I think it is important that a copy of this actual test and of the actual instructions used should be deposited with the Eugenics Society, together with a list of the actual schools in which it was used.  In this way, if any further investigator, ten or fifteen years hence, wishes to repeat the experiment under exactly the same conditions, the experimenter will be assured of being able to do so by application to the Eugenics Society. With differences of means coming out so small as they are likely to do, this emphasis on exactness of test and sampling is essential.  I have set out the test and the other matters in duplicate, so that if the Eugenics Society needs to loan one set, the other can be retained." SA/EUG/C.62.
    The article enclosed with this letter, "The Fate of National Intelligence: Test of a Thirteen-Year Prediction," was published in the Eugenics Review in October 1950.]

Cattell, R.B., A.B. Heist, P.A. Heist, and R[oger] G. Stewart.   "The Objective Measurement of Dynamic Traits."  Educational and Psychological Measurement 10 (Summer 1950):  224-248.
   [Stewart received a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1951 with a doctoral thesis entitled "Patterns of Self Endorsements in Community Persons and Mental Patients."]

[12 June 1950.   Journal of Consulting Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell's "Classical and Standard IQ Score Standardization of the I.P.A.T. Culture-Free Intelligence Scale 2."  It appeared in the April 1951 issue.]

[23 June 1950. C.P. Blacker to Cattell:
    "Many thanks for your letter of 11th May which accompanied your article "The Fate of National Intelligence: Test of a 13-year Prediction."   I also have two copies of your Culture Free Test.  I am in complete agreement with what you say in the last paragraph of your letter.
    "The Eugenics Review now has a new Editor in Dr. C.O. Carter, with whom the decision as to publication will rest.  When I have read your paper I will hand it on to him and he will doubtless write to you.
    "I am glad that the Society's inability to contribute another £70 towards your inquiry has not seriously handicapped it."     SA/EUG/C.62.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Scientific Ethics of 'Beyond'."  Journal of Social Issues 6 (1950):  21-27.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Integration of Psychology with Moral Values."  British Journal of Psychology 41 (September 1950):   25-34.

[September 1950.  The U.S. Navy's Office of Naval Research's Human Relations and Morale Branch holds a conference of its contract researchers in Dearborn, Michigan.  Cattell reads "Determining Syntality Dimensions as a Basis for Morale and Leadership Measurement."]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Fate of National Intelligence:   Test of a Thirteen-Year Prediction."  Eugenics Review 42 (October 1950):  136-148.
   Cited in:
    JV Higgins, Elizabeth W Reed and Sheldon C Reed, "Intelligence and Family Size: A Paradox Resolved," Eugenics Quarterly 9 (June 1962): 84-90
    A James Gregor, Review of Der Begabungsschwund in Europa by Ludwig Winter, in Sociological Quarterly 3 (July 1962): 253-254
    John C Loehlin, Gardner Lindzey and JN Spuhler, Race Differences in Intelligence, San Francisco: WH Freeman, 1975
    Atam Vetta, "Dysgenic Trend in Intelligence:  Comment on Cattell's 'Differential Fertility and Normal Selection for IQ: Some Required Conditions in Their Investigation'," Social Biology 23 (Fall 1976): 265-267
    Robert C Nichols, "Nichols Replies to Flynn," in Arthur Jensen: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, pp. 233-234, New York: Falmer Press, 1987
    James R Flynn, "Massive IQ Gains in 14 Nations: What IQ Tests Really Measure," Psychological Bulletin 101 (March 1987): 171-191
    Richard Lynn, Susan L Hampson and Judith C Mullineux, "A Long-Term Increase in the Fluid Intelligence of English Children," Nature 328 (August 27, 1987): 797
    Samuel H Preston and Cameron Campbell, "Differential Fertility and the Distribution of Traits: The Case of IQ," American Journal of Sociology 98 (March 1993): 997-1019
    Nicholas J Mackintosh, "Declining Educational Standards," Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed? edited by N.J. Mackintosh, 95-110, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995
    Richard Lynn, Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations, Westport: Praeger, 1996
    Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America's "Racial" Crisis, Washington DC: Civitas/Counterpoint, 1997
    Glayde Whitney, "Raymond B. Cattell and the Fourth Inquisition," Mankind Quarterly 38 (Fall-Winter 1997): 99-125

 Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Discovery of Ergic Structure in Man in Terms of Common Attitudes."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 45 (October 1950):  598-618.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Principal Culture Patterns Discoverable in the Syntal Dimensions of Existing Nations."  Journal of Social Psychology 32 (November 1950):  215-253.

H[earnshaw], L.S.  Review of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Psychology 41 (December 1950):  197-198.

[December 1950.  The Allerton Conference on Social Psychology is held at Robert Allerton Park near Monticello, Illinois, about 26 miles southwest of Urbana-Champaign.  The conference was planned by a committee of nine members of the Departments of Psychology and of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Illinois.   Cattell was on the committee and delivered a paper at the conference on "The Investigation of Cultural Dynamics: Concepts and Methods."  See Problems in Social Psychology (1952).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Nouveaux aspects theoriques et practiques de la measure de la personalite."  Revue de Psychologie Appliquée 1 (1950): 1-10.

 

1951

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Determining Syntality Dimensions as a Basis for Morale and Leadership Measurement."  In Groups, Leadership and Men:   Research in Human Relations, edited by Harold S. Guetzkow, 16-27.  Pittsburgh:  Carnegie Press, 1951.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Structure and Personality Measurement."  In Invitational Conference on Testing Problems, 82-88.   Princeton:  Educational Testing Service, 1951.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Principles of Design in 'Projective' or Misperceptive Tests of Personality."  In An Introduction to Projective Techniques, edited by Harold H. Anderson and Gladys L.A. Anderson, 55-98.  New York:  Prentice-Hall, 1951.

Cattell, R.B.  "P-Technique, a New Method for Analyzing the Structure of Personal Motivation."  Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series II, 14 (1951):  29-34.

(Anon.).  Review of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.   In Psychiatric Quarterly 25 (January 1951):  185.

V[ernon], P.E.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by R.B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Psychology 42 (March-May 1951):   192.

Hotopf, W.H.N.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by R.B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Sociology 2 (March 1951):  87.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Classical and Standard Score IQ Standardization of the I.P.A.T. Culture-Free Intelligence Scale 2."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 15 (April 1951):  154-159.

Eysenck, H.J.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Eugenics Review 43 (April 1951):  50-51.

Shaffer, Laurance F.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Journal of Consulting Psychology 15 (April 1951):  167.

Jenkins, Richard L.  Review of Personality by R.B. Cattell.  In American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 21 (April 1951):   429-431.

(Anon.).  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Mental Health 10 (Spring 1951):  76-77.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "New Concepts for Measuring Leadership, in Terms of Group Syntality."  Human Relations 4 (May 1951):  161-184.

Stice, Glen Franklin.  Relation of Attitude and Interest Changes to Personality and Syntality in Small Groups.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1951.

Horowitz, Joan.  Objective Personality Tests Investigating the Structure of Altruism in Relation to Source Traits.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1951.
    [Horowitz was a student in Cattell's lab.]

Cattell, R.B.  "On the Disuse and Misuse of P, Q, Qs and O Techniques in Clinical Psychology."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 7 (July 1951):  203-214.

Vernon, P.E.  Review of Personality by Raymond B. Cattell.   In Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46 (July 1951):  444.

[31 August 1951.  Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.  At a symposium on "A Critical Evaluation of Research Techniques in Clinical Psychology," Cattell reads "P-Technique Factorization and the Determination of Individual Dynamic Structure."]

Shibutani, Tamotsu.  Review of Personality by R.B. Cattell.  In American Journal of Sociology 57 (September 1951): 192-194.

Guilford, J.P.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by R.B. Cattell.  In American Journal of Psychology 64 (October 1951):   643-644.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Factorization of Tests of Personality Source Traits."  British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 4 (November 1951):  165-178.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Marvin Adelson.  "The Dimensions of Social Change in the U.S.A. as Determined by P-Technique."  Social Forces 30 (December 1951):  190-201.

Brierley, Marjorie.  Review of An Introduction to Personality Study by R.B. Cattell.  In International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 32 (1951):  252-254.

"Raymond Bernard Cattell."  Revue de Psychologie Appliquée 1 (1951):  93-94.

Cattell, Raymond B., and S.S. Dubin.  "Objective Determination of the Incidence and Degree of Neuroticism."  Journal of Insurance Medicine 6 (1951):  44-47.

 

1952

Cattell, Raymond B.  Factor Analysis:  An Introduction and Manual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist. New York:  Harper, 1952.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Investigation of Cultural Dynamics:  Concepts and Methods."  In Problems in Social Psychology:  An Interdisciplinary Inquiry, edited by J.E. Hulett, Jr., and Ross Stagner, 171-204.  Urbana:  University of Illinois Press, 1952.

Cattell, R.B.  "P-Technique Factorization and the Determination of Individual Dynamic Structure."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 8 (January 1952):  5-10.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Alvin E. Winder.  "Structural Rigidity in Relation to Learning Theory and Clinical Psychology."  Psychological Review 59 (January 1952):  23-39.
    [Winder received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1952.]

[20 March 1952.  American Journal of Human Genetics receives the manuscript of Cattell's "Research Designs in Psychological Genetics with Special Reference to the Multiple Variance Method."]

Meeland, Tor.  An Investigation of Hypotheses for Distinguishing Personality Factors A, F, and H.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1952.

Wenig, Philip Wayne.  The Relative Role of Naive, Autistic, Cognitive and Press Compatability Misperception and Ego Defense Operations in Tests of Misperception.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1952. 

Cattell, R.B., H. Breul, and H.P. Hartman.  "An Attempt at More Refined Definition of the Cultural Dimensions of Syntality in Modern Nations."   American Sociological Review 17 (August 1952):  408-421.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Three Basic Factor-Analytic Research Designs - Their Interrelations and Derivatives."  Psychological Bulletin 49 (September 1952):  499-520.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Joan Z. Horowitz.  "Objective Personality Tests Investigating the Structure of Altruism in Relation to Source Traits A, H, and L."  Journal of Personality 21 (September 1952): 103-117.
    [Based in part on Horowitz's 1951 M.A. thesis.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Philip W. Wenig.  "Dynamic and Cognitive Factors Controlling Misperception."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 47 (October 1952):  797-809.
    [Based in part on Wenig's 1952 M.A. thesis.  He subsequently worked for the Illinois Department of Public Welfare;  he was the author of The Chronic Mental Patient, Springfield:  Illinois Dept. of Public Welfare, 1954.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Adam Miller.  "A Confirmation of the Ergic and Self-Sentiment Patterns Among Dynamic Traits (Attitude Variables) by R-Technique."  British Journal of Psychology 43 (November 1952):   280-294.

Cattell, R.B., and K.P. Cross.  "Comparison of the Ergic and Self-Sentiment Structures Found in Dynamic Traits by R- and P-Techniques."  Journal of Personality 21 (December 1952): 250-271.
   [Katherine Patricia Cross received a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1958;   his thesis was "A Field Study of Individual Conformity to Group Opinion."]

 

1953

Cattell, R.B. Handbook of the 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire.   Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1953.

Cattell, R.B.  A Guide for Mental Testing for Psychological Clinics, Schools and Industrial Psychologists. 3rd edition.  London:   University of London Press, 1953.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "P-Technique Factorization."   In Progress in Clinical Psychology, edited by Daniel Brower and Lawrence Edwin Abt, 536-544.  New York:  Grune and Stratton, 1953.
    [{ ? }]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "On the Theory of Group Learning."   Journal of Social Psychology 37 (February 1953):  27-52.

[16 February 1953.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell, "Research Origin and Construction of the I.P.A.T. Junior Personality Quiz."  It appears in the December 1953 issue.]

[24 February 1953.  Journal of Applied Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and Anderson, "The Measurement of Personality and Behavior Disorders by the I.P.A.T. Music Preference Test."  It appears in the December 1953 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Research Designs in Psychological Genetics with Special Reference to the Multiple Variance Method."  American Journal of Human Genetics 5 (March 1953):  76-93.

[13-14 March 1954.  Symposium on the psychology of personality and learning, sponsored by the Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky.   Cattell speaks on the topic, "Personality Structures as Learning and Motivation Patterns."  The symposium papers are published in Learning Theory, Personality theory, and Clinical Research (1954).]

[4 May 1953.  Roderic Geoffrey Galton Cattell, the third child of Cattell's third marriage,  is born in Urbana.  He received a B.S. degree from the University of Illinois in 1974 and a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1978.  He joined the research staff of Xerox Palo Alto in 1978 and now works for Sun Microsystems.  His doctoral dissertation, Formalization and Automatic Derivation of Code Generators, won the Association for Computing Machinery's1978 outstanding PhD thesis award.]

[12-16 May 1953.  The 77th Annual Meeting of the American Association on Mental Deficiency, in Los Angeles.  Cattell and Shotwell read "Personality Profiles of More Successful and Less Successful Psychiatric Technicians."  It is published in the American Journal of Mental Deficiency in January 1954.   Shotwell received a Ph.D. in 1942 from Northwestern University.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Walter Gruen.  "The Personality Factor Structure of 11 Year Old Children in Terms of Behavior Rating Data."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 9 (July 1953):  256-266.

[22 September 1953.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell, "The Principal Replicated Factors Discovered in Objective Personality Tests."  It appears in the May 1955 issue.]

Harper, E.N.  Review of Factor Analysis by Raymond B. Cattell.  In British Journal of Psychology, Statistical Section 6 (November 1953): 120-125.

Cattell, Raymond B., David R. Saunders, and Glen F. Stice. "The Dimensions of Syntality in Small Groups." Human Relations 6 (November 1953): 331-356.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Halla Beloff.  "Research Origin and Construction of the I.P.A.T. Junior Personality Quiz."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 17 (December 1953):  436-442.
   [Halla Beloff received a baccalaureate degree in psychology from University College, London in 1952.  After graduating she married John R. Beloff (born in 1920, the younger brother of Max and Nora Beloff), who also received a bachelor's degree from University College, London that year.  He later wrote: "Soon after graduating we both went to work for Raymond Cattell at the University of Illinois.  His main claim to fame was to have devised what is still today one of the most widely used tests of personality.   It was an exciting new experience for us as well as being our introduction to the American way of life.  But, after a year, we had had enough and we returned to Britain …"  John R. Beloff, The Relentless Question (London: McFarland, 1990).  Both John and Halla Beloff subseqently joined the faculty of the University of Edinburgh.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Jean C. Anderson.  "The Measurement of Personality and Behavior Disorders by the I.P.A.T. Music Preference Test."  Journal of Applied Psychology 37 (December 1953):  446-454.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Glen F. Stice.  "TheBehavior of Small Groups."  Office of Naval Research, HRRO, Report.  Washington, D.C.:   Office of Naval Research, 1953.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Glen F. Stice.  "The Psychodymanics of Small Groups."  Final report on Research Project NR172-369, Contract ZN80nr-79600, Human Relations Branch, Office of Naval Research, 1-207-1953.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Quantitative Analysis of the Changes in the Culture Pattern of Great Britain 1837-1937, by P-Technique."  Acta Psychologica 9 (1953):  99-121.

[1953. Wenner-Gren Prize Essay on Research, New York Academy of Sciences.]

Cattell, R.B., M. Day, and T. Meeland.  "Le Standardisation du Questionnaire de Personnalité‚ en 16 Facteurs de l'IPAT."   Revue de Psychologie Appliquée 3 (1953): 67-83.

Cattell, Raymond B.  The Principal Invariant Personality Factors Established in Objective Tests.  Advanced Publication No. 1.  Urbana:   University of Illinois, Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1953.

Cattell, Raymond B., and H.F. Williams.  "P-Technique, a New Statistical Device for Analyzing Functional Unities in the Intact Organism." Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 7 (1953): 141-153.

 

1954

Cattell, R.B.  "The Meaning of Clinical Psychology."   In An Introduction to Clinical Psychology, edited by Leon Alfred Pennington and Irwin A. Berg, 3-25.  2nd edition.  New  York: Ronald Press, 1954.
    [Pennington was at the University of Illinois.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Structures in Learning and Motivation Patterns:  A Theme for the Integration of Methodologies."  In Learning Theory, Personality Theory, and Clinical Research:  The Kentucky Symposium, by Donald K. Adams, et. al.   New York:  Wiley, 1954.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Anna M. Shotwell.  "Personality Profiles of More Successful and Less Successful Psychiatric Technicians."  American Journal of Mental Deficiency 58 (January 1954):  496-499.

Cattell, Raymond B., and David R. Saunders.  "Musical Preferences and Personality Diagnosis: I. A Factorization of One Hundred and Twenty Themes."  Journal of Social Psychology 39 (February 1954): 3-24.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Walter Gruen.  "Primary Personality Factors in the Questionnaire Medium for Children Eleven to Fourteen Years Old."   Educational and Psychological Measurement 14 (Spring 1954):  50-76.

Cattell, Raymond B.  A Universal Index for Psychological Factors.  Advanced Publication No. 3.  Urbana:  University of Illinois, Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1954.
    [A version of this appears in Psychologia (1957).]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Andrew R. Baggaley.  The Salient Variable Similarity Index - s - for Factor Matching.  Adv. Publication No. 4.   Urbana:  University of Illinois, Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, April 1954.
    [Baggaley received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1952 with a dissertation on "The Relation of Concept Formation to Cognition."]

Cattell, R.B., S.S. Dubin, and David R. Saunders.  "Verification of Hypothesized Factors in One Hundred and Fifteen Objective Personality Test Designs."  Psychometrika 19 (September 1954):  209-230.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Glen F. Stice.  "Four Formulae for Selecting Leaders on the Basis of Personality."  Human Relations 7 (November 1954):  493-507.

Cattell, R.B., S.S. Dubin, and David R. Saunders.  "Personality Structure in Psychotics by Factorization of Objective Clinical Tests."  Journal of Mental Science 100 (1954):  154-176.

Cattell, Raymond B., and David Saunders.  "Beiträge zur Faktoren-Analyse der Persönlichkeit."  Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 2 (1954):  325-357.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Growing Points in Factor Analysis."  Australian Journal of Psychology 6 (1954):  105-140.

[1954.  Annual Lecture Series in Psychology, University of Houston.  In 1954 the series included a symposium on personality psychology, at which Cattell presented a paper on "Personality and Motivation Theory Based on Structural Measurement."  The symposium papers were published in Psychology of Personality (1956).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  Culture Fair Intelligence Tests, Scales 1, 2, and 3, Forms A and B. Revised edition.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Herbert W. Eber.  Handbook of the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire.  Champaign, Illinois:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.
    [Eber received a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of North Carolina in 1954.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Herbert W. Eber. Manual of Forms A and B, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Champaign: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.

Cattell, R.B., J.E. King, and A.K. Schuettler. C.P.F. (Form B).   Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.

Cattell, Raymond B., John Beloff, D. Flint, and Walter Gruen.  The Junior Personality Quiz.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.

Cattell, Raymond B., and David R. Saunders.  Handbook for Form C of the 16 P.F. Test.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1954.

Cattell, R.B. Manual IPAT Music Pr (1954)

Cattell, R.B. IPAT Contract Personal (1954)
     Psychol Med 2 (1972): 73

Cattell, Raymond B., J.E. King, and A.K. Schuettler.  Personality Factor Series.  Tucson:  Industrial Psychology, Inc., 1954.

 

1955

Cattell, Raymond B., and Kurt Pawlik  The O-A (Objective-Analytic) Personality Factor Battery.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1955.

Bensberg, Gerard J., and William Sloan.  "The Use of the Cattell Culture Free Test with Mental Defectives."  American Journal of Mental Deficiency 59 (January 1955):  499-503.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Note on Dr. Sloan's Evidence Regarding the Value of Culture-Free Intelligence Tests."  American Journal of Mental Deficiency 59 (January 1955):  504-506.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Psychiatric Screening of Flying Personnel. Personality Structure in Objective Tests - a Study of 1000 Air Force Students in Basic Pilot Training.   Report No. 9, Project No. 21-0202-0007, USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, San Antonio, Texas, February 1955.

[18 March 1955.  Journal of Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell, "A Shortened 'Basic English' Version (Form C) of the 16 PF Questionnaire."  It appears in the November 1956 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Principal Replicated Factors Discovered in Objective Personality Tests."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 50 (May 1955):  291-314.

Cattell, R.B., and A.K.S. Cattell.  "Factor Rotation for Proportional Profiles:  Analytical Solution and an Example." British Journal of Statistical Psychology 8 (November 1955):  83-92.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Review of Clinical vs. Statistical Prediction by P.E. Meehl.  In Human Biology 27 (December 1955):  331-334.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Lo stato attuale nella recerca e costruzione de tests fattoriali di attitudine e personalita."  Archivo di Psicologia Neurologia e Psichiatria 16 (1955):  323-349.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Chief Invariant Psychological and Psycho-Physical Functional Unities Found by P-Technique."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 11 (1955):  319-343.

Cattell, Raymond B., Duncan B. Blewett, and John R. Beloff.  "The Inheritance of Personality.  A Multiple Variance Analysis Determination of Approximate Nature-Nurture Ratios for Primary Personality Factor in Q-Data."  American Journal of Human Genetics 7 (1955):  122-146.
   [This was Beloff's first professional publication.]

Cattell. Raymond B., and John E. Drevdahl.  "A Comparison of the Personality Profile (16 P.F.) of Eminent Researchers with That of Eminent Teachers and Administrators, and of the General Population."  British Journal of Psychology 46 (1955):  248-261.
    [Drevdahl received a Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska in 1954, with a dissertation entitled An Exploratory Study of Creativity.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Walter Gruen.  "The Primary Personality Factors in Eleven Year Old Children by Objective Tests."  Journal of Personality 23 (1955):  460-478.

Cattell, Raymond B.  The I.P.A.T. Anxiety Scale.   Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1957.

 

1956

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality and Motivation Theory Based on Structural Measurement."  In Psychology of Personality:  Six Modern Approaches, edited by James L. McCary, pp. 63-119.  New York:  Logos Press, 1956.

[24 January 1956.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives "Second-Order Personality Factors in the Questionnaire Realm."  Published in December issue.] 

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Validation and Intensification of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 12 (July 1956):  205-214.

Fischer, Robert P.  "The Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire."  Review of The 16 Personality Questionnaire by R.B. Cattell and G.F. Stice.  In Journal of Clinical Psychology 12 (October 1956):  408-411.

Baggaley, Andrew, and Raymond B. Cattell.  "A Comparison of Exact and Approximate Linear Function Estimates of Oblique Factor Scores."  British Journal of Statistical Psychology 9 (November 1956):  83-86.
    [Baggaley was at the Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Shortened 'Basic English' Version (Form C) of the 16 PF Questionnaire."  Journal of Social Psychology 44 (November 1956):   257-278.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Second-Order Personality Factors in the Questionnaire Realm."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 20 (December 1956):   411-418.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "New Developments in Personality Theory from Quantitatve Factor-Analytic Research."  Revue Internationale de Philosophie 35 (1956):  1-35.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "O Valor de Teoria Fatorial Para a Moderna Elaboracao de Testes de Personalidade."  Revue de Psicologia Normal e Patologica 2 (1956):  23-42.

Cattell, Raymond .B., and Andrew R. Baggalay.  "The Objective Measurement of Attitude Motivation Development and Evaluation of Principles and Devices."  Journal of Personality 24 (1956):  401-423.

Cattell, Raymond B., and John R. Beloff.  "La structure factorielle de la personnalite des enfants de onze ans a travers trois types d'epreuves."  Revue de Psychologie Appliquée 6 (1956):  65-89.

Cattell, Raymond B., M. Day and Tor Meeland.  "Occupational Profiles on the 16-Personality Factor Questionnaire." Occupational Psychology 30 (1956):  10-19.

 

1957

Cattell, Raymond B.  Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement.  Yonkers-on-Hudson:  World Book, 1957.

Cattell, Raymond B., David R. Saunders, and Glen F. Stice.  Handbook to the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.  Third edition.   Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1957.

Cattell, R.B. "A Mathematical Model of the Leadership Role and Other Personality-Role Relations." In Emerging Problems in Social Psychology, edited by Muzafer Sherif and M.O. Wilson.  University Book Exchange, Institute of Group Relations, University of Oklahoma, 1957.

Cattell, Raymond B., Glen F. Stice, and Norton F. Kristy.  "A First Approximation to Nature-Nurture Ratios for Eleven Primary Personality Factors in Objective Tests."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 54 (March 1957):   143-159.
    [The editors do not report the date the manuscript was received.]

[Spring 1957.  At a conference sponsored by the Department of Psychology, Syracuse University.  Cattell presents "The Dynamic Calculus: A System of Concepts Derived from Objective Motivation Measurement."  It appears in Assessment of Human Motives (1958).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Conceptual and Test Distinction of Neuroticism and Anxiety."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 13 (July 1957):   221-233.

[Summer 1957.  Cattell travels around the world, stopping in Australia and at the Indian Institute of Statistics in Calcutta.]

[1957.  Lloyd Humphreys joins the faculty of the Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.  He becomes the department chairman in 1959, a position he holds until 1968.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Richard W. Coan.  "Child Personality Structure as Revealed in Teachers' Behavior Ratings."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 13 (October 1957):  314-327.
    [Coan received a Ph.D. from the University of Southern California in 1958.]

[20 October 1957.  Psychologia, a new English-language Japanese journal, receives the manuscript of Cattell, "A Universal Index of Psychological Factors."  This derives from Advanced Publication No. 3, Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1954, and appears in the last issue of the current volume.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  Discovery and Development of Measurement Scales for the Dimensions of Anxiety.  Report on Department of the Army Contract No. DA-49-007-MD-620.  Armed Services Technical Information Agency, Document Service Center, Knott Building, Dayton, Ohio, November 1957.

[25 November 1957.  Psychological Bulletin receives the manuscript of Cattell, "A Need for Alertness to Multivariate Experimental Findings in Integrative Surveys."  It appears in the July 1958 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Richard W. Coan.  "Personality Factors in Middle Childhood as Revealed in Parents' Ratings."  Child Development 28 (December 1957):   439-458.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Universal Index of Psychological Factors."  Psychologia 1 (1957):  74-85.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Formulae and Table for Obtaining Validities and Reliabilities of Extended Factor Scales."  Educational and Psychological Measurement 17 (Winter 1957):  491-498.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Extracting the Correct Number of Factors in Factor Analysis.  Advanced Publication No. 8.  Urbana:  Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1957.
    [A version of this paper subsequently appeared in Educational and Psychological Measurement (Winter 1958).]

 

1958

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Dynamic Calculus:  A System of Concepts Derived from Objective Motivation Measurement."  In Assessment of Human Motives, edited by Gardner Lindzey, pp. 197-238.  New York:  Rinehart, 1958.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Structure of Intellect, Temperament, and Personality."  In Psychology and Life:  A Study of the Thinking, Feeling, and Doing of People, edited by Floyd L. Ruch.  5th edition.   Chicago:  Scott, Foresman, 1958.

[February 1958.  Louisiana State University Psychology Symposium.  Cattell presents "Foundations of Personality Measurement Theory in Multivariate Experiment."  It is published in Objective Approaches to Personality Assessment (1959).]

Scheier, Ivan H.  "What is an 'Objective' Test?"  Psychological Reports 4 (March 1958):  147-157.
    [Scheier was a research associate in Cattell laboratory, 1955-58.]

Drevdahl, John E., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Personality and Creativity in Artists and Writers."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 14 (April 1958):  107-111.
    [Drevdahl received a Ph.D. in 1954 from the University of Nebraska with a dissertation entitled "An Exploratory Study of Creativity in Terms of Its Relationships to Various Personality and Intellectual Factors."  In 1958 he was at Oklahoma State University.]

[21 April 1958.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and Coan, "Objective-Test Assessment of the Primary Personality Dimensions in Middle Childhood."   Published in August 1959.]

[2 May 1958.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology receives Cattell and Scheier, "Stimuli Related to Stress, Neuroticism, Excitation, and Anxiety Response Patterns: Illustrating a New Multivariate Experimental Design."   Published in March 1960.]

[12 May 1958.  Psychological Reports accepts Cattell and Scheier, "The Nature of Anxiety:  A Review of Thirteen Multivariate Analyses Comprising 814 Variables."  It appears in Monograph Supplement 5 (1958).]

Williams, Joseph Robert.  The Definition and Measurement of Conflict in Terms of P-Technique:  A Test of Validity.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1958.

Tapp, Jack Thomas.  An Examination of Hypotheses Concerning Motivation Components of Attitude Strength.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1958.

[5 June 1958.  Journal of General Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and Scheier, "Extension of Meaning of Objective Test Personality Factors."  Published in October 1959.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "A Need for Alertness to Multivariate Experimental Findings in Integrative Surveys."  Psychological Bulletin 55 (July 1958):  253-256.

Scheier, Ivan H., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Confirmation of Objective Test Factors and Assessment of Their Relation to Questionnaire Factors:  A Factor Analysis of 113 Rating, Questionnaire and Objective Test Measurements of Personality."  Journal of Mental Science 104 (July 1958):  608-624.

[23 July 1958.  Journal of Personality receives manuscript of Cattell, "Anxiety, Extraversion, and Other Second-Order Personality Factors in Children."  Published in December 1959.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  "Clinical Validities by Analyzing the Psychiatrist Exemplified in Relation to Anxiety Diagnoses."  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 28 (October 1958):   699-713.

Coan, Richard W., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Reproducible Personality Factors in Middle Childhood."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 14 (October 1958):  339-345.
    [Coan is at the University of Arizona.]

Peterson, Donald R., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Personality Factors in Nursery School Children as Derived from Parent Ratings."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 14 (October 1958):  346-355.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Extracting the Correct Number of Factors in Factor Analysis."  Educational and Psychological Measurement 18 (Winter 1958):  791-838.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Andrew R. Baggaley.  "A Confirmation of Ergic and Engram Structures in Attitudes Objectively Measured."  Australian Journal of Psychology 10 (1958):  287-318.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Richard W. Coan.  "Personality Dimensions in the Questionnaire Responses of Six and Seven-Year-Olds."  British Journal of Educational Psychology 28 (1958):  232-242.

Cattell, Raymond B., Richard W. Coan, and Halla Beloff.  "A Reexamination of Personality Structure in Late Childhood, and Development of the High School Personality Questionnaire."  Journal of Experimental Education 27 (1958):  73-88.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Donald R. Peterson.  "Personality Structures in 4-5 Year Olds, by Factoring Observed, Time-Sampled Behavior."  Rassegna di Psicologia Generale e Clinica 3 (1958):  3-21.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  "The Objective Test Measurement of Neuroticism, U.I.23(-)."  Indian Journal of Psychology 33 (1958):  217-236.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  "The Nature of Anxiety:  A Review of Thirteen Multivariate Analyses Comprising 814 Variables."   Psychological Reports 4, Monograph Supplement 5 (1958):  351-388.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  Factors in Personality Change:  A Discussion of the Condition-Response Incremental Design and Application to 69 Personality Response Measures and Three Stimulus Conditions.   Advanced Publication No. 9.  Urbana:  Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1958.

 

1959

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Foundations of Personality Measurement Theory in Multivariate Experiment."  In Objective Approaches to Personality Assessment, edited by Bernard M. Bass and Irwin A. Berg, pp. 42-65.  Princeton, N.J.:  D. Van Nostrand, 1959.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Theory Growing From Multivariate Quantitative Research."  In Psychology:  A Study of a Science, vol. 3, Formulations of the Person and the Social Context, edited by Sigmund Koch, pp. 257-327.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1959.

[28 February 1959.  Psychological Bulletin receives the manuscript of Wesley C. Becker, "The Matching of Behavior Rating and Questionnaire Personality Factors."  The paper, a critique of Cattell, appears in the May 1960 issue, and is followed by an exchange with Cattell in the March 1961 issue.]

[March 1959.  Seventh annual Nebraska Symposium on Motivation.   Cattell is a participant.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Comments on Dr. Schneirla's Paper."  In The Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1959, edited by Marshall R. Jones, pp. 42-43.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1959.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Comments on Dr. Hess's Paper."  In The Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1959, edited by Marshall R. Jones, pp. 81-83.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1959.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Dynamic Calculus:  Concepts and Crucial Experiments."  In The Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1959, edited by Marshall R. Jones, pp. 84-114.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1959.

[17 April 1959.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Peterson and Cattell, "Personality Factors in Nursery School Children as Derived from Teacher Ratings."  Published in December 1959.]

[20 April 1959.  Journal of Personality receives revised manuscript of Cattell, "Anxiety, Extraversion, and Other Second-Order Personality Factors in Children."  Published in December 1959.]

[June 1959.  Third University of Utah Conference on "The Identification of Creative Scientific Talent."  Cattell presents "The Personality and Motivation of the Researcher from Measurements of Contemporaries and from Biography."  Published in 1963.]

[15 June 1959.  Psychological Review receives manuscript of Cattell's "The Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis Equations and Solutions."  Published in November 1960.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Richard W. Coan.  "Objective-Test Assessment of the Primary Personality Dimensions in Middle Childhood."  British Journal of Psychology 50 (August 1959):  235-252.

[24 August 1959.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and McMichael, "Clinical Diagnosis by the IPAT Music Preference Test."  Published in August 1960.]

[1959-61.  Richard L. Gorsuch (b. 1937) is a graduate research assistant in Cattell's Laboratory for Personality Assessment and Group Behavior.  He had received a B.A. degree from Texas Christian University in Fort Worth in 1959.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Donald R. Peterson.  "Personality Structure in Four and Five Year Olds in Terms of Objective Tests."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 15 (October 1959):  355-369.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  "Extension of Meaning of Objective Test Personality Factors:  Especially Into Anxiety, Neuroticism, Questionnaire, and Physical Factors."  Journal of General Psychology 61 (October 1959):  287-315.

[18 November 1959.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell and Warburton, "A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Patterns of Extraversion and Anxiety."   Published in February 1961.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Anxiety, Extraversion, and Other Second-Order Personality Factors in Children."  Journal of Personality 27 (December 1959):  464-476.

Peterson, Donald R., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Personality Factors in Nursery School Children as Derived from Teacher Ratings."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 23 (December 1959):  562.

[6-8 December 1959.  Colloquium on Exercise and Fitness, sponsored by the University of Illinois College of Physical Education and the Athletic Institute and held at Robert Allerton Park, at facility owned by the University of Illinois and located near Monticello, Illinois, 26 miles southwest of the University's Urbana-Champaign campus.  Cattell presents "Some Psychological Correlates of Physical Fitness and Physique."  This and the other papers from the conference were published in Exercise and Fitness (1960).]

[1959-  .  Cattell and a graduate student, John L. Horn, develop the Motivational Analysis Test (MAT).]

Coan, Richard W., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "The Development of the Early School Personality Questionnaire."  Journal of Experimental Education 28 (1959):  143-152.

 

1960

Cattell, Raymond B., and Glen F. Stice.  The Dimensions of Groups and Their Relations to the Behavior of Members.  Champaign:   Instititute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1960.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Dimensional (Unitary-Component) Measurement of Anxiety, Excitement, Effort Stress, and Other Mood Reaction Patterns."  In Drugs and Behavior, edited by Leonard Uhr and James G. Miller, pp. 438-462.   New York:  Wiley, 1960.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Some Psychological Correlates of Physical Fitness and Physique."  In Exercise and Fitness:  A Collection of Papers Presented at the Colloquium on Exercise and Fitness, edited by Seward C. Staley, et. al., pp. 138-151.  Chicago:  Athletic Institute, 1960.

Cattell, Raymond B.  HSPQ (High School Personality Questionnaire).  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1960.

Cattell, Raymond B.  Music Preference Test of Personality.   Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1960.

[1960.  First meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology.  Cattell serves as the first President.]

[15 January 1960.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology receives the manuscript of Shotwell, Hurley, and Cattell, "Motivational Structure of an Hospitalized Mental Defective."  Published in the March 1961 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  "Stimuli Related to Stress, Neuroticism, Excitation, and Anxiety Response Patterns:  Illustrating a New Multivariate Experimental Design."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60 (March 1960):  195-204.

Scheier, Ivan H., Raymond B. Cattell, and John L. Horn.   "Objective Test Factor U.I.23:  Its Measurement and Its Relation to Clinically-Judged Neuroticism."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 16 (April 1960):  135-145.

Saunders, David R.  "A Factor Analysis of the Picture Completion Items of the WAIS."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 16 (April 1960):  146-
    [Saunders was at the Educational Testing Service.]

[29 April 1960.  Psychological Reports accepts Cattell, "Evaluating Interation and Non-Linear Realtions by Factor Analysis."   Published in August 1960.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Andrew R. Baggaley.  "The Salient Variable Similarity Index for Factor Matching."  British Journal of Statistical Psychology 13 (May 1960):  33-46.

Dickman, Kern William.  Factorial Validity of a Rating Instrument.  Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1960.

McMichael, Robert Edwin.  The Effects of Preweaning Shock and Gentling on Later Resistance to Stress.  Unpublished P.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1960.

Cattell, Raymond B., Arthur B. Sweney, and John A. Radcliffe.   "The Objective Measurement of Motivation Structure in Children."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 16 (July 1960):  227-232.
    [Radcliffe was at the University of Sydney.  Sweney received a Ph.D. in 1958 from the University of Houston.]

[July 1960.  NATO Symposium on Defence Psychology, held at NATO Headquarters in Paris.   Cattell presents "Group Theory, Personality, and Role: A Model for Experimental Researches."  Published in Defence Psychology (1962).]

[13 July 1960.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell, Knapp and Scheier, "Second-Order Personality Factor Structure in the Objective Test Realm."  It appears in the August 1961 issue.]

[31 July - 6 August 1960.  16th International Congress of Psychology, in Bonn.  Cattell presents "Factor Analytic Evidence of the Dynamic Structure of the Ego."  Published in Acta Psychologica 19 (1961).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Evaluating Interaction and Non-Linear Relations by Factor Analysis."  Psychological Reports 7 (August 1960):   69-70.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Robert E. McMichael.  "Clinical Diagnosis by the IPAT Music Preference Test."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 24 (August 1960):  333-341.

[11 August 1960.  Journal of Social Psychology receives manuscript of Sweney and Cattell, "Relationships Between Integrated and Unintegrated Motivation Structure Examined by Objective Tests."  Published in June 1962 issue.]

[1960.  Jerry Hirsch joins the faculty of the Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.]

[27 September 1960.  Journal of Social Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and Lawson, "Sex Differences in Small Group Performance."  Published in October 1962 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and John L. Muerle.  "The 'Maxplane' Program for Factor Rotation to Oblique Simple Structure."  Educational and Psychological Measurement 20 (Autumn 1960):  569-590.
    [Muerle received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1961.]

[October 1960.  Conference on Personality Measurement held under the auspices of the Educational Testing Service at Princeton, N.J.  Cattell presents "Personality Measurement Functionally Related to Source Trait Structure" and "Research Strategies in the Study of Personality."   They appear in Measurement in Personality and Cognition (1962).]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis Equations and Solutions:  For Nature-Nurture Research on Continuous Variables."   Psychological Review 67 (November 1960):  353-372.

[26 December 1960.  Psychological Bulletin receives the manuscript of "Cattell Replies to Becker's 'Comments'."  It appears in the March 1961 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Luigi Meschieri.  The International, Cross-Cultural Constancy of Personality Factors, Examined on the 16 PF Test:  I.   American-Italian Relations.  Advanced Publication No. 12.  Urbana:   University of Illinois, Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior, 1960.
    [Professor Meschieri was at the Istituto Nazionale di Psicologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome.  He was one of the leaders of the July 1960 NATO Symposium on Defence Psychology, in which Cattell participated.]

 

 1961

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ivan H. Scheier.  The Meaning and Measurement of Neuroticism and Anxiety.  New York:  Ronald Press, 1961.

Porter, R., and Raymond B. Cattell.  The Child Personality Questionnaire.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1961.

Cattell, Raymond B., and John R. Nesselroade.  The IPAT Psychological State Battery.  Champaign:  Insitute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1961.

[18 January 1961.  British Journal of Psychology receives the manuscript of Cattell, Horn and Butcher, "The Dynamic Structure of Attitudes in Adults."  It appears in the February 1962 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Frank W. Warburton.  "A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Patterns of Extraversion and Anxiety."  British Journal of Psychology 52 (February 1961):  3-15.
    [Warburton was at the University of Manchester.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Theory of Situational, Instrument, Second Order, and Refraction Factors in Personality Structure Research."  Psychological Bulletin 58 (March 1961):  160-174.

Becker, Wesley C.  "Comment's on Cattell's Paper on 'Perturbations' in Personality Structure Research."  Psychological Bulletin 58 (March 1961):  175.

Shotwell, Anna M., John R. Hurley, and Raymond B. Cattell.   "Motivational Structure of a Hospitalized Mental Defective."  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 62 (March 1961):  422-426.
    [Shotwell was at Pacific State Hospital.  Hurley received a Ph.D. in 1953 and subsequently was at the University of Illinois.  In 1961 he was at the System Development Corporation, Paramus, N.J.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Cattell Replies to Becker's 'Comments'."  Psychological Bulletin 58 (March 1961):  176.

[7 March 1961.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and Morony, "The Use of the 16 PF in Distinguishing Homosexuals, Normals, and General Criminals."  Published in December 1962.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Ronald R. Greene.  "Rationale of Norms on an Adult Personality Test - the 16 P.F. - for American Women."  Journal of Educational Research 54 (April 1961):  285-290.
    [Greene received a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1947 and subsequently taught at Ohio Wesleyan University.]

[10 April 1961.  Psychological Bulletin receives manuscript of Cattell and Dickman, "A Dynamic Model of Physical Influences Demonstrating the Necessity of Oblique Simple Structure."  Published in the September 1962 issue.]

[23 May 1961.  Genetic Psychology Monographs receives the manuscript of Cattell and Horn, "An Integrating Study of the Factor Structure of Adult Attitude-Interests."  It appears in 1963.]

Tollefson, Donald Lloyd.  Differential Responses to Humor and Their Relation to Personality and Motivation Measures.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1961.

Tapp, Jack Thomas.  Reversible Cortical Depression and Avoidance Behavior in the Rat.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1961.

Horn, John L.  Structure Among Measures of Superego, Ego, and Self-Sentiment.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1961.

[Summer 1961.  Frank W. Warburton (Manchester University) interviews Cattell.  Adrian Wooldridge refers to the interview in Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England, c.1860 - c.1990 (Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 204, in a passage on the political influences on Cattell's turn to psychology:  "As a young socialist, [Cattell] turned from chemistry to psychology because a lecture given by Burt inspired him with 'a feeling that only there was there a radical solution to our social problems'."]

[25 July 1961.  Psychological Review receives manuscript of Cattell, "Personality, Role, Mood, and Situation-Perception."   Published in the January 1963 issue.]

Cattell, R.B., R.R. Knapp, and I.H. Scheier.  "Second-Order Personality Factor Structure in the Objective Test Realm."   Journal of Consulting Psychology 25 (August 1961):  345-352.
    [Knapp was at the United States Naval Personnel Activity, San Diego.]

[13-19 August 1961.  14th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Copenhagen.  Cattell presents "Personality Assessment Based Upon Functionally Unitary Personality Traits, Factor Analytically Demonstrated."   Published in Personality Research (1962).]

[16 August 1961.  British Journal of Psychology receives a revision of Cattell, Horn and Butcher, "The Dynamic Structure of Attitudes in Adults."  It appears in the February 1962 issue.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Statistical Methods and Logical Considerations in Investigating Personality Inheritance."  Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Human Genetics, Rome, September 6-12, 1961.

Sweney, Arthur B., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Dynamic Factors in Twelve Year Old Children as Revealed in Measures of Integrated Motivation."  Journal of Clinical Psychology 17 (October 1961):  360-369.

Cattell, Raymond B., P. Pichot, and P. Rennes.  "Constance interculturelle des facteurs de personnalité mesurés par le test 16 PF:  II.   Comparison Franco-Américaine."  Revue de psychologie appliquée 11 (1961):  165-196.

Cattell, Raymond B., and John B. Radcliffe.  "Factors in Objective Motivation Measures with Children:  A Preliminary Study."  Australian Journal of Psychology 13 (1961):  65-76.

Scheier, Ivan H., Raymond B. Cattell, and W.P. Sullivan.   "Predicting Anxiety from Clinical Symptoms of Anxiety."  Psychiatric Quarterly 35 Suppl. (1961):  114-126.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Factor Analytic Evidence on the Dynamic Structure of the Ego."  Acta Psychologica 19 (1961):  244-245.

 

1962

Cattell, Raymond B., John Horn, and Arthur B. Sweney.  Handbook for the Motivational Analysis Test.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality   and Ability Testing, 1962.

Cattell, Raymond B.  The Early School Personality Questionnaire.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1962.

Sweney, Arthur B., and Raymond B. Cattell.  The School Motivation Analysis Test.  Champaign:  Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 1962.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Group Theory, Personality and Role:   A Model for Experimental Researches."  In Defence Psychology:   Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Paris, 1960, edited by Frank A. Geldard, with the assistance of Charles Chandlessais, Luigi Meschieri, and Norman A.B. Wilson, pp. 209-258.  NATO Conference Series, vol. 1.  Oxford:  Pergamon Press, 1962.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Measurement Functionally Related to Source Trait Structure."  In Measurement in Personality and Cognition, edited by Samuel Messick and John Ross, pp. 249-267.  New York:  Wiley, 1962.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Research Strategies in the Study of Personality."  In Measurement in Personality and Cognition, edited by Samuel Messick and John Ross.  New York:  Wiley, 1962.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Personality Assessment Based Upon Functionally Unitary Personality Traits, Factor Analytically Demonstrated."  In Personality Research, edited by Stanley Coopersmith, pp. 198-219.  Copenhagen:  Munksgaard, 1962.

Cattell, R.B., J. Horn, and H.J. Butcher.  "The Dynamic Structure of Attitudes in Adults:  A Description of Some Established Factors and of Their Measurement by the Motivational Analysis Test."  British Journal of Psychology 53 (February 1962):  57-69.
    [Butcher is at the Department of Education, University of Manchester.]

Gregor, A. James.  Review of Psychology and the Religious Quest by Raymond B. Cattell.  In Mankind Quarterly 2 (March 1962):  216-218.

[9 March 1962.  Journal of Consulting Psychology receives manuscript of Cattell and Morony, "The Use of the 16 PF in Distinguishing Homosexuals, Normals, and General Criminals."  Published in the December 1962 issue.]

[20 April 1962.  Journal of Educational Psychology receives Cattell, "Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence:  A Critical Experiment."  It appears in the February 1963 issue.]

[30 April - 2 May 1962.  Conference in Madison, Wisconsin, sponsored by the Committee on Personality Development in Youth of the Social Science Research Council.  Cattell presents "The Structuring of Change by P-Technique and Incremental R-Technique."   Published in Problems in Measuring Change (1963).]

Gorsuch, Richard L.  National Morale, Morality and Cultural Integration.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1962.

Sweney, Arthur B., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "Relationships Between Integrated and Unintegrated Motivation Structure Examined by Objective Tests."  Journal of Social Psychology 57 (June 1962):  217-226.

Gregor, A. James.  Review of Der Begabundsschwund in Europa by Ludwig Winter.  In Sociological Quarterly 3 (July 1962):  253-254.
[The book under review was published by the Ludendorff movement.  Gregor criticized the author's use of Cattell's work.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and Kern Dickman.  "A Dynamic Model of Physical Influences Demonstrating the Necessity of Oblique Simple Structure."  Psychological Bulletin 59 (September 1962):  389-400.

Cattell, Raymond B., and Edgar Howarth.  "Hypotheses on the Principal Personality Dimensions in Children and Tests Constructed for Them."  Journal of Genetic Psychology 101 (September 1962):  145-163.
    [Howarth was at the University of Alberta.]

Cattell, Raymond B. and Edwin D. Lawson.  "Sex Differences in Small Group Performance."  Journal of Social Psychology 58 (October 1962):   141-145.
    [Lawson was at SUNY Albany.]

Cattell, Raymond B., and John A. Radcliffe.  "Reliabilities and Validities of Simple and Extended Weighted and Buffered Unifactor Scales."  British Journal of Statistical Psychology 15 (November 1962):  113-128.

Cattell, Raymond B., and John H. Morony.  "The Use of the 16 PF in Distingusihing Homosexuals, Normals, and General Criminals."  Journal of Consulting Psychology 26 (December 1962):  531-540.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Psychological Measurement of Anxiety and Depression:  A Quantitative Approach."  Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal 7 (1962):  11-23.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Relational Simplex Theory of Equal Interval and Absolute Scaling."  Acta Psychologica 20 (1962):   139-158.

Cattell, Raymond B., Ivan H. Scheier, and K. Lorr.  "Recent Advances in the Measurement of Anxiety, Neuroticism, and the Psychotic Syndromes."   Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 93 (1962):  815-856.  

Hurley, John R., and Raymond B. Cattell.  "The Procrustes Program:  Producing Direct Rotation to Test a Hypothesized Factor Structure."   Behavioral Science 7 (1962):  258-262.

Cattell, Raymond B., John D. Hundleby, and Kurt Pawlik.  "The Use of Mutually Dependent Variables in Factor Analytic Research."  Unpublished paper, 1962.

 

1963

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Determining Syntality Dimensions as a Basis for Morale and Leadership Measurement."  In Groups, Leadership and Men:  Research in Human Relations, edited by Harold Guetzkow, 16-27.  New York:  Russell and Russell, 1963.
    [Reprinted from  the 1951 edition.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Concepts of Personality Growing from Multivariate Experiments."  In Concepts of Personality, edited by Joseph M. Wepman and Ralph W. Heine, pp. 413-448.  Chicago:  Aldine, 1963.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Formulating the Environmental Situation and Its Perception, in Behavior Theory."  In Stimulus Determinants of Behavior, edited by Saul B. Sells.  New York:  Ronald Press, 1963.
    [The book comprises the main papers of a symposium sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and held at Texas Christian University (TCU) in Fort Worth.
    Sells was a professor of psychology at TCU, where he worked with Richard L. Gorsuch.  He also was the second President of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology (1962), succeeding Cattell.  He served as managing associate editor of Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1966-88, during which time the journal was published at TCU.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Personality and Motivation of the Researcher from Measurements of Contemporaries and From Biography."  In Scientific Creativity:  It Recognition and Development, edited by Calvin W. Taylor and Frank X. Barron, pp. 119-131.  New York:  Wiley, 1963.
    [Cattell's paper is from the Third University of Utah conferences on "The Identification of Creative Scientific Talent, June 1959."  The volume was reprinted by in 1975 by the Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Huntington, N.Y.]

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Structuring of Change by P-Technique and Incremental R-Technique."  In Problems in Measuring Change, edited by Chester W. Harris, pp. 167-198.   Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1963.

Cattell, Raymond B.  ""Personality, Role, Mood, and Situation-Perception:  A Unifying Theory of Modulators."  Psychological Review 70 (January 1963):  1-18.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence:  A Critical Experiment."  Journal of Educational Psychology 54 (February 1963):  1-22.
    Cited in:
    James R Flynn, "The Ontogeny of Intelligence," in Measurement, Realism and Objectivity: Essays on Measurement in the Social and Physical Sciences, edited by John Forge, pp. 1-40 (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1987)

Cattell, Raymond B., and Richard L. Gorsuch.  "The Uniqueness and Significance of Simple Structure Demonstrated by Contrasting Organic 'Natural Structure' and 'Random Structure' Data."  Psychometrika 28 (March 1963):  55-67.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Meaning and Measurement of Neuroticism and Anxiety:  Supplement to a Review."  British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 2 (October 1963):  224-226.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Interaction of Hereditary and Environmental Influences."  British Journal of Statistical Psychology 16 (November 1963):  191-210.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "Teachers' Personality Description o Six-Year-Olds:  A Check on Structure."  British Journal of Eudcational Psychology 33 (1963):  219-235.

Cattell, Raymond B.  "The Nature and Measurement of Anxiety."  Scientific American 208 (1963):  96-104.

Cattell, Raymond B., and M.J. Foster.  "The Rotoplot Program for Multiple, Single-Plane, Visually Guided Rotation."  Behavioral Science 8 (1963):  156-165.

Cattell, Raymond B., and John Horn.  "An Integrating Study of the Factor Structure of Adult Attitude-Interests."  Genetic Psychology Monographs 67 (1963):  89-149.

[1963-66.  John L. Horn, now an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Denver, is designated the Co-Director, Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Western Branch.]

Cattell, Raymond B., John A. Radcliffe, and Arthur B. Sweney.   "The Nature and Measurement of Components of Motivation."  Genetic Psychology Monographs 68 (1963):  49-211.

Keith Hurt
October 5, 1998

ISAR HOME