So far a common pattern has been shown to exist in journals like
The Mankind Quarterly and Neue Anthropologie.
Behind the scholarly appearances lurk the traditions of Nazi race-science.
There are those involved with both magazines who are attempting
to relate those traditions once again to fascist political activity.
What is more, both journals have clear links with the modern psychological
research of Eysenck and Jensen. This common pattern is not just
to be found in Britain and Germany today.
One constant feature of contemporary fascism is that practically
all fascist and Nazi parties, whilst claiming to be fervently
nationalistic, have international connections. Groups like the
National Front might portray themselves publicly as rigid 'nationalists',
yet nevertheless their leaders maintain contacts with European
and American fascist organisations. In the same way the racist
culture of The Mankind Quarterly and Neue Anthropologie
is an international enterprise.
The proof of this lies in the fact a French journal, Nouvelle
Ecole, is closely related to the academic circles of The
Mankind Quarterly and Neue Anthropologie. In fact,
all three journals carry advertisements for each other. Likewise
Nouvelle Ecole is recommended by the Northern League's
The Northlander (see for instance August/October 1972,
What might make this surprising at first sight is the Northern
League's apparent pro-German (or Teuton) and anti-Gallic stance.
This was well illustrated by Jürgen Rieger's speech to the
Northern League's annual meeting in Brighton in 1969. Rieger criticised
the Belgian fascist Jean Thiriart and his magazine Jeune Europe
for suggesting mixing the 'Nordic' and 'Latin' races. Instead,
declared Rieger, Germany must be secured "against Southern and
Latin Europe, against Italy which has been mongrelised since the
time of the Roman Empire (like all other South-European countries)
and against France" (The Northlander, August/October,
However, Aryan and Gallic racists are prepared to bury their differences
in order to promote racism as such. Here Nouvelle Ecole,
a far glossier and more expensive production than either The
Mankind Quarterly or Neue Anthropologie, has had
an important function to bring racialist assumptions and theories
into French intellectual life. In this task Nouvelle Ecole
is aided by many of the same people involved with its British
and German counterparts.
The editor of Nouvelle Ecole is Alain de Benoist, who
also publishes under the pseudonym of Fabrice Laroche. Perhaps
Benoist is more predisposed to the Nordic nonsense of Riger et
al than many of his French colleagues on Nouvelle Ecole.
He is in fact on the Advisory Board of Neue Anthropologie
and in 1976 contributed a lengthy article on 'The misfortunes
of the highly-gifted'. Moreover the French edition of Who's
Who lists de Benoist as a member of the Society of Friends
De Benoist is one of the leading members of the French intellectual
movement 'Groupement de Reserche et d'Etudes pour la Civilisation
Européenne' (GRECE), whose meetings are advertised in Nouvelle
Ecole. GRECE represents an amalgam of French Right-wing intellectuals.
Foremost among the ideas propagated by GRECE is the notion that
different races have different sorts of intelligence; it also
promotes an interest in eugenics.
GRECE has some extremely influential supporters in France. For
instance the director and editor of the national newspaper, Figaro
Dimanche - Louis Pauwels and Patrice de Plunkett - are supporters;
they are also on the editorial committee of Nouvelle Ecole.
GRECE actively disseminates the ideas of Jensen and Eysenck; its
publishing company, Copernicus, has recently brought out French
editions of Eysenck's books The Inequality of Man and
Race, Intelligence and Education.
De Benoist's books include Le Courage est leur Patrie
(Courage is their fatherland), Rhodesia: terre de lions fidèles
(Rhodesia: land of faithful lions); Vu de droite (Right
Each edition of Nouvelle Ecole boasts an impressive list
of members of the comité de patronage (board of
patrons). Most of the members are French academics; however there
are a number of foreign academics, most of whom have already been
mentioned in connection with The Mankind Quarterly and
Gayre is one of the patrons. So is Garrett. In the Autumn 1973
issue of Nouvelle Ecole, the magazine published a letter
from Garrett talking of the importance of bringing to the attention
of "the European public samples of the immense number of scientific
studies and works of racology or racial psychology which the egalitarians
Kuttner is also on the comité de patronage. Nouvelle
Ecole, July/August 1972 published a letter of praise from
Kuttner: "I have known of Nouvelle Ecole for more than
a year and I wish to tell you all the good things I think of it.
Nouvelle Ecole is definitely on the right lines. It is
a remarkable publication, always well informed from the scientific
point of view and it shows the true value of things. I hope that
its influence will be of the same order as its value".
Similar praise came in the same issue from Northern League member
F.J. Los, who like Kuttner and Gayre is on Nouvelle Ecole's
comité de patronage: "I have read with a great deal
of pleasure and sympathy most of the articles that you have published
in Nouvelle Ecole to date, and I see that our views are
practically the same on a very great number of subjects".
Bertil Lundman, another member of the comité de patronage,
as well as being an Honorary Adviser of The Mankind Quarterly
and former contributor of Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde,
called Nouvelle Ecole "an event in the world of international
periodicals". This racial theorist went on to describe the international
aims of cultural racism. It was, according to him, necessary to
form "a cultural school embracing the entire human world, being
rigorously apolitical and truly humane, in the middle of a chaotic
universe menaced by subversive forces of all sorts". He went on
to praise the magazine as being "a true pleasure for cultured
eyes" (Autumn 1973).
Ecole's American representative is Donald Swan of Neue
Anthropologie and the IAAEE. From the earliest editions of
Nouvelle Ecole Swan has contributed articles on race (e.g.
'Le processus biologique de formation raciale' in Volume 3). In
Volume 18, 1972, Swan wrote an article introducing Nouvelle
Ecole to the work of Lundman.(66)
Roger Pearson founder of the Northern League
and patron of Nouvelle Ecole
Another of The Mankind Quarterly's advisers is also with
Nouvelle Ecole's comité de patronage: J.D.J. Hofmeyr,
the South African geneticist. In July 1972 de Benoist interviewed
Hofmeyr for Nouvelle Ecole on the subject of race. Hofmeyr
argued for the importance of racial differences, alleging that
"cultures and civilizations, far from being a product of the environment,
are intimately linked to the innate capacities of the races which
have created them". In Hofmeyr's opinion, differences between
races are unchangeable: "Races were formed thousands and thousands
of years ago, and they remain just how they were formed". This
means, according to the South Africa geneticist, that blacks will
remain mentally inferior to whites.
Hofmeyr, in this interview, went on to expound a theory that the
climate of the Northern Hemisphere led the white race to evolve
superior mental powers. According to Hofmeyr's theory this explains
"the leadership of the Northern Hemisphere of the planet in the
field of science and technology".
Nouvelle Ecole claims to be the first French publication
to publicise Jensen's work. De Benoist originally reported Jensen's
research in Nouvelle Ecole, September/October 1969 in
an article entitled 'Intégration scolaire et psychologie
raciale'. This article was translated into German and appeared
the following year in Junges Forum, under the title of
Schulintegration und Rassenpsychologie. Jensenismus: Tabu,
Rasse und IQ. The term 'Rassenpsychologie' has distinct echoes
of earlier research into race.
More than just publicising Jensen's work, Nouvelle Ecole
also claims to be in France "the first to give directly the words
of Dr Jensen". This it first did in 1972, Volume 18, when it published
an exclusive interview Jensen gave to De Benoist.(67)
In the course of this interview Jensen explained why he thought
that intelligence was determined primarily by heredity rather
than by environment. He also regretted that the research necessary
for establishing that there are racial differences in intelligence
is no longer undertaken. However, Jensen rejoiced in the fact
that "a large number of American and foreign thinkers have recognised
the importance and truth in the questions which I have raised".
Jensen went on to publicise three of his books which were due
to be published in London. He commented, "I am convinced that
these works will have an influence on educational research for
the next ten years".
Nouvelle Ecole continued bringing the words of Jensen
to the attention of the French public by reprinting Jensen's article
'Educability, Heritability and Population Differences', in Volume
In his interview with Nouvelle Ecole Jensen also recommended
Eysenck's "little work" Race Intelligence and Education: "It
is an essay which presents some of my research and views in a
way which is clear and accessible to a non-specialised public.
It deserves to be read by many people".
Jensen may have initially introduced Eysenck to the readers of
Nouvelle Ecole, but firmer ties were soon to follow.
Thus in 1974 Eysenck himself joined the comité de patronage.
Nouvelle Ecole in Autumn 1973 gave page-space to Eysenck's
words. It reprinted an article by Eysenck, not on race, but on
Freudian psycho-analysis.(68) To accompany
the piece Nouvelle Ecole included several cartoons, photographs,
and selected quotations from psycho-analysts, which taken together
had more than a faint whiff of anti-Semitism.
This in itself illustrates the direction in which race-science
has travelled in the past and the direction it seems to be going
today. Thus, even in the French Nouvelle Ecole it is
possible to detect signs that Günther's work is not totally
forgotten. Just as The Mankind Quarterly and Neue
Anthropologie combine the traditions of Nazi race-science
with modern IQ psychology, so Nouvelle Ecole promotes
Eysenck and Jensen as well as rehabilitating the memory of Günther.
For instance, Armin Mohler of the University of Innsbruck is on
the comité. Mohler is the author of Die Konservative
Revolution in Deutschland, 1918-1932, which classes genuine
conservatives like Thomas Mann under the same heading of 'radical
conservatives' as Nazi racial theorists like Günther, Wirth
and Kummer. In this way Mohler plays down the contribution which
such racial theorists made to Nazism.
In a short article in Nouvelle Ecole, Autumn 1973, Mohler
continues his whitewashing of Günther. In fact, he alleges
that there were fundamental differences between the theories of
Günther and Hitler, such that the Führer would "have
been incapable of using the racial studies" because "the distinction
'Jew/non-Jew' satisfied him fully". Not only does Mohler here
gloss over Günther's own extreme anti-Semitism, but also
he neglects Günther's contributions to Rosenberg's anti-Jewish
congresses. These heavily politicised congresses coincided with
Hitler's fateful attempt to carry anti-Semitic theory to its logical
conclusion, as well as with Mohler's own studies at the University
of Berlin, where Günther was professor.
Nouvelle Ecole's racist perspective is hardly surprising
considering that a former member of the comité
was Roger Pearson, founder of the Northern League. Although Pearson
is no longer officially listed on the comité,
it is clear that connections are still maintained. Pearson is
currently the chairman of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL),
an organisation which links the activities of racist and anti-Semitic
groups throughout the world.
The Washington Post, May 28 1978, described the 11th
annual conference of WACL, chaired by Pearson and held in Washington.
Amongst those present were representatives of the Italian fascist
party MSI, Liberty Lobby, the American extreme racist and anti-Semitic
group, and representatives from Nouvelle Ecole. The Washington
Post report mentioned that the Nouvelle Ecole group
met informally during the conference with William Pierce, former
leading member of the American Nazi Party. According to Pierce,
the Nouvelle Ecole members "are working along lines very
close to ours".