TBI / ABI Defined

Traumatic Brain Injury. According to TBI Recovery Center (2006), "TBI is any injury to the brain caused by trauma to the head. If there is trauma to the brain, but the skull is not broken, the TBI is known as a closed head injury. If an object penetrates the skull and injures the brain, the TBI is known as a penetrating head injury." There are several different types of TBI such as Concussion, Skull Fracture, Contusion and Hematoma (TBI Recovery Center, 2006) that may result in:

  • Difficulty with thinking skills (e.g., difficulty "thinking straight," memory problems, poor judgment, poor attention span, a slowed thought processing speed) (Brain Injury Association of America, 2006a; TBI Recovery Center, 2006).

Acquired Brain Impairment. Acquired brain impairment (ABI) is caused by external or internal trauma, resulting in total or partial functional limitations that adversely affects or limits a student's educational performance by impairing:

  • Cognition, information processing, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, language and/or speech, memory and/or attention, sensory, perceptual, and/or motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, personality, physical functions and ability

TBI/ABI does not apply to functional limitations resulting from brain trauma induced by birth, present at birth or which is progressive and/or degenerative in nature.

All documentation is confidential and should be submitted to:

Department Head, Disabilities Services
Ferris State University
Starr 313
Big Rapids, Michigan 49307