Learning Outcomes Assessment refers to direct or indirect measures of student learning. This is different from the measure of individual student performance to evaluate the student. Instead, student learning assessment consists in collecting data on student learning in the aggregate to determine how programs or courses may be made more effective. Measures such as standardized exams, licensure or certification exams, portfolios, capstone projects, pre-and post tests, writing samples, juried reviews of projects, externally reviewed performances, evaluations of clinical and internship performances and more are direct measures of student learning. Other measures such as NSSE or the EBI surveys, other surveys of students, employers, and alumni, and career success offer indirect measures that can support direct measures. Student course surveys (SAI's), grades or GPA's, placement rates, retention, enrollment trends, and faculty-student ratios may be useful measures of institutional effectiveness but are not measures of student learning.